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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Solvent Effects on the Optical Spectra and Excited-State Decay of triphenylamine-thiadiazole with Hybridized Local Excitation and Intramolecular Charge Transfer.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Triphenylamine-thiadiazole molecule (TPA-NZP) is a newly popular highly efficient OLED fluorescent emitter with exciton utilization efficiency exceeding the upper limit of spin statistics (25%). In this work, the optical spectra, and the radiative and non-radiative decay rate constants have been investigated theoretically for TPA-NZP in hexane, ethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, and dimethyl formamide solvents, in comparison with gas phase. We observed the evolutions of the excited-states from hybridized local and charge transfer (HLCT) character to complete intramolecular charge transfer (CT) character with the increase of the solvent polarities. It is found that upon increasing solvent polarity, the amount of redshift in absorption peak is much less than that of emission, resulting in breakdown of the mirror symmetry. This is because that 0-0 transition energy is red-shifted but the vibration relaxation increases with the solvent polarity, leading to subtraction in absorption while addition in emission. The radiative decay rate constant is calculated to be almost independent on polarity. The non-radiative decay rate increases by almost one order of magnitude from in non-polar hexane to the strongly polarized dimethyl formamide, which are attributed to the dual effects of redshift in gap and enhancement of vibration relaxation by solvent polarity.
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Clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alpha-fetoprotein and des-?-carboxy prothrombin for diagnosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China: A multi-center case-controlled study of 1,153 subjects.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alphafetoprotein (AFP) and des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in Chinese patients predominantly caused by hepatitis B virus infection by a multi-center case-controlled study. Subjects were 1,153 individuals from three major hospitals in China, including 550 cases in HCC group, 164 in Malignant disease group, 182 in Benign disease group, 85 in Chronic liver disease group, and 173 in Normal group. Serum levels of AFP and DCP were measured and clinicopathological features were determined for all subjects. Results showed that the levels of DCP and AFP were significantly higher in HCC group (550 patients, 74.18% with HBV infection) than that in other four groups (P < 0.001). Receiver operating curves (ROC) indicated the optimal cut-off value was 86 mAU/mL for DCP with a sensitivity of 71.50% and specificity of 86.30%, and 21 ng/mL for AFP with a sensitivity of 68.00% and specificity of 93.20%. The area under ROC curve was 0.846 for DCP, 0.832 for AFP, and 0.890 for the combination of DCP and AFP. The combination of DCP and AFP resulted in a higher Youden index and a sensitivity of approximately 90%, even for small tumors. The simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP could achieve a better sensitivity in diagnosing Chinese HCC patients, even for small tumors.
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Low-intensity focused ultrasound mediated localized drug delivery for liver tumors in rabbits.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Objective: To explore the antitumor effects of low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) mediated localized drug delivery of adriamycin-microbubble-PLGA nanoparticle complexes on rabbits VX2 liver tumor. Methods: ADM-NMCs were prepared by covalent linking of ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-NPs) to the shell of the microbubbles. A fixed water bag filled with microbubbles was subjected to LIFU and non-focused ultrasound respectively, and the ultrasound images of which were recorded before and after ultrasonication. A total of 54 VX2 liver tumor-burdened rabbits were divided into six groups randomly, including control, ADM-NPs combined with LIFU, microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NPs and microbubbles combined with LIFU, ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU and ADM-NMCs combined with Non-FUS. The tumor volume and volume inhibition rate (VIR) of tumor progression were calculated and compared. Apoptotic cells were labeled by terminal deoxyuridine nick end. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry. The median survival time of the animals were recorded and compared. Results: ADM-NMCs were successfully prepared with an average diameter of 1721?nm. The highest VIR and apoptotic index (AI) were found in the group of ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU while the lowest proliferating index (PI) was simultaneously observed in this group. The median survival time of the rabbits in the ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU group was the longest (71days) among all groups. Conclusions: ADM-NMCs combined with LIFU could inhibit the rabbits VX2 liver tumor progress by delaying the tumor proliferation and accelerating apoptosis, which presents a novel process for liver tumor targeting chemotherapy.
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Radical cascade cyanomethylation of activated alkenes to construct cyano substituted oxindoles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The cyanomethyl radical was easily generated from acetonitrile by using DTBP, which was applied to a cascade alkene addition and cyclization reaction to construct useful oxindole derivatives. This protocol features simple manipulation, cheap reagents and a broad substrate scope. In addition, nitro substituted oxindoles were also synthesized for the first time.
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Defect-induced strong localization of uranium dicarbide on the graphene surface.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Defects such as the most stable hexavacancy (V6) distribute widely on neutron-irradiated graphite surfaces, which play a dominant role in immobilizing radioactive products released from nuclear fuels. By performing DFT calculations, we explore the interaction of gaseous uranium dicarbide (UC2) molecules on a graphene nanosheet with a V6 defect, in order to investigate the behavior of the representative vapor species of uranium carbide fuels in reactor cores. Results suggest that UC2 can be trapped in the V6 defect with considerable binding energy of >10 eV, with all the six dangling bonds of the V6 defect being saturated by UC2. Bonding nature analyses also reveal that the U-C interaction lies in the synergistic interplay between electrostatic and covalent interaction with extensive participation of U valence electrons from 5f to 7p orbitals, which further stimulate polarization of semi-core 6p orbitals and their subsequent contributions to the bonding. This strong interaction leads to a favorable binding of UC2 to the defective graphite surface, which reduces the capability of nuclear graphite to retain harmful fission products by the vacancies being filled with UC2. These findings highlight substantial chemical reactivity and strong localization of UC2 on the widespread V6 defects in nuclear graphite, and may provide an important reference in establishing modern nuclear reactor safety at the atomic level.
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CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells: a human CD8 T-suppressor subpopulation with alloantigen specificity induced by soluble HLA-A2 dimer in vitro.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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CD8(+) suppressor T cells (Ts) have been demonstrated to provide protection of allograft from rejection. We previously reported that soluble peptide/HLA-A2 dimer shows peptide-specific inhibitory effects on alloresponse in a coculture of peptide-pulsed T2 cells with HLA-A2 negative lymphocytes in vitro. Here, we found a subset of CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells was induced in the dimer-treated coculture. Importantly, this population showed hyporesponsiveness to the alloantigen restimulation as well as alloantigen-specific suppression on alloreactive T cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent fashion. The suppressive mechanisms of CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells involved an elevated expression of membrane-bound TGF-?1, but not Foxp3, CTLA-4 or IL-10. Furthermore, an overrepresention of CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells was observed in the patients after allogeneic platelet transfusion, and positively correlated with the elevated concentrations of plasma HLA class I antigens. Our findings demonstrated that soluble HLA-A2 dimer could efficiently induce the tolerant CD8(low)CD28(-) T cells with alloantigen-specific suppression on alloreactive T cells. This study might provide a new strategy for preparation of donor-specific Ts and represent an attractive alternative for induction of allograft tolerance.
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Current Models of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Activation by Growth Factors and Amino Acids.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is now referred to as mechanistic target of rapamycin, integrates many signals, including those from growth factors, energy status, stress, and amino acids, to regulate cell growth and proliferation, protein synthesis, protein degradation, and other physiological and biochemical processes. The mTOR-Rheb-TSC-TBC complex co-localizes to the lysosome and the phosphorylation of TSC-TBC effects the dissociation of the complex from the lysosome and activates Rheb. GTP-bound Rheb potentiates the catalytic activity of mTORC1. Under conditions with growth factors and amino acids, v-ATPase, Ragulator, Rag GTPase, Rheb, hVps34, PLD1, and PA have important but disparate effects on mTORC1 activation. In this review, we introduce five models of mTORC1 activation by growth factors and amino acids to provide a comprehensive theoretical foundation for future research.
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De Novo Design of an Endohedral Heteronuclear Dimetallofullerene (U-Gd)@C60 with Exceptional Structural and Electronic Properties.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Ever since the first synthesis of La@C82 and U@C28 , there has been a growing interest in the study of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) because of their great potential in various applications. Here we design a novel heteronuclear EMF (U-Gd)@C60 , by using density functional theory (DFT), which shows an encapsulation energy of about -5.53?eV, comparable to that of U2 @C60, La2 @C80 , and Lu2 @C76 . (U-Gd)@C60 is found to have a surprising twofold, single-electron U?Gd bond that results from the strong nanoconfinement of the fullerene, dominated by uranium's 5f and 6d and gadolinium's 5d atomic orbitals. The ground state shows an 11-et high spin state, and the net spins distributed on the U-pole carbons are relatively scattered, while they are highly concentrated on the Gd-pole carbons. The exceptional electronic characteristics of this novel EMF, containing both uranium and gadolinium atoms encapsulated, might prove useful for future applications in nuclear energy and biomedicine.
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Injectable Smart Phase-Transformation Implants for Highly Efficient In Vivo Magnetic-Hyperthermia Regression of Tumors.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A minimally invasive, highly efficient and versatile strategy is proposed for localized tumor regression by developing a smart injectable liquid-solid phase-transformation organic-inorganic hybrid composite material, i.e., magnetic Fe powder-dispersed PLGA (Fe/PLGA) implants formagnetic-hyperthermiatherapy of cancer.
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The mechanism of N-Ag bonding determined tunability of surface-enhanced Raman scattering of pyridine on MAg (M = Cu, Ag, Au) diatomic clusters.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Binary coinage metal clusters can show a significantly different enhancement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) from that of pure element clusters, owing to their tunable surface plasmon resonance energies affected by the composition and atomic ordering. Yet, the tunability by composition requires a deep understanding in order to further optimize the SERS-based detection technique. Here, to fill this deficiency, we conducted detailed analyses of the SERS of pyridine adsorbed through N-Ag bonding on the homonuclear diatomic metal cluster Ag2 and heteronuclear diatomic metal clusters of AuAg and CuAg, as well as the involved charge transfer under an intracluster excitation, based on calculations using time-dependent density functional theory with a short-time approximation for the Raman cross-section. We find that although the SERS enhancements for all complexes can reach the order of 10(3)-10(4), the corresponding wavelengths used for SERS excitation are significantly different. Our molecular orbital analysis reveals that the complexes based on heteronuclear metal clusters can produce varied electronic transitions owing to the polarization between different metal atoms, which tune the SERS enhancements with altered optical properties. Our analyses are expected to provide a theoretical basis for exploring the multi-composition SERS substrates applicable for single molecular detection, nanostructure characterization, and biological molecular identification.
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FSim: a novel functional similarity search algorithm and tool for discovering functionally related gene products.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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During the analysis of genomics data, it is often required to quantify the functional similarity of genes and their products based on the annotation information from gene ontology (GO) with hierarchical structure. A flexible and user-friendly way to estimate the functional similarity of genes utilizing GO annotation is therefore highly desired.
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Supertough polylactide materials prepared through in situ reactive blending with PEG-based diacrylate monomer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Supertough biocompatible and biodegradable polylactide materials were fabricated by applying a novel and facile method involving reactive blending of polylactide (PLA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacylate (PEGDA) monomer with no addition of exogenous radical initiators. Torque analysis and FT-IR spectra confirm that cross-linking reaction of acylate groups occurs in the melt blending process according to the free radical polymerization mechanism. The results from differential scanning calorimetry, phase contrast optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy indicate that the in situ polymerization of PEGDA leads to a phase separated morphology with cross-linked PEGDA (CPEGDA) as the dispersed particle phase domains and PLA matrix as the continuous phase, which leads to increasing viscosity and elasticity with increasing CPEGDA content and a rheological percolation CPEGDA content of 15 wt %. Mechanical properties of the PLA materials are improved significantly, for example, exhibiting improvements by a factor of 20 in tensile toughness and a factor of 26 in notched Izod impact strength at the optimum CPEGDA content. The improvement of toughness in PLA/CPEGDA blends is ascribed to the jointly contributions of crazing and shear yielding during deformation. The toughening strategy in fabricating supertoughened PLA materials in this work is accomplished using biocompatible PEG-based polymer as the toughening modifier with no toxic radical initiators involved in the processing, which has a potential for biomedical applications.
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India ink incorporated multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets for photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality imaging and photoacoustic effect based tumor therapy.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The in vivo applications of gas-core microbubbles have been limited by gas diffusion, rapid body clearance, and poor vascular permeability. To overcome these limitations, using a modified three-step emulsion process, we have developed a first-of-its-kind India ink incorporated optically-triggerable phase-transition perfluorocarbon nanodroplets (INDs) that can provide not only three types of contrast mechanisms-conventional/thermoelastic photoacoustic, phase-transition/nonlinear photoacoustic, and ultrasound imaging contrasts, but also a new avenue for photoacoustic effect mediated tumor therapy. Upon pulsed laser illumination above a relatively low energy threshold, liquid-gas phase transition of the INDs has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, offering excellent contrasts for photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging. With further increased laser energy, the nanodroplets have been shown to be capable of destructing cancer cells in vivo, presumably due to the photoacoustic effect induced shock-wave generation from the carbon particles of the incorporated India ink. The demonstrated results suggest that the developed multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets have a great potential for many theranostic biomedical applications, including photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality molecular imaging and targeted, localized cancer therapy.
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miR149 rs71428439 polymorphism and risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a case-control study.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell cancer and accounts for 70 % of renal cell cancer. CCRCC remains an enigmatic tumor type, as the molecular genetic mechanisms are still unclear. MicroRNA (miR) 149 functions as a tumor suppressor and plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of renal cells. In this study, we enrolled 1,000 CCRCC patients and 1,000 cancer-free controls to evaluate the association of miR149 rs71428439 with the risk of CCRCC by a case-control study to determine the effects on CCRCC risk. miR149 rs71428439 was significantly associated with increased CCRCC risk (odds ratio (OR) for trend?=?1.53, P for trend?=?4.04?×?10(-11)), with ORs (95 % confidence intervals (CIs)) of 1.42 (1.17-1.72) associated with AG genotype and 2.27 (1.76-2.94) associated with GG genotype, compared with subjects with AA genotype. The expression levels of miR149 in cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in adjacent normal tissues (P?=?0.005), and per G allele has significantly lower miR149 levels in both tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Our data suggest that the GG genotypes of miR149 rs71428439 predispose their carriers to CCRCC, and miR149 rs71428439 may be a new biomarker for predicting the risk of CCRCC.
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Electron-phonon couplings and carrier mobility in graphynes sheet calculated using the Wannier-interpolation approach.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Electron-phonon couplings and charge transport properties of ?- and ?-graphyne nanosheets were investigated from first-principles calculations by using the density-functional perturbation theory and the Boltzmann transport equation. Wannier function-based interpolation techniques were applied to obtain the ultra-dense electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. Due to the localization feature in Wannier space, the interpolation based on truncated space is found to be accurate. We demonstrated that the intrinsic electron-phonon scatterings in these two-dimensional carbon materials are dominated by low-energy longitudinal-acoustic phonon scatterings over a wide range of temperatures. In contrast, the high-frequency optical phonons play appreciable roles only at high temperature regimes. The electron mobilities of ?- and ?-graphynes are predicted to be ?10(4) cm(2)?V(-1)?s(-1) at room temperature.
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Speeding of spherulitic growth rate at the late stage of isothermal crystallization due to interfacial diffusion for double-layer semicrystalline polymer films.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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In this study a unique phenomenon has been found for isothermal crystallization of double-layer semicrystalline polymer films. It is surprisingly found that there exists a speeding of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA) spherulitic growth rate for poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(l-lactic acid) (PEO/PLA) double-layer films at the late stage of isothermal crystallization, which does not exist for PLA/PEO blend films and neat PLA films. The mutual diffusion between PEO and PLA layers plays the key factor to bring out the observed speeding of spherulitic growth rate. This type of study provides an avenue for understanding the interplay between polymer crystallization and interfacial diffusion in multilayer polymer films, which is not available when employing the polymer blend films.
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Can gamma-glutamyl transferase levels contribute to a better prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma?
Drug Discov Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. Hepatic resection has long been considered a main treatment option for HCC, but the high rate of recurrence after hepatic resection remains a problem that impacts the prognosis and survival of patients with HCC. Thus, clarifying the factors for survival and risk factors for tumor recurrence after hepatic resection is crucial. Imaging studies are currently emphasized before selecting a treatment and predicting the prognosis for patients with HCC. Recently, laboratory testing of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), indocyanine green 15 min after administration (ICG-R15), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP) has garnered attention as a way to select treatment and predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. ?-GTP in particular has critical clinical significance as an indicator of prognosis. This indicator helps to predict prognosis and it helps with the selection of further treatment, as was revealed by studies based on different subgroups of patients published in the past 5 years. The reason for the association between ?-GTP and early recurrence and poor survival is being investigated. Preoperative laboratory results (DCP, AFP, ICG-R15, and ?-GTP) may warrant attention and need to be fully evaluated before selecting a treatment and predicting prognosis in order to improve the prognosis for patients with HCC.
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M2-polarized macrophages contribute to the decreased sensitivity of EGFR-TKIs treatment in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Previous study has revealed that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) correlate with response to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we further determined that M2-TAMs, but not M1-TAMs, are related to the treatment response to EGFR-TKIs in advanced NSCLC and may be an independent predictor of survival. Eighty-eight advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with a second-line EGFR-TKI were involved in this study. M2-TAMs counts but not M1-TAMs were significantly higher in patients with progressive disease than in those without (P < 0.001). A trend also remained in patients with known EGFR status (n = 61) and those with mutant EGFR (n = 49). High M2-TAMs counts were shown to be significantly related to poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in all patients, or subsets of patients with known EGFR status or patients with EGFR mutation (all P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox analyses showed that high M2-TAMs counts and EGFR mutations were both independent factors associated with PFS and OS (P < 0.05). Overall, we revealed that M2- but not M1-TAMs are related to the response of EGFR-TKIs treatment irrespective of EGFR mutation and can independently predict survival in advanced lung adenocarcinoma treated with a second-line EGFR-TKI.
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Aggregation effects on the optical emission of 1,1,2,3,4,5-hexaphenylsilole (HPS): a QM/MM study.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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We investigate the photophysical property for 1,1,2,3,4,5-hexaphenylsilole (HPS) through combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations. Under the displaced harmonic oscillator approximation with consideration of the Duschinsky rotation effect (DRE), the radiative and nonradiative rates of the excited-state decay processes for HPS are calculated by using the analytical vibration correlation function approach coupled with first-principles calculations. The intermolecular packing effect is incorporated through electrostatic interaction modeled by a force field. We find that from the gas phase to the solid state (i) the side phenyl ring at the 5-position becomes coplanar with the central silacycle, which increases the degree of conjugation, thus accelerating the radiative decay process, and (ii) the rotation of the side phenyl ring at the 2-position is restricted, which blocks the excited-state nonradiative decay channels. Such a synergetic effect largely enhances the solid-state luminescence quantum efficiency through reducing the nonradiative decay rate by about 4 orders of magnitude, leading to the radiative decay overwhelming the nonradiatvie decay. In addition, the calculated solid-phase absorption and emission optical spectra of HPS are found to be in agreement with the experiment.
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Poking cells for efficient vector-free intracellular delivery.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Techniques for introducing foreign molecules and materials into living cells are of great value in cell biology research. A major barrier for intracellular delivery is to cross the cell membrane. Here we demonstrate a novel platform utilizing diamond nanoneedle arrays to facilitate efficient vector-free cytosolic delivery. Using our technique, cellular membrane is deformed by an array of nanoneedles with a force on the order of a few nanonewtons. We show that this technique is applicable to deliver a broad range of molecules and materials into different types of cells, including primary neurons in adherent culture. Especially, for delivering plasmid DNAs into neurons, our technique produces at least eightfold improvement (~45% versus ~1-5%) in transfection efficiency with a dramatically shorter experimental protocol, when compared with the commonly used lipofection approach. It is anticipated that our technique will greatly benefit basic research in cell biology and also a wide variety of clinical applications.
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Sequencing and characterization of the transcriptome of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a valuable fish for aquaculture in China. This fish exhibits sexual dimorphism, particularly different growth rates and body sizes between two genders. Thus, C. semilaevis is a good model that can be used to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism, this model can also be utilized to answer fundamental questions in evolution and applied fields of aquaculture. Hence, advances in second-generation sequencing technology, such as 454 pyrosequencing, could provide a robust tool to study the genome characteristics of non-model species.
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Molecular cloning, expression profiles and promoter analysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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We cloned and characterized cDNA sequence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The 1493 bp full-length cDNA sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 780 bp, which encoded a protein of 259 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences included a putative signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues resulting in a mature protein of 231 amino acids. Twenty cysteine residues and two conserved IGFBPs motif (GCGCCXXC and CWCV) were found in the N- and C-terminal domain. In the over 13 kbp genomic sequence, four exons, three introns, and 5'-/3'-flanking sequences were identified. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that Japanese flounder IGFBP-4 was indeed the ortholog of the human IGFBP-4 gene and shared high identities with other teleost IGFBP-4 genes. The promoter region was also analyzed and several potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites were determined which may modulate the IGFBP-4 expression. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that IGFBP-4 mRNA was observed in various tissues, with intestine showing the highest expression. The maternal transcripts of IGFBP-4 gene existed in the early embryonic stages and then increased in the following stages until hatching, suggesting that IGFBP-4 may be involved in the fish early development. The expression level of IGFBP-4 mRNA was relatively higher at 3 days post hatching (dph) and 15 dph, and gradually decreased during the metamorphosis period. All these results indicated that IGFBP-4 plays a significant role in IGF regulating vertebrate growth and development.
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Prebending of a titanium elastic intramedullary nail in the treatment of distal radius fractures in children.
Int Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Abstract The aims of this study were to introduce a method to treat distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fractures by prebending an elastic intramedullary nail and to evaluate the factors influencing fracture apposition. Fifty-two consecutive patients (4 to 15 years old) with a distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fracture were included. The nail was inserted and advanced into the proximal radial fragment as normal. After bending the nail distally about 90° at the site predetermined to lie at the distal segment, the elastic intramedullary nail was advanced until the prebent part completely entered the marrow cavity. The fracture angular deformity was fully corrected in anterior-posterior and lateral views. The apposition rate was 90% to 100% in lateral view, >50% in anterior-posterior view. The operation time was 16.73 ± 6.253 minutes. The average time of fracture healing was 5 months (range, 4-7 months). During 12 to 19 months of follow-up, firm fracture healing and good remodeling were observed, and there was no impaired forearm rotation function or secondary fracture. Our study showed the treatment of distal radius diaphyseal metaphyseal junction fractures by prebent intramedullary nail could make up for the deficiency of Kirschner wires and steel plates and keep the fracture stable. Fracture type and the anatomical features of the distal radius were associated with fracture apposition.
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Ag2O/TiO2/V2O5 one-dimensional nanoheterostructures for superior solar light photocatalytic activity.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Titanium dioxide has attracted considerable interest as a prototypical semiconductor photocatalyst. However, because of the relative large bandgap energy, further application of TiO2 photocatalyst is limited by its inefficient solar energy conversion. Various attempts have been made to broaden the light absorption window of the TiO2, such as growth of TiO2-based heterostructures. Herein, a novel three-component system, Ag2O/TiO2/V2O5 one-dimensional nanoheterostructures with enhanced solar light absorption, is prepared by depositing Ag2O nanoparticles onto the surface of TiO2/V2O5 nanofibers through a two-step synthetic process. This three-component system exhibits excellent solar-driven photocatalytic activity, far exceeding those of the single- and two-component systems, as a result of extended solar light absorption and efficient electron-hole separation. Furthermore, the photocatalytic performance of Ag2O/TiO2/V2O5 one-dimensional nanoheterostructures is very stable for recycling use.
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Transfection of wtp53 and Rb94 genes into retinoblastomas of nude mice by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Using ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD), we transfected both wild-type p53 (wtp53) and Rb94 genes into retinoblastomas (RBs) of nude mice to investigate the inhibitory role of these two genes in RB development. The 40 tumor-bearing mice, which had been established by sub-retinal injection of an HXO-Rb44 cell suspension, were randomly divided into five groups: blank control group (C); blank plasmid group (M); wtp53 plasmid group (p53); Rb94 plasmid group (Rb94); wtp53 + Rb94 plasmid group (p53 + Rb94). For preparation of the DNA-loaded microbubbles, a pre-determined amount of blank plasmid, pVIVO1-p53, pVIVO1-Rb94 or pVIVO1-p53-Rb94 was added and mixed with the microbubbles. Then, these DNA-loaded microbubbles were respectively transfected into the animal model by UTMD. Vascular endothelial growth factor level and microvessel density of the tumor were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Apoptosis of tissues was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. Expression of wtp53 and Rb94 at both the gene and protein levels was detected by RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and Western blot, respectively. Transfection of both genes had greater inhibitory effects on RB development and resulted in lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, lower microvessel density and more obvious apoptosis than single-gene transfection (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the transfection of both genes into the RB by UTMD more strongly inhibited RB growth than transfection of a single gene.
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Berberine ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in rats associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and joint destruction. In this study, we explored the effect of berberine on rats with bovine type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model for RA. Following treatment, berberine attenuates arthritic scores and suppresses collagen-specific immune responses in CIA rats. Compared with the un-treated CIA group, berberine reversed pathological changes, which showed a significant improvement in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory infiltration. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-17 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were obviously reduced in the sera of berberine-treated rats (all P<0.05). Moreover, berberine showed marked inhibition of the expression of VEGF and CD34 (all P<0.05). Interestingly, berberine significantly suppresses p-ERK, p-p38 and p-JNK activation (all P<0.05), which may partially explain the anti-RA activity of berberine. These results suggest that berberine ameliorates CIA in rats associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects, which might be of great therapeutic value for RA.
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In vitro and in vivo corrosion measurements of Mg-6Zn alloys in the bile.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Mg-6Zn alloy was studied as candidate biodegradable metallic implants for the common bile duct (CBD) in terms of its in vitro corrosion and in vivo corrosion. Electrochemical measurements, immersion tests and hydrogen evolution were performed in the bile and Hanks' solution to evaluate the in vitro degradation behavior of Mg-6Zn alloy. The results showed that the degradation rate and hydrogen evolution were higher when Mg-6Zn alloy immersed in the bile than in the Hanks' solution. The polarization resistance of the samples in the Hanks' solution was about 1.5 times to that in the bile. In the in vivo experiment, Mg-6Zn alloy stents were inserted in CBD of 42 rabbits, and CT scans, the value of total bilirubin (TB) and in vivo corrosion rate were determined. From the results of CT images and the fluctuations of TB values, it can be seen that the stent was degraded gradually in CBD. After 1 week post-implantation, the majority of the Mg-6Zn alloy sample remained in the CBD. Usually the required support time for CBD stent was approximately 7-10 days, thus the Mg-6Zn alloy stent was very close to the clinical requirement for CBD support materials. After three weeks, the residual weight of the Mg-6Zn alloy was only 9% of the original weight. The in vivo corrosion rate of Mg-6Zn alloy was ~0.107 mm·year(-1), which was much lower than that calculated in vitro (~0.72 mm·year(-1) by electrochemical test). Based on our research, there is promising for the Mg-6Zn alloy in CBD applications.
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Probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07 alleviates bacterial translocation and ameliorates microinflammation in experimental uraemia.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Uraemia is characterized by intestinal bacterial translocation, which contributes to the development of microinflammation. Probiotics enhance the intestinal barrier and overall health of the host. The present study investigated whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis?Bi-07 alleviates bacterial translocation and ameliorates microinflammation in experimental uraemia.
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Novel concave-convex electrode for colonic anastomoses by radiofrequency thermo-fusion.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Successful vascular sealing by radiofrequency (RF)-induced tissue fusion is well established. The present study reports on a novel electrode structure design together with its experimental assessment for RF thermo-fusion of porcine colonic segments.
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Identification and characterization of a Sox2 homolog in the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Sox2 plays an essential role in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic and neural stem cells as well as in the neurogenesis. While it has been well studied in mammals, information from lower invertebrate especially marine fish is still limited. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA and partial 5'-flanking region of the Japanese flounder Sox2. Phylogenetic, gene structure, and protein comparison analyses revealed that Paralichthys olivaceus Sox2 (Po-Sox2) was homologous to mammalian Sox2. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results showed that Po-Sox2 was not maternal inherited, and the transcripts were present from high blastula-stage onwards, with the highest level at the mid-gastrula stage. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that Po-Sox2 was present not only in neural tissues, but also in gonadal and gill tissues. In addition, we analyzed the Po-Sox2 promoter region for several species-conserved motifs as well as various transcription factor binding sites. The overall hypomethylation status of the identified CpG sites in the 5'-regulatory region revealed that it was not involved in the transcriptional modulation of Po-Sox2. All these results suggest that Po-Sox2 may have a conserved function in neurogenesis and early embryonic development.
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Evaluation of superparamagnetic iron oxide-polymer composite microcapsules for magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Superparamagnetic poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-coated Fe3O4 microcapsules are receiving increased attention as potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the field of oncology. In this study, PLGA-coated Fe3O4 microcapsules were combined with a magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-guided HIFU) platform, with the objective of investigating the effects of these composite microcapsules regarding MR-guided HIFU liver cancer surgery in vivo.
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Anisotropic Fabry-Pérot resonant states confined within nano-steps on the topological insulator surface.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The peculiar nature of topological surface states, such as absence of backscattering, weak anti-localization, and quantum anomalous Hall effect, has been demonstrated mainly in bulk and film of topological insulator (TI), using surface sensitive probes and bulk transport probes. However, it is equally important and experimentally challenging to confine massless Dirac fermions with nano-steps on TI surfaces. This potential structure has similar ground with linearly-dispersed photons in Fabry-Pérot resonators, while reserving fundamental differences from well-studied Fabry-Pérot resonators and quantum corrals on noble metal surfaces. In this paper, we study the massless Dirac fermions confined within steps along the x (?-K) or y (?-M) direction on the TI surface, and the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances in the electronic local density of states (LDOS) between the steps are found. Due to the remarkable warping effect in the topological surface states, the LDOS confined in the step-well running along ?-M direction exhibit anisotropic resonance patterns as compared to those in the step-well along ?-K direction. The transmittance properties and spin orientation of Dirac fermion in both cases are also anisotropic in the presence of warping effect.
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Computational evaluation of optoelectronic properties for organic/carbon materials.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Conspectus Organic optoelectronic materials are used in a variety of devices, including light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, spintronics, and chemico- and biosensors. The processes that determine the intrinsic optoelectronic properties occur either in the photoexcited states or within the electron-pumped charged species, and computations that predict these optical and electrical properties would help researchers design new materials. In this Account, we describe recent advances in related density functional theory (DFT) methods and present case studies that examine the efficiency of light emission, carrier mobility, and thermoelectric figures of merit by calculation of the electron-vibration couplings. First we present a unified vibrational correlation function formalism to evaluate the excited-state radiative decay rate constant kr, the nonradiative decay rate constant knr, the intersystem crossing rate constant kISC, and the optical spectra. The molecular parameters that appear in the formalism, such as the electronic excited-state energy, vibrational modes, and vibronic couplings, require extensive DFT calculations. We used experiments for anthracene at both low and ambient temperatures to benchmark the calculated photophysical parameters. In the framework of Fermi's golden rule, we incorporated the non-adiabatic coupling and the spin-orbit coupling to evaluate the phosphorescence efficiency and emission spectrum. Both of these are in good agreement with experimental results for anthracene and iridium compounds. Band electron scattering and relaxation processes within Boltzmann theory can describe charge transport in two-dimensional carbon materials and closely packed organic solids. For simplicity, we considered only the acoustic phonon scattering as modeled by the deformation potential approximation coupled with extensive DFT calculations for band structures. We then related the carrier mobility to the band-edge shift associated with the lattice dilation of longitudinal waves. The calculated relaxation time was in good agreement with experimental data for the graphene sheet, which supports the methodology. We then found that the intrinsic electron mobility for a 6,6,12-graphyne sheet can be even larger than that of graphene. We extended this approach to investigate the thermoelectric transport of electrons in metal phthalocyanines, which showed reasonable Seebeck coefficients when compared with experiments. For the thermal lattice transport, we employed nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Combining both electron transport and lattice thermal conductivity, we can evaluate the thermoelectric figure of merit.
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Identification of antihyperlipidemic constituents from the roots of Rubia yunnanensis Diels.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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The roots of Rubia yunnanensis Diels (Rubiaceae) have been used as an alternative for Rubia cordifolia for the treatment of various diseases including cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease for a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. To evaluate antihyperlipidemic activity of the roots of Rubia. yunnanensis Diels and to identify active compounds from the active fraction.
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Environmental-confinement-induced stability enhancement of chiral molecules.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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We computationally study the transition process of a chiral difluorobenzo[c]phenanthrene (DFBcPh) molecule within non-polar fullerene C(260) to explore the confinement effect. We find blue-shifts in the infrared and Raman spectra of the molecule inside the fullerene relative to those of isolated systems. Six types of spectrum features of the molecule appear in the 0-60 cm(-1) band. Interestingly, the energy barrier of the chiral transformation of the molecule is elevated by 15.88 kcal mol(-1) upon the confinement by the fullerene, indicating improvement in the stability of the enantiomers. The protection by C(260) lowers the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level and lifts the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of the chiral molecule such that the chiral molecule is further chemically stabilized. We concluded that the confinement environment has an impact at the nanoscale on the enantiomer transformation process of the chiral molecule.
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Gut bacterial translocation may aggravate microinflammation in hemodialysis patients.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Bacterial translocation (BT) promotes microinflammation in predialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the change in BT has not been reported in ESRD patients undergoing regular hemodialysis treatment. The present study investigated whether hemodialysis promotes gut BT and microinflammation.
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Endovascular interventional therapy and classification of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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The current study aimed to summarise the clinical features and classifications of vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) to optimise strategies for endovascular interventional therapy. The clinical features and results of 31 inpatients with VADA were retrospectively analysed. The aneurysms were classified according to their location and association between the aneurysm and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and into subtypes according to the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral artery. Different endovascular interventional therapy strategies were selected for each classification. Three types of aneurysm with two subtypes each were identified. An aneurysm located distally to the PICA was termed type I (10/31 patients). Aneurysms with a contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype a (type Ia, 6/31 patients) and aneurysms with hypoplasia of the contralateral vertebral artery were denoted as subtype b (type Ib, 4/31 patients). An aneurysm located at the origin of the PICA was termed type II (13/31 patients), with seven cases classified as IIa and six cases as IIb. An aneurysm located proximally to the PICA was termed type III (8/31 patients), with five cases classified as IIIa and three cases as IIIb. Among the 31 patients, 18 received stent-assisted coiling, two received coiling, 10 received coiling with parent artery occlusion and one patient received conservative treatment. Among the 31 patients with VADA, 21 were occluded completely, nine were partially occluded and one was not occluded. One patient developed a coma following coiling; however, the other 30 patients recovered well. Thus, the classification of an aneurysm based on its location and the developmental state of the contralateral vertebral arteries appears to be an effective and safe approach for the selection of appropriate endovascular interventional therapy strategies.
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Touching polymer chains by organic field-effect transistors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are used to directly "touch" the movement and dynamics of polymer chains, and then determine Tg. As a molecular-level probe, the conducting channel of OFETs exhibits several unique advantages: 1) it directly detects the motion and dynamics of polymer chain at Tg; 2) it allows the measurement of size effects in ultrathin polymer films (even down to 6?nm), which bridges the gap in understanding effects between surface and interface. This facile and reliable determination of Tg of polymer films and the understanding of polymer chain dynamics guide a new prospect for OFETs besides their applications in organic electronics and casting new light on the fundamental understanding of the nature of polymer chain dynamics.
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Quantitative analysis of APC promoter methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma and its prognostic implications.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The present study aimed to quantitatively determine the aberrant methylation signal of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to evaluate whether hypermethylation of the APC promoter could be a prognostic biomarker for HCC. Taqman probe-based quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the APC promoter methylation levels in 57 HCC and corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues. In the present study, the methylation level of the APC promoter was upregulated by 4.51-fold in the HCC tissues compared with the non-cancerous tissues (P=0.0003). With regard to the clinicopathological data, the methylation level of the APC promoter in the HCC samples was higher in the patients with larger tumors when the cut-off was set at 4 cm (P=0.0008), and in the older patients when the cut-off was set at 60 years old (P=0.0438). However, the methylation status in the HCC samples appeared not to affect the overall patient survival rate (P=0.1684). The findings of the present study showed that APC promoter hypermethylation accumulates during the development of HCC, but that it may not be a promising prognostic biomarker for HCC.
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Aggregation induced blue-shifted emission--the molecular picture from a QM/MM study.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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In general, optical emission in the solid-state is red-shifted with respect to the solution phase. A series of recently synthesized compounds exhibits aggregation induced blue-shifted emission (AIBSE) phenomena. By employing a polarizable continuum model (PCM) and a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach, we investigate the excited-state electronic structures of some typical AIE-active molecules both in solvents and in aggregates at the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) level. It is found that the AIBSE phenomena originate from the smaller reorganization energy in aggregates than in the solution phase, as evidenced through the restricted structural relaxation, planarization in the excited state, and freezing of low-frequency out-of-plane twists in the transition state.
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Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) promoter in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and the association of Pohsp70 SNPs with heat-resistant trait.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Ambient temperature is one of the major abiotic environmental factors determining the main parameters of fish vital activity. HSP70 plays an essential role in heat response. In this investigation, the promoter and structure of Paralichthys olivaceus hsp70 (Pohsp70) gene was cloned and predicted. 2558 bp upstream regulatory region of Pohsp70 was annotated with four potential promoter elements and four putative binding sites of transcription factors heat shock elements (HSE, nGAAn) in the upstream of the transcription start site. In addition, one intron with 454 bp in the 5'-noncoding region was found. Quantitative Real Time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript level of Pohsp70 was raised markedly after 1 h by heat shocked. Furthermore, 25 SNPs were identified in Pohsp70 by resequencing, seven of which was associated with heat resistance. In addition, two of the seven SNPs, namely SNP14 and SNP16, were observed in strong linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype with association analysis showed TAGGAG haplotype was more represented in heat susceptible group while (DEL/T) GAATA haplotype was more frequent in heat resistant group. The heat resistant SNPs and haplotype could be candidate markers potentially serving for selective breeding programs of Japanese flounder aimed at improving anti-stress and production.
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A targeted ultrasound contrast agent carrying gene and cell-penetrating peptide: preparation and gene transfection in vitro.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Targeted and high efficient gene delivery is a main issue in gene treatment. Taking advantage of ischemic memory target P-selectin and our previous study-synergistic effects of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) and TAT peptide on gene transfection, which were characterized by targeted aggregation and high efficient gene transfection, we set up a 'smart' gene delivery system-targeted ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) carrying gene and cell-permeable peptides (CPP). Such UCA had a strong binding force with DNA which was protected from being hydrolysed by nuclease. Moreover, synergistic effects of UTMD and TAT peptide increased gene transfection. Specifically, the UCA were reacted with an ischemic memory target P-selectin overexpressed by ischemic issues (including ischemic heart disease) and loaded with gene and CPP, which enabled targeted localization and gene delivery to ischemic cells overexpressing P-selectin. We demonstrated their targeting affinity for hypoxia human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and gene transfection in vitro. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that gene and CPP were distributed on the shell of UCA. Red fluorescence was observed on the surface of targeted UCA using immunofluorescent microscopy, which demonstrated that the antibody was successfully connected to the UCA. The targeted UCA was specifically and tightly binded to hypoxia HUVEC, while there were no or little non-targeted UCA binding around hypoxia HUVEC. 24h after transfection, gene transfection efficiency detected by FCM was higher in targeted group than non-targeted group. Overall, the targeted UCA carrying gene and CPP was prepared successfully. It had a strong target binding capacity to hypoxia HUVEC and high efficient gene transfection, which maybe provide a novel strategy for gene therapy.
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Recombinant Goat VEGF164 Increases Hair Growth by Painting Process on the Skin of Shaved Mouse.
Asian-australas. J. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To detect goat vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated regrowth of hair, full-length VEGF164 cDNA was cloned from Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Capra hircus) into the pET-his prokaryotic expression vector, and the recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli BL21 cells. The expression of recombinant 6×his-gVEGF164 protein was induced by 0.5 mM isopropyl thio-?-D-galactoside at 32°C. Recombinant goat VEGF164 (rgVEGF164) was purified and identi ed by western blot using monoclonal anti-his and anti-VEGF antibodies. The rgVEGF164 was smeared onto the dorsal area of a shaved mouse, and we noted that hair regrowth in this area was faster than in the control group. Thus, rgVEGF164 increases hair growth in mice.
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Proteomic analysis of 'Zaosu' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. In order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Seventy-five differential expressed protein spots (p<0.05) were obtained between 'Zaosu' pear and its early-maturing bud sport, but only sixty-eight were demonstratively identified in the database of NCBI and uniprot. The majority of proteins were linked to metabolism, energy, stress response/defense and cell structure. Additionally, our data confirmed an increase of proteins related to cell-wall modification, oxidative stress and pentose phosphate metabolism and a decrease of proteins related to photosynthesis and glycolysis during the development process of both pears, but all these proteins increased or decreased faster in the early-maturing bud sport. This comparative analysis between both pears showed that these proteins were closely associated with maturation and could provide more detailed characteristics of the maturation process of both pears.
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Structural and electronic properties of uranium-encapsulated Au?? cage.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The structural properties of the uranium-encapsulated nano-cage U@Au14 are predicted using density functional theory. The presence of the uranium atom makes the Au14 structure more stable than the empty Au14-cage, with a triplet ground electronic state for U@Au14. Analysis of the electronic structure shows that the two frontier single-occupied molecular orbital electrons of U@Au14 mainly originate from the 5f shell of the U atom after charge transfer. Meanwhile, the bonding orbitals and charge population indicate that the designed U@Au14 nano-cage structure is stabilized by ionocovalent interactions. The current findings provide theoretical basis for future syntheses and further study of actinide doped gold nanoclusters, which might subsequently facilitate applications of such structure in radio-labeling, nanodrug carrier and other biomedical applications.
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From charge transport parameters to charge mobility in organic semiconductors through multiscale simulation.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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This review introduces the development and application of a multiscale approach to assess the charge mobility for organic semiconductors, which combines quantum chemistry, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This approach is especially applicable in describing a large class of organic semiconductors with intermolecular electronic coupling (V) much less than intramolecular charge reorganization energy (?), a situation where the band description fails obviously. The charge transport is modeled as successive charge hopping from one molecule to another. We highlight the quantum nuclear tunneling effect in the charge transfer, beyond the semiclassical Marcus theory. Such an effect is essential for interpreting the "paradoxical" experimental finding that optical measurement indicated "local charge" while electrical measurement indicated "bandlike". Coupled MD and KMC simulations demonstrated that the dynamic disorder caused by intermolecular vibration has negligible effect on the carrier mobility. We further apply the approach for molecular design of n-type materials and for rationalization of experimental results. The charge reorganization energy is analyzed through decomposition into internal coordinates relaxation, so that chemical structure contributions to the intramolecular electron-phonon interaction are revealed and give helpful indication to reduce the charge reorganization energy.
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Charge-transfer complex crystal based on extended-?-conjugated acceptor and sulfur-bridged annulene: charge-transfer interaction and remarkable high ambipolar transport characteristics.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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A single crystal of a novel mixed-stack donor-acceptor complex formed by a tetracyanoquinodimethane derivative with an extended ?-conjugated system and a sulfur-bridged annulene displays the highest ambipolar transport behavior among donor-acceptor complexes reported with electron and hole mobilities reaching up to 0.24 and 0.77 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , respectively.
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha contributes to pulmonary vascular dysfunction in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The revascularization therapy of pulmonary embolism is associated with ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effect of IR injury on pulmonary arterial endothelial function has not been elucidated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control, an IR and an IR plus hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) stabilizer DMOG group. We found that the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in pulmonary arteries from IR-injured rats compared with controls (P < 0.01). Interestingly, pre-treatment with the DMOG significantly improved ACh-stimulated pulmonary arterial dilatation (P < 0.01). The protein expression of HIF-1? in pulmonary artery was significantly down-regulated by IR injury (P < 0.01). Moreover, DMOG remarkably reversed IR-induced down-regulation of HIF-1? (P < 0.01). There was no difference in ACh-stimulated relaxation of endothelium-denuded or L-NMMA-treated pulmonary arteries among the three groups. The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in pulmonary artery were significantly decreased by IR injury (both P < 0.01), which were reversed by DMOG (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, the levels of superoxide in pulmonary artery were not affected by the IR injury as well as IR injury plus administration with DMOG. The present study demonstrated that HIF-1? contributes to pulmonary vascular dysfunction in lung IR injury.
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Interface electronic structures of reversible double-docking self-assembled monolayers on an Au(111) surface.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Double-docking self-assembled monolayers (DDSAMs), namely self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed by molecules possessing two docking groups, provide great flexibility to tune the work function of metal electrodes and the tunnelling barrier between metal electrodes and the SAMs, and thus offer promising applications in both organic and molecular electronics. Based on the dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) in comparison with conventional DFT, we carry out a systematic investigation on the dual configurations of a series of DDSAMs on an Au(111) surface. Through analysing the interface electronic structures, we obtain the relationship between single molecular properties and the SAM-induced work-function modification as well as the level alignment between the metal Fermi level and molecular frontier states. The two possible conformations of one type of DDSAM on a metal surface reveal a strong difference in the work-function modification and the electron/hole tunnelling barriers. Fermi-level pinning is found to be a key factor to understand the interface electronic properties.
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A meta-analysis of robotic-assisted pancreatectomy versus laparoscopic and open pancreatectomy.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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To perform a meta-analysis of eligible studies from multiple medical centers to assess the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of robotic-assisted pancreatectomy (RP).
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Oxidative CO2 Reforming of Methane in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Ga0.2O3-? (LSCG) Hollow Fiber Membrane Reactor.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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CO2 utilization in catalytic membrane reactors for syngas production is an environmentally benign solution to counter the escalating global CO2 concerns. In this study, integration of a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Ga0.2O3-? (LSCG) hollow fiber membrane reactor with Ni/LaAlO3-Al2O3 catalyst for the oxidative CO2 reforming of methane (OCRM) reaction was successfully tested for 160 h of reaction. High CH4 and CO2 conversions of ca. 94% and 73% were obtained with O2 flux ca. 1 mL·min(-1)·cm(-2) at 725 °C for the 160-h stability test. Surface temperature programmed desorption studies of the membrane were conducted with H2, CO, and CO2 as probe gases to facilitate understanding on the effect of H2 and CO product gases as well as CO2 reactant gases on the membrane surface. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the postreacted membrane after 160-h stability tests suggests Sr-enriched phases with the presence of adsorbed carbonate and hydrogenated carbon. This shows the subsequent reactant spillover on the membrane surface from the catalyst bed took place due to the reaction occurring on the catalyst. However, XRD analysis of the bulk structure does not show any phase impurities, thus confirming the structural integrity of the LSCG hollow fiber membrane.
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[Validation study on precision of digitized custom-made radial head prosthesis by three-dimensional visualization of virtual surgery].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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To study digitize design of custom-made radial head prosthesis and to verify its matching precision by the surgery of preoperative three-dimensional (3-D) virtual replacement.
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Ultrasound-Mediated Destruction of LHRHa-Targeted and Paclitaxel-Loaded Lipid Microbubbles Induces Proliferation Inhibition and Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Although paclitaxel (PTX) is used with platinum as the first line chemotherapy regimen for ovarian cancer, its clinical efficacy is often limited by severe adverse effects. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technique holds a great promise in minimizing the side effects and maximizing the therapeutic efficacy. However, the technique typically uses nontargeted microbubbles with suboptimal efficiency. We synthesized targeted and PTX-loaded microbubbles (MBs) for UTMD mediated chemotherapy in ovarian cancer cells. PTX-loaded lipid MBs were coated with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) through a biotin-avidin linkage to target the ovarian cancer A2780/DDP cells that express the LHRH receptor. In the cell culture studies, PTX-loaded and LHRHa-targeted MBs (TPLMBs) in combination with ultrasound (300 kHz, 0.5 W/cm(2), 30 s) demonstrated antiproliferative activities of 41.30 ± 3.93%, 67.76 ± 2.45%, and 75.93 ± 2.81% at 24, 48, and 72 h after the treatment, respectively. The cell apoptosis ratio at 24 h after the treatment is 32.6 ± 0.79%, which is significantly higher than other treatment groups such as PTX only and no-targeted PTX-loaded MBs (NPLMBs) with or without ultrasound mediation. Our experiment verifies the hypothesis that ultrasound mediation of ovarian cancer-targeted and drug-loaded MBs will enhance the PTX therapeutic efficiency.
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Ultrasound-Mediated Destruction of LHRHa-Targeted and Paclitaxel-Loaded Lipid Microbubbles for the Treatment of Intraperitoneal Ovarian Cancer Xenografts.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a promising technique to facilitate the delivery of chemotherapy in cancer treatment. However, the process typically uses nonspecific microbubbles, leading to low tumor-to-normal tissue uptake ratio and adverse side effects. In this study, we synthesized the LHRH receptor-targeted and paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded lipid microbubbles (TPLMBs) for tumor-specific binding and enhanced therapeutic effect at the tumor site. An ovarian cancer xenograft model was established by injecting A2780/DDP cells intraperitoneally in BALB/c nude mice. Microscopic imaging of tumor sections after intraperitoneal injection of TPLMBs showed effective binding of the microbubbles with cancer cells. Ultrasound mediated destruction of the intraperitoneally injected TPLMBs yielded a superior therapeutic outcome in comparison with other treatment options. Immunohistochemical analyses of the dissected tumor tissue further confirmed the increased tumor apoptosis and reduced angiogenesis. Our experiment suggests that ultrasound-mediated intraperitoneal administration of the targeted drug-loaded microbubbles may be a useful method for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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Stretching single polymer chains of donor-acceptor foldamers: toward the quantitative study on the extent of folding.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Single-molecule force spectroscopy has proven to be an efficient tool for the quantitative characterization of flexible foldamers on the single-molecule level in this study. The extent of folding has been estimated quantitatively for the first time to the best of our knowledge, which is crucial for a better understanding of the "folding-process" on single-molecule level. Therefore, this study may provide a guidance to regulate folding for realizing rational control over the functions of bulk materials.
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Folic acid conjugated self-assembled layered double hydroxide nanoparticles for high-efficacy-targeted drug delivery.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Enhanced selectivity and efficacy is important for advanced drug delivery. Herein, a novel type of folic acid conjugated self-assembled layered double hydroxide nanoparticles is reported. These nanoparticles have a drug loading capacity of 27 wt% and are able to enter cell nuclei and dramatically improve the efficacy of MTX.
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Adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current situation and prospect.
Drug Discov Ther
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, accounting for 90% of primary liver cancers, and its incidence is still increasing. While the curative treatment for HCC is surgical resection and liver transplantation, most patients are in advanced stage, and lose the chance of surgery. Other palliative treatments include radiofrequency ablation, transarterial embolization, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although there are so many treatments, the prognosis of HCC is still very poor. A major obstacle for the treatment for HCC is the high frequency of tumor recurrence even after curative resection and liver transplantation. Since HCC is frequently resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, clinical development of novel therapeutic agents against HCC has begun in earnest. Thus far, a series of adjuvant therapies for HCC have emerged, including small molecular target agents, monocolonal antibodies, microRNA, and Chinese herbal medicine. Some agents such as sorafenib have shown an advantage in prolonging the overall survival time, and has been approved by FDA for the treatment of advanced HCC. In this article we review the current situation and prospects of adjuvant therapies for HCC.
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Liquid crystalline phase behavior and sol-gel transition in aqueous halloysite nanotube dispersions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The liquid crystalline phase behavior and sol-gel transition in halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) aqueous dispersions have been investigated by applying polarized optical microscopy (POM), macroscopic observation, rheometer, small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The liquid crystalline phase starts to form at the HNT concentration of 1 wt %, and a full liquid crystalline phase forms at the HNT concentration of 25 wt % as observed by POM and macroscopic observation. Rheological measurements indicate a typical shear flow behavior for the HNT aqueous dispersions with concentrations above 20 wt % and further confirm that the sol-gel transition occurs at the HNT concentration of 37 wt %. Furthermore, the HNT aqueous dispersions exhibit pH-induced gelation with more intense birefringence when hydrochloric acid (HCl) is added. The above findings shed light on the phase behaviors of diversely topological HNTs and lay the foundation for fabrication of the long-range ordered nano-objects.
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Discovery of a Mutant-Selective Covalent Inhibitor of EGFR that Overcomes T790M-Mediated Resistance in NSCLC.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating EGF receptor (EGFR) mutations initially respond to first-generation reversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, clinical efficacy is limited by acquired resistance, frequently driven by the EGFR(T790M) mutation. CO-1686 is a novel, irreversible, and orally delivered kinase inhibitor that specifically targets the mutant forms of EGFR, including T790M, while exhibiting minimal activity toward the wild-type (WT) receptor. Oral administration of CO-1686 as single agent induces tumor regression in EGFR-mutated NSCLC tumor xenograft and transgenic models. Minimal activity of CO-1686 against the WT EGFR receptor was observed. In NSCLC cells with acquired resistance to CO-1686 in vitro, there was no evidence of additional mutations or amplification of the EGFR gene, but resistant cells exhibited signs of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and demonstrated increased sensitivity to AKT inhibitors. These results suggest that CO-1686 may offer a novel therapeutic option for patients with mutant EGFR NSCLC.
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Signatures in vibrational and UV-visible absorption spectra for identifying cyclic hydrocarbons by graphene fragments.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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To promote possible applications of graphene in molecular identification based on stacking effects, in particular in recognizing aromatic amino acids and even sequencing nucleobases in life sciences, we comprehensively study the interaction between graphene segments and different cyclic organic hydrocarbons including benzene (C6H6), cyclohexane (C6H12), benzyne (C6H4), cyclohexene (C6H10), 1,3-cyclohexadiene (C6H8(1)) and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (C6H8(2)), using the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method. Interestingly, we find obviously different characteristics in Raman vibrational and ultraviolet visible absorption spectra of the small molecules adsorbed on the graphene sheet. Specifically, we find that both spectra involve clearly different characteristic peaks, belonging to the different small molecules upon adsorption, with the ones of ionized molecules being more substantial. Further analysis shows that the adsorptions are almost all due to the presence of dispersion energy in neutral cases and involve charge transfer from the graphene to the small molecules. In contrast, the main binding force in the ionic adsorption systems is the electronic interaction. The results present clear signatures that can be used to recognize different kinds of aromatic hydrocarbon rings on graphene sheets. We expect that our findings will be helpful for designing molecular recognition devices using graphene.
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Short-term effects of radiofrequency shrinkage treatment for anterior cruciate ligament relaxation on proprioception.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Radiofrequency (RF) shrinkage is used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of RF on ACL relaxation and the probable influencing factors.
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Magnetic retraction of bowel by intraluminal injectable cyanoacrylate-based magnetic glue.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Magnetic retraction offers advantages over physical retraction by graspers because of reduced tissue trauma. The objectives of this study are to investigate a novel method of magnetisation of bowel segments by intraluminal injection of magnetic glue and to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic retraction of bowel with sufficient force during minimal access surgery. Following an initial materials characterisation study, selected microparticles of stainless steel (SS410- ? Ps) were mixed with chosen cyanoacrylate glue (Loctite 4014). During intraluminal injection of the magnetic glue using ex vivo porcine colonic segments, a magnetic probe placed at the injected site ensured that the SS410- ? Ps aggregated during glue polymerisation to form an intraluminal mucosally adherent coagulum. The magnetised colonic segments were retracted by magnetic probes (5 and 10?mm) placed external to the bowel wall. A tensiometer was used to record the retraction force. With an injected volume of 2?mL in a particle concentration of 1?g/mL, this technique produced maximal magnetic retraction forces of 2.24 ± 0.23?N and 5.11 ± 0.34?N (n = 20), with use of 5 and 10?mm probes, respectively. The results indicate that the formation of an intraluminal coagulum based on SS410- ? Ps and Loctite 4014 produces sufficient magnetic retraction for bowel retraction.
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New analytical method for the study of the metabolism of gentiopicroside in rats after oral administration by LC-TOF-MS following picolinoyl derivatization.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The metabolism of gentiopicroside (GPS) in vivo was studied for the first time by LC-MS following picolinoyl derivatization. Incubation of erythrocentaurin, one of the main in vitro metabolites of GPS by intestinal bacteria, with liver microsome indicated that GPS might be metabolized to a final metabolite 3,4-dihydro-5-(hydroxymethyl)isochroman-1-one (HMIO) in vivo. After hydrolysis with sulfatase, HMIO was successfully detected in rat plasma after oral administration of GPS by LC-MS following picolinoyl derivatization. 4-Methoxyphenyl methanol was used as an internal standard to quantify HMIO in rat plasma. A metabolic pathway of GPS in rats is proposed. The monoterpene compound GPS was found to be metabolized to dihydroisocoumarin, which may be responsible for the pharmacological effect of GPS.
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Highly sensitive determination of new metabolite in rat plasma after oral administration of swertiamarin by liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry following picolinoyl derivatization.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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The metabolism of swertiamarin (STM) in vivo was studied by LC/MS following picolinoyl derivatization. Incubation of erythrocentaurin (ECR), one of the main in vitro metabolites of STM by intestinal bacteria, with liver microsome indicated that STM may be metabolized to the final metabolite 3,4-dihydro-5-(hydroxymethyl) isochroman-1-one (HMIO) in vivo. After hydrolyzation with sulfatase, HMIO was successfully detected in rat plasma after oral administration of STM by LC/MS following picolinoyl derivatization. 4-Methoxyphenyl methanol was used as the internal standard to quantify HMIO in rat plasma. The full metabolic pathway of STM in rats is proposed. STM is first hydrolyzed by bacterial ?-glucusidase to give aglycone, which is readily converted to ECR and nitrogen-containing metabolite. ECR is further reduced to HMIO by both liver and intestinal bacteria and HMIO is finally converted to the new sulfate conjugate metabolite. The monoterpene compound STM was found to be metabolized to dihydroisocoumarin and alkaloid compounds in vivo, which may be responsible for the pharmacological effect of STM. The results may shed light on clinical efficacy of STM and the new analytical method developed may assist in studies of the metabolism of other natural iridoids and secoiridoids in vivo. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Combined bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soil by Pennisetum and Arthrobacter sp. strain DNS10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Strain DNS10 was isolated from the black soil collected from the northeast of China which had been cultivated with atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. Pennisetum is a common plant in Heilongjiang Province of China. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of plant-microbe joint interactions (Arthrobacter sp. DNS10 + Pennisetum) in atrazine degradation compared with single-strain and single-plant effects. Plant-microbe joint interactions degraded 98.10 % of the atrazine, while single strain and single plant only degraded 87.38 and 66.71 % after a 30-day experimental period, respectively. The results indicated that plant-microbe joint interactions had a better degradation effect. Meanwhile, we found that plant-microbe joint interactions showed a higher microbial diversity. The results of microbial diversity illustrated that the positive effects of cropping could improve soil microbial growth and activity. In addition, we planted atrazine-sensitive plants (soybean) in the soil after repair. The results showed that soybean growth in soil previously treated with the plant-microbe joint interactions treatment was better compared with other treatments after 20 days of growth. This was further proved that the soil is more conducive for crop cultivation. Hence, plant-microbe joint interactions are considered to be a potential tool in the remediation of atrazine-contaminated soil.
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Ghrelin contributes to protection of hepatocellular injury induced by ischaemia/reperfusion.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Ghrelin, a gut hormone with pleiotropic effects, may act as a protective signal in parenchymal cells. We investigated the protective effects of ghrelin on hepatocytes after ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R).
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Cloning and Characterization of miRNAs and Their Targets, Including a Novel miRNA-Targeted NBS-LRR Protein Class Gene in Apple (Golden Delicious).
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression in plants. 146 miRNAs were identified from apple (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious) by bioinformatic analysis and RNA library sequencing. From these, 135 were conserved and 11 were novel miRNAs. Target analysis predicted one of the novel miRNAs, Md-miRLn11 (Malus domestica microRNA Ln11), targeted an apple nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) class protein coding gene (Md-NBS). 5 RACE assay confirmed the ability of Md-miRLn11 to cleave Md-NBS at the 11-12-nt position. Analysis of the expression of Md-miRLn11 and Md-NBS during the optimum invasion period in 40 apple varieties showed that the expression of Md-NBS gene in resistant varieties is higher than in susceptible varieties, with an inverse pattern for Md-miRLn11. Seedlings from the resistant apple variety JiGuan were used to carry out an Agrobacterium infiltration assay, and then inoculated with the apple leaf spot disease. The result showed a clear decline of disease resistance in JiGuan apples. In contrast, the susceptible variety FuJi infiltrated with the Md-NBS gene showed a significant increase in disease resistance. Based on the above results, we propose that Md-miRLn11 regulates Md-NBS gene expression in particular under the condition of pathogen infection, and that the Md-miRLn11 targeting P-loop site may regulate many NBS-LRR protein class genes in woody plants.
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In vivo ultrasound molecular imaging of inflammatory thrombosis in arteries with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-modified microbubbles targeted to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Ultrasound molecular imaging has the potential to detect activated platelets, thus identifying atherosclerotic plaque instability before onset of serious clinical events. However, it has not been well defined in inflammatory arterial thrombosis. We hypothesized that microbubbles (MBs) target glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) could achieve a noninvasive in vivo detection of inflammatory thrombosis in large arteries through contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging.
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Quantitative analysis of RASSF1A promoter methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma and its prognostic implications.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide and is caused by the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulatory genes. In this study, we used methylight to detect the methylation status of the RASSF1A promoter in 87 paired HCC samples and analysed the relationship between methylation status and clinicopathological parameters, including prognosis after surgery. We found that the methylation level of the RASSF1A promoter in HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumorous tissues (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the methylation level of the RASSF1A gene promoter in HCC samples was higher in patients with a tumor size ? 6cm (p=0.0149) and in patients younger than 50 years old (p=0.0175). However, hypermethylation of the RASSF1A promoter in HCC tissues did not affect the overall survival of patients (p=0.611). Thus, RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation may not be a useful biomarker for the prognosis of HCC.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.