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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A central role for the mammalian target of rapamycin in LPS-induced mice anorexia.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin induces profound anorexia. However, the LPS-provoked pro-inflammatory signaling cascades and the neural mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia are not clear. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of metabolism, cell growth and protein synthesis. This study aimed to determine whether mTOR pathway is involved in LPS-induced anorexia. Effects of LPS on hypothalamic gene/protein expression of mice were measured by RT-PCR or western blot. To determine whether inhibition of mTOR signaling could attenuate LPS-induced anorexia, we performed an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, on LPS-treated male mice. Here, we showed that LPS stimulates the mTOR signaling pathway through the enhanced phosphorylation of mTORSer2448 and p70S6kThr389. We also showed that LPS administration increased the phosphorylation of FoxO1Ser256, the p65 subunit of NF?B (P<0.05) and FoxO1/3aThr24/32 (P<0.01). Blocking the mTOR pathway significantly attenuated the LPS-induced anorexia by decreasing the phosphorylation of p70S6KThr389, FoxO1Ser256 and FoxO1/3aThr24/32. These results suggest promising approaches for the prevention and treatment of LPS-induced anorexia.
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PCR for detection of oseltamivir resistance mutation in influenza A(H7N9) virus.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Sensitive molecular techniques are needed for rapid detection of the R292K oseltamivir-resistant mutant of influenza A(H7/N9) virus strain to monitor its transmission and guide antiviral treatment. We developed a real-time reverse transcription PCR and single nucleotide polymorphism probes to differentiate this mutant strain in mixed virus populations in human specimens.
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Viral metagenomics analysis demonstrates the diversity of viral flora in piglet diarrhoeic faeces in China.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To investigate the diversity of viral flora, we used metagenomics to study the viral communities in a pooled faecal sample of 27 diarrhoeic piglets from intensive commercial farms in China. The 15 distinct mammalian viruses identified in the pooled diarrhoeic sample were, in order of abundance of nucleic acid sequence, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), sapovirus, porcine bocavirus-4 (PBoV-4), sapelovirus, torovirus, coronavirus, PBoV-2, stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (poSCV), astrovirus (AstV), kobuvirus, posavirus-1, porcine enterovirus-9 (PEV-9), porcine circovirus-like (po-circo-like) virus, picobirnavirus (PBV) and Torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2). The prevalence rate of each virus was verified from diarrhoeic and healthy piglets by PCR assay. A mean of 5.5 different viruses were shed in diarrhoeic piglets, and one piglet was in fact co-infected with 11 different viruses. By contrast, healthy piglets shed a mean of 3.2 different viruses. Compared with samples from healthy piglets, the co-infection of PEDV and PBoV had a high prevalence rate in diarrhoea samples, suggesting a correlation with the appearance of diarrhoea in piglets. Furthermore, we report here for the first time the presence of several recently described viruses in China, and the identification of novel genotypes. Therefore, our investigation results provide an unbiased survey of viral communities and prevalence in faecal samples of piglets.
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Glucocorticoids increase NPY gene expression via hypothalamic AMPK signaling in broiler chicks.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Glucocorticoids (GCs) induce profound hyperphagia in birds. However, the neuronal regulatory network underlying GC-provoked hyperphagia is unclear. To determine whether any cross talk occurs among hypothalamic GC receptors (GRs), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and GCs in the regulation of appetite, we performed an intracerebroventricular injection of mifepristone (a GR inhibitor) and compound C (an AMPK inhibitor) on GC-treated male chicks. The results indicate that central GC administration increased the expression of GR and neuropeptide Y mRNA, as well as phosphorylated AMPK?(Thr172) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase(Ser79). Blocking AMPK significantly attenuated GC-induced hyperphagia. Blocking GR significantly attenuated part of the AMPK signaling pathway and GC-induced hyperphagia. Thus, the results suggest that GCs cause hyperphagia via the AMPK-neuropeptide Y signaling pathway.
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Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Int J Biometeorol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24?±?1 °C) and heat-stressed (32?±?1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24?±?1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P?=?0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y?+?LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat stress on the expression of intestinal transporters.
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The anorectic effects of alpha-lipoicacid are mediated by central AMPK and are not due to taste aversion in chicken (Gallus gallus).
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionary conserved cellular energy sensor, which plays a pivotal role in mammalian energy homeostasis. The present study was aimed to explore the possible involvement of hypothalamic AMPK in feed intake regulation of broiler chickens. Hence, diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% ?-lipoicacid (?-LA), a known AMPK inhibitor in mammals, were provided to broiler chicks for 7days. Alpha-LA exerted an anorectic effect, and the conditioned taste aversion test demonstrated that the effect was due to the alteration in satiety and not taste effects. However, the curtailed feed intake induced by ?-LA disappeared on day 7. Hypothalamic AMPK?1 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by the dietary ?-LA in concert with the reduced abundance in total AMPK? protein. The phosphorylated AMPK? was also decreased to a similar extend, resulting in an unaltered phosphorylated AMPK?/total AMPK? ratio. In addition, hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA levels were enhanced by ?-LA. Interestingly, the mRNA expressions of hypothalamic orexigenic agouti-related peptide and neuropeptide Y were up-regulated, while the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin and its transcription regulator hypoxia-inducible factor-1? were down-regulated, probably as a physiological reaction in order to counteract the altered energy balance. In conclusion, dietary ?-LA decreased feed intake of broiler chicks. The anorectic effect was due to the reduced hypothalamic phosphorylated AMPK? as reflected in its decreased mRNA and protein levels. However, the anorectic effect of ?-LA was progressively diminished after 7days of treatment, likely by a physiological counteractive feedback via changing neuropeptides involved in energy balance regulation.
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Epidemiologic report and serologic findings for household contacts of three cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We conducted epidemiologic investigations and serologic assays on household contacts that were extensively exposed to three influenza A (H7N9) virus infected case-patients before infection-control practices were implemented.
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Association between adverse clinical outcome in human disease caused by novel influenza A H7N9 virus and sustained viral shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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On March 30, a novel influenza A subtype H7N9 virus (A/H7N9) was detected in patients with severe respiratory disease in eastern China. Virological factors associated with a poor clinical outcome for this virus remain unclear. We quantified the viral load and analysed antiviral resistance mutations in specimens from patients with A/H7N9.
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The endocrine control of energy homeostasis in chickens.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Energy homeostasis (balance) depends on the relationship between the amount of consumed feed energy and energy expenditure. Coordination of energy expenditure and feed intake (appetite) is necessary for the regulation of body composition. The hypothalamus integrates peripheral and central signals to generate satiety or hunger. Birds and mammals utilize common signaling molecules but some molecules possess different/opposite functions. If relevant, particular differences with the mammalian regulatory system are highlighted in this review. For example, obestatin had no significant effect on feed intake of chicks, but it was claimed to decrease food intake in mammalian species. Ghrelin displayed appetite-stimulating effects in mammals but appetite-decreasing effects in birds. Recently, the function of the hypothalamic AMPK signaling pathway on feed intake regulation has received considerable attention in poultry. Alpha-lipoic acid might exert its appetite-decreasing effect by the AMPK signaling pathway. This review discusses the central regulation of energy homeostasis, role of (an)orexigenic peptides, effect of feed deprivation on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression and provides a model for involvement of AMPK in the regulation of avian energy balance.
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Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma: a retrospect of four cases.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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We have reviewed the medical histories of 4 patients who underwent operations between November 2004 and February 2011 at Changhai Hospital for cardiac papillary fibroelastoma.
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MicroRNA-30b is a multifunctional regulator of aortic valve interstitial cells.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Calcific aortic valve disease is an active process involving a wide range of pathologic changes. Valve interstitial cells are the most prevalent cells in the heart valve and maintain normal valve structure and function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential posttranscriptional modulators of gene expression, and miRNA-30b is a known repressor of bone morphogenetic protein 2-mediated osteogenesis. We hypothesized that miRNA-30b is a multifunctional regulator of aortic valve interstitial cells during calcification.
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Acute type A dissection without intimal tear in arch: Proximal or extensive repair?
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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OBJECTIVE: For acute type A dissection without an intimal tear in the arch, the optimal surgical strategy is unknown. The present study was designed to clarify the issue by comparing the early and late outcomes of proximal (PR) and extensive repair (ER). METHODS: From January 2002 to June 2010, 331 patients with acute type A dissection were treated surgically at our institute. Of these 331 patients, 197 were identified without an arch tear on the preoperative imaging examination and by intraoperative inspection. Of these 197 patients, 74 underwent proximal repair, including the aortic root, ascending aortic, or hemiarch repair, and 88 underwent extensive repair, including proximal repair, total arch replacement and a stented elephant trunk technique. The perioperative variables and late results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in the rates of early mortality and morbidity between the 2 groups, despite the shorter duration of circulatory arrest in the PR group. During long-term follow-up (mean, 55.7 ± 33.1 months; maximum, 129), the overall survival rate in the whole cohort was 100%, 90.8%, and 71.1% at 1, 5, and 8 years, respectively. No difference was found in survival between the 2 groups (P > .05). However, complete thrombosis of the false lumen in the proximal descending aorta was achieved in 100% of the ER group and 24.6% of the PR group (P < .001). For patients with a patent false lumen in the PR group, distal anastomosis leakage and unclosed small intimal tears were identified in 53.3% and 35.6% patients, respectively. The reintervention rate was also lower in the ER group than in the PR group (4.9% vs 15.9%, P < .05) during follow-up. Moreover, the reintervention rate for patients with Marfan syndrome was 9.5% in the ER group and 38.5% in the PR group (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with acute type A dissection without an intimal tear in the arch, extensive repair could promote the occlusion of distal false lumen and decrease the reintervention rate without increasing the operative risk.
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Rupintrivir is a promising candidate for treating severe cases of enterovirus-71 infection: evaluation of antiviral efficacy in a murine infection model.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Enterovirus-71 (EV71) infections can cause life-threatening diseases with neurological symptoms. Currently, no direct targeting antivirals are available to combat severe EV71 infection. Rupintrivir (AG7088) is a compound originally designed for Rhinovirus 3C protease. Previous computational analyses by us and crystallography studies by others suggested that rupintrivir is also a high affinity inhibitor to EV71 3C. Thus, we aimed to further evaluate its anti-EV71 activity in vivo at clinically acceptable doses. It was observed that administration of rupintrivir in suckling mice largely protected them from limb paralysis and dramatically improved survival (38.5% DMSO vs. 90.9% at 0.1mg/kg, p=0.006). Histological, immunohistochemical and quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed that rupintrivir profoundly alleviated virus induced necrotizing myositis, suppressed viral RNA and blocked EV71 VP1 expression in various tissues. In conclusion, we established that rupintrivir can strongly contain the spread of EV71 infection in vivo at a clinically acceptable dose (as low as 0.1mg/kg). As its safety has been fully tested in previous clinical trials, rupintrivir is suitable for immediate evaluation of potential benefits in EV71-infected individuals with life-threatening neurological symptoms.
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Effect of copper on antioxidant ability and nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens stimulated by lipopolysaccharides.
Arch Anim Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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The aim of the experiment was to investigate the interaction between Cu intake, inflammatory challenge and oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Furthermore, it was tested whether plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) could be a sensible parameter for dietary Cu. One hundred forty-four day old chickens were raised on a basal control diet without added copper (Group Cu-6.5, basal Cu content 6.5 mg/kg diet) or a diet supplemented with Cu at 8 or 50 mg/kg (Groups Cu-14.5 and Cu-56.5, respectively) with four replicates of 12 animals for each treatment. Starting on day 21, chickens were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) once a day for 3 days. Before this challenge, Group Cu-14.5 had the lowest gain and the feed to gain ratio was the highest. After injection of LPS, however, chickens of Group Cu-14.5 had the best zoo-technical performance. For chickens of Group Cu-6.5, LPS injection resulted in elevated rectal temperature, and lower erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) activity, compared with the other groups. LPS injection increased plasma uric acid in Group Cu-6.5 significantly, but was without influence in Group Cu-56.5. At all Cu-levels, LPS injection increased erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity and decreased thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. No significant difference in plasma Cp was found in chickens fed different dietary Cu. LPS injection significantly increased plasma Cp in Group Cu-56.5. The results suggest that varying dietary Cu levels seem to modulate the parameters involved in immunological responses and oxidant stress and that plasma Cp is not a reliable parameter for dietary Cu.
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Selective left subclavian ligation in total aortic arch replacement.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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The left subclavian artery (LSA) is usually difficult to manipulate in total aortic arch replacement procedures if it is displaced by huge false lumens in the ascending aorta or right hemiarch. We summarize our experience of selectively ligating the deeply located LSA in total aortic arch replacement and stented "elephant trunk" implantation procedures for Stanford type A aortic dissection.
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Primary solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid - report of a case and review of the literature.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm, especially in the thyroid. We report a case of primary solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland in a 37 year-old Chinese man. The tumor was characterized by bland-looking spindle cells admixed with thin and thick collagen fibers. On immunohistochemistry study indicated that tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34, Bcl-2 and CD99, and negative for Desmin, NSE, SMA, S-100, and CD68. The patient remains well 16 months after excision. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the thyroid SFTs are similar to their reported counterparts in other anatomic sites.
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Early adaptive humoral immune responses and virus clearance in humans recently infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Few studies on the humoral immune responses in human during natural influenza infection have been reported. Here, we used serum samples from pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza infected patients to characterize the humoral immune responses to influenza during natural infection in humans. We observed for the first time that the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza induced influenza A-specific IgM within days after symptoms onset, whereas the unit of IgG did not changed. The magnitude of influenza A-specific IgM antibodies might have a value in predicting the rate of virus clearance to some degree. However, the newly developed IgM was not associated with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) activities in the same samples but correlated with HI activities of subsequently collected sera which were mediated by IgG antibodies, indicating that IgM was critical for influenza infection and influences subsequent IgG antibody responses. These findings provide new important insights on the human immunity to natural influenza infection.
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Dexamethasone-induced hepatic lipogenesis is insulin dependent in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Stress
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
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Hepatic lipogenesis-induced de novo by glucocorticoids (GCs) is associated with the development of obesity and diabetes mellitus. The interaction of GCs and insulin in the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis remains unclear. The effect of exogenous GC administration on hepatic lipogenesis and fat deposition was studied in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), and the role of insulin in the effect of GCs on hepatic lipogenesis was evaluated. Dexamethasone (DEX, 2 mg/kg body mass (BM)) administration for 3-d resulted in BM loss and increased liver and cervical adipose tissue mass compared to control and pair-fed counterparts. DEX treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased plasma level of insulin in either the fed or fasting state, whereas plasma glucose level was only increased in the fed state. In fasted chickens, DEX treatment significantly (P < 0.01) upregulated the hepatic mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). In the fed state, the mRNA levels of ACC and FAS were not significantly influenced by DEX treatment, nor was FAS activity. In cultured primary hepatocytes, combined DEX and insulin significantly upregulated the transcription of the genes for FAS (1.34-fold) and malic enzyme (1.72-fold). By contrast, the expression of sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) was significantly upregulated by insulin (1.67-fold) regardless of DEX. In abdominal adipose tissue, DEX treatment had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the activities and transcription of FAS. The expressions of lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by DEX treatment in either the fasting or fed state. The results indicate that DEX increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis via the increased activity and expression of lipogenic enzymes. Insulin-activated gene expression for SREBP-1 is suggested to be involved in stress-augmented hepatic lipogenesis.
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Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and risk of coronary heart disease.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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To clarify the role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; GSTM1 and GSTT1) status in susceptibility to coronary heart disease (CHD), a meta-analysis of published studies was performed. A total of 19 studies including 8020 cases and 11 501 controls were included in this meta-analysis. In a combined analysis, the relative risks for CHD of the GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null polymorphisms were 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-2.01] and 1.26 (95% CI: 0.90-1.75), respectively. Three potential sources of heterogeneity including ethnicity, source of control and sample size of study were also assessed. However, no significant association was found in stratified analyses. By pooling data from eight studies (2909 cases and 3745 controls) that considered combinations of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes, a statistically significant increased risk for CHD [odds ratio (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.03-5.48)] was detected for individuals with combined deletion mutations in both genes compared with positive genotypes. Results from the meta-analysis of five studies on GSTs stratified according to smoking status showed an increased risk for individuals with null genotype (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.24-3.92 for GSTM1 and OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.49-7.26 for GSTT1) versus non-null genotypes. This meta-analysis suggests that the GSTM1 null genotype may slightly increase the risk of CHD and that interaction between unfavourable GSTs genotypes may exist.
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Dexamethasone facilitates lipid accumulation and mild feed restriction improves fatty acids oxidation in skeletal muscle of broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Effects of dexamethasone (DEX) and mild feed restriction on the uptake and utilization of fatty acids in skeletal muscle of broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were investigated. Male Arbor Acres chicks (7-days old, n=30) were injected with DEX or saline for 3days, and a feed restriction group was included. DEX enhanced circulating very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) level and the lipid accumulation in both adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Compared with the control, liver-carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (L-CPT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha2 mRNA level of M. biceps femoris (BF) were down-regulated significantly by DEX, while mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), heart-fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), activities of LPL and AMPK in both skeletal muscles were not obviously affected. Feed restriction increased the mRNA expression of LPL, L-CPT1 and LCAD of M. pectoralis major (PM), and FATP1, H-FABP, L-CPT1 and LCAD of BF. In conclusion, DEX retards the growth of body mass but facilitates lipid accumulation in both adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. In contrast to the favorable effect of mild feed restriction, DEX did not alter the uptake of fatty acids in the skeletal muscle. The result suggests that DEX may promote intramyocellular lipid accumulation by suppressed fatty acid oxidation while mild feed restriction improved fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, especially in red muscle. Glucocorticoids (GCs) regulated muscle fatty acid metabolism in a different way from energy deficit caused by mild feed restriction.
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Potential carcinogenic effects of cigarette smoke and Swedish moist snuff on pancreas: a study using a transgenic mouse model of chronic pancreatitis.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased in both Snus (the Swedish variant of oral smokeless tobacco) users and, to a greater extent, in cigarette smokers. Concurrent chronic pancreatitis further increases the risk in cigarette smokers. Little is known about the mechanism by which cigarette smoke or Snus increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with chronic pancreatitis. This study examined the carcinogenic effects of an aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (tobacco smoke, TS) or Snus in an Elastase-IL-1beta transgenic mouse model of chronic pancreatitis. Both transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice were fed diluted TS water or Snus-containing diet for up to 15 months, and monitored for phenotypic and molecular changes in the pancreas. Both TS- and Snus-treated Elastase-IL-1beta mice, but not WT mice, developed significant pancreatic ductal epithelial flattening and severe glandular atrophy compared with untreated transgenic mice. Ductal epithelial cells displayed a high proliferative index, minimal apoptosis, and induction of COX-2 in the setting of chronic inflammation. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha correlated with the onset of severe glandular atrophy. In comparison with Snus-treated mice, TS-Elastase-IL-1beta mice had an earlier onset and a greater extent of phenotypic changes, which were associated with up-regulation of TNF-alpha and increased expression of IL-6, TGF-beta, and SDF-1. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which tobacco products are likely to promote carcinogenesis in the setting of chronic pancreatitis.
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Bilateral dacryoadenitis complicated by lymphocytic hypophysitis.
J Neuroophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Three patients developed dacryoadenitis (DA) or lymphocytic pneumonitis before the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH). There were two previous reports of concurrence of DA and LyH. Our patients add support to the idea that DA and LyH are manifestations of a systemic autoimmune disease. We suggest that the discovery of DA should prompt imaging and endocrine investigation of LyH.
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[The Study on Gene Amplification of EGFR in Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma and Conventional Adenocarcinoma of the Lung.].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
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Patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung have disproportionately response to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). The aim of this study is to analyze the difference of EGFR gene amplification in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), adenocarcinma mixed subtype and conventional adenocarcinoma of the lung and provide some information to clinical therapies.
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Increased de novo lipogenesis in liver contributes to the augmented fat deposition in dexamethasone exposed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Effect of dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid) on lipid metabolism in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated. Male Arbor Acres chickens (1 wk old, n=30) were injected with DEX or saline for 1 wk, and a pair-fed group was included. DEX administration resulted in enhanced lipid deposition in adipose tissues. Plasma insulin increased about 3.3 fold in DEX injected chickens as against the control and hepatic triglyceride was higher as compared with the pair-fed chickens. In DEX injected chickens, the hepatic activities of malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) were significantly increased, while the mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), ME, and FAS were significantly up-regulated, compared with the control. Although the mRNA levels of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) genes in adipose tissue were not affected by DEX injection, ME activity and mRNA levels in abdominal fat pad of chickens treated with DEX are higher than those of control chickens. The results indicated that the increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis and in turn, the increased circulating lipid flux contributes to the augmented fat deposition in adipose tissues and liver in DEX-challenged chickens. The results suggest that glucocorticoids together with the induced hyperinsulinemia should be responsible for the up-regulated hepatic lipogenesis.
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Valve repair with autologous pericardium for organic lesions in rheumatic tricuspid valve disease.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Surgical repair of pathologic tricuspid valve disease often fails because of severe anatomic distortion of the valve apparatus, particularly in patients with rheumatic heart disease. This usually leads to tricuspid valve replacement despite the associated prosthesis-related complications. This study examines our experience of tricuspid valve repair with autologous pericardium for organic rheumatic tricuspid valve disease.
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The effect of albumen removal before incubation (embryonic protein under-nutrition) on the post-hatch performance, regulators of protein translation activation and proteolysis in neonatal broilers.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Albumen was removed from broiler eggs before the start of incubation to induce prenatal protein under-nutrition in chicken embryos. With this method, the direct effect of protein deficiency was investigated, differing from mammalian models manipulating the maternal diet where indirect, hormonal effects can interfere. Based on the estimated albumen/egg weight ratio, 10 % of albumen was removed with an 18G needle, after making a hole at the sharp end of the egg with another 18G needle. Eggs were taped thereafter. The sham group underwent the same procedure, except that no albumen was removed. Control eggs did not receive any treatment. The removal of albumen decreased both embryonic and post-hatch body weight up to day 7 compared with the control group. On embryonic day 18, embryos from the albumen-deprived group had higher plasma uric acid levels compared with the sham (P= 0·016) and control (P= 0·009) groups. Moreover, a lower plasma amino acid concentration was observed at hatch compared with the sham (P= 0·038) and control (P= 0·152) groups. These findings indicate an altered protein metabolism. At hatch, a higher mRNA expression of muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1), a gene related to proteolysis, was observed in albumen-deprived chicks compared with the control and sham chicks, together with an up-regulated expression of atrogin-1 (another atrogene) at this time point in the male protein-deficient chicks. These findings suggest that muscle proteolysis is transiently increased by the removal of albumen before the start of incubation. No evidence was found for altered protein synthesis capacity and translational efficiency in albumen-deprived chicks.
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Meta-analysis of RAGE gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease risk.
PLoS ONE
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Recent data from human and animal studies have shown an upregulated expression of advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (RAGE) in human atherosclerotic plaques 1 and in retina, messangial, and aortic vessels, suggesting an important role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic diseases. In the past few years, the relationship between RAGE polymorphisms (-429T/C, -374T/A, and G82S) and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded contradictory results.
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Aortic valve replacement with autologous pericardium: long-term follow-up of 15 patients and in vivo histopathological changes of autologous pericardium.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
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The study aimed to assess the long-term follow-up of patients with an autologous pericardial aortic valve (APAV) replacement and to analyse in vivo histopathological changes in implanted APAVs.
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Fasting alters protein expression of AMP-activated protein kinase in the hypothalamus of broiler chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
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An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fasting and re-feeding on hypothalamic 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels and (an)orexigenic neuropeptides. Male Arbor Acres chicks (7-day-old, n=160) were allocated to four equal treatment groups: control chicks (fed ad libitum for 48 h, C48), chicks that were fasted for 48 h (F48), chicks that were first fasted for 48 h and then re-fed for 24h (F48C24), and chicks that were fed ad libitum for 72h (C72). Fasting for 48 h significantly (P<0.05) increased the ratio of phosphorylated AMPK? to total AMPK? and phosphorylated LKB1 to total LKB1, whereas re-feeding for 24h reduced these ratios to that of the ad libitum fed C72 chicks. The gene expressions of agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortin receptor 4, melanin-concentrating hormone, prepro-orexins and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the fasted chicks relative to the ad libitum fed C48 group. The gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), as well as cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was not affected by the nutritional status. Fasting significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). The results suggest that the LKB1/AMPK signal pathway is involved in the energy homeostasis of fasted chicks, and its possible role in feed intake regulation might be mediated by the AgRP/NPY rather than the POMC/CART pathway.
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Effect of heat exposure on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
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The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two circumstances: high (31?±?1.5°C; relative humidity, 82.0?±?2.2%) or normal (20?±?2°C, control; relative humidity, 60.1?±?4.5%) ambient environment. Heat stress decreased body weight gain (P < 0.01), feed intake (P < 0.01), laying rate (P < 0.05), average egg mass (P < 0.01), egg production (P < 0.01), shell thickness (P < 0.01), and feed efficiency (P < 0.05). High ambient temperature decreased plasma uric acid (P < 0.05). Heat stress significantly increased mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (P < 0.05) and decreased mRNA levels of cholecystokinin (P < 0.05) in the hypothalamus. Heat stress significantly increased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of ghrelin in the glandular stomach and jejunum but significantly decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of cholecystokinin in the duodenum and jejunum. In conclusion, heat stress plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and cholecystokinin), which might participate in the regulation of feed intake in laying hens under high ambient temperature.
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Peripheral "chicken" obestatin administration does not affect feed intake and gut muscle contractility of meat-type and layer-type chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Regul. Pept.
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Obestatin has recently been discovered in the rat stomach. As for ghrelin, the 23-amino acid obestatin is also derived from post-translational processing of the prepro-ghrelin gene but seems to have opposite effects on feed intake. In avian species, ghrelin is mainly present in the proventriculus and decreases feed intake, as opposed to its orexigenic properties in mammals. An obestatin-like sequence was also found in the avian ghrelin precursor protein but the potential involvement of this peptide in appetite regulation of chickens is unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of a single peripheral administration of this predicted "chicken" obestatin peptide on voluntary feed intake of 7- to 9-day-old meat-type and layer-type chicks. "Chicken" obestatin was injected intraperitoneally or intravenously at a dose of 1 nmol or 10 nmol/100 g body weight and feed intake was measured up to 4 h post injection. None of these treatments did reveal any effect of the putative "chicken" obestatin on appetite of either meat-type of layer-type chicks. Furthermore, "chicken" obestatin also failed to affect the in vitro contractility of muscle strips from crop and proventriculus. In conclusion, in the given experimental settings, the putative "chicken" obestatin has indistinctive physiological effects on feed intake and in vitro muscle contractility of gut segments, and hence its functional properties in ingestive behavior of avian species remain obscure.
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Effect of corticosterone on gene expression of feed intake regulatory peptides in laying hens.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
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The present study was conducted to explore the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the regulation of appetite-associated genes in laying hens. Forty eight laying hens were randomly divided into two groups: one received subcutaneous injection of CORT (2mg/kg body weight, CORT-exposed) and the other received sham-treatment (Control). Treatment of hens with CORT stimulated an increase (P<0.05) in plasma CORT, glucose, uric acid (UA), insulin, cholesterol (Chol) and triiodothyronine (T(3)), but the concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triacylglycerol (TG) were decreased (P<0.05). CORT treatment had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), melanocortin receptor 4 and 5 (MCR-4 and MCR-5) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in the hypothalamus when compared with control hens. However, the expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and melanocortin recepter 1 (MCR-1) were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed while the mRNA levels of ghrelin and cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) in CORT-treated hens. Treatment of laying hens with CORT had no significant (P>0.05) effect on the mRNA levels of CCK in the glandular stomach and the duodenum, and those of ghrelin in the glandular stomach, the duodenum and the jejunum. However, the mRNA levels of CCK in the jejunum and the ileum, and those of ghrelin in the ileum were significantly (P<0.05) suppressed by CORT treatment. In conclusion, these results suggest that CORT plays a unique role in some special neuropeptides (e.g., ghrelin, CART, POMC, CCK and MCRs) and a dynamic balance between these appetite-associated peptides in the hypothalamus and the gastrointestinal tract defines the feeding status of CORT-exposed laying hens.
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Diagnosis and treatment of giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone: Report of eight cases.
Acta Otolaryngol.
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Abstract Conclusions: It is impossible to make a diagnosis of temporal giant cell granuloma (GCG) before operation because of nonspecific clinical and imaging feature. Surgery is the first-line choice of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of temporal GCG. Methods: Eight patients with GCG receiving treatment in the Chinese PLA General Hospital between 2001 and 2010 were recruited for the study. These patients clinical features, imaging and histopathological findings, types of surgery, and results of follow-up evaluations were noted. Results: The group was made up of four males and four females, with a median age of 37 years (range 21-50 years). Four patients had a granuloma on the left side and four on the right of the head. The median duration of the disease was 21 months (range 5-60 months). All patients, except one referred to us for recurring disease, were managed in our hospital. The main symptoms were: hearing loss (n = 5), tinnitus (n = 4), otalgia (n = 3), dizziness (n = 2), and local masses (n = 2). Radiological examination of the masses revealed erosion of the temporal bone and base of the skull. There was no definitive diagnosis in any of the patients before surgery. All patients had surgical treatment, six of them by middle cranial fossa approach and two by combined cranio-auricular approach. Surgical complications included partial facial paralysis (three cases) and cerebral edema (one case) but they resolved soon after surgery. One patient was lost to follow-up, but the other seven were followed up over a mean period of 24 months; none has reported a recurrence.
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Novel, real-time cell analysis for measuring viral cytopathogenesis and the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus.
PLoS ONE
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A novel electronic cell sensor array technology, the real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system, was developed to monitor cell events. Unlike the conventional methods labeling the target cells with fluorescence, luminescence, or light absorption, the RTCA system allows for label-free detection of cell processes directly without the incorporation of labels. Here, we used this new format to measure the cytopathic effect (CPE) of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies in human sera to this virus. The real-time dynamic monitoring of CPE was performed on MDCK cell cultures infected with the H1N1 virus, ranging from 5.50×10(2) to 5.50×10(7) copies/mL. The resulting CPE kinetic curves were automatically recorded and were both time and viral load dependent. The CPE kinetics were also distinguishable between different H1N1 stains, as the onset of CPE induced by the A/Shanghai/37T/2009 H1N1 virus was earlier than that of the A/Shanghai/143T/2009 H1N1 virus. Furthermore, inhibition of H1N1 virus-induced CPE in the presence of human specific anti-sera was detected and quantified using the RTCA system. Antibody titers determined using this new neutralization test correlated well with those obtained independently via the standard hemagglutination inhibition test. Taken together, this new CPE assay format provided label-free and high-throughput measurement of viral growth and the effect of neutralizing antibodies, illustrating its potential in influenza vaccine studies.
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Intertransversalis fascia approach in urologic laparoscopic operations.
Arch Surg
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To study the clinical anatomy of the transversalis fascia (TF) and to explore the intertransversalis fascia approach in urologic laparoscopic operations (ULOs).
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An alternative subcoronary implantation technique decreases the risk of complete heart block after stentless aortic valve replacement.
J Cardiovasc Dis Res
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Stentless aortic valve prostheses have excellent hemodynamic profiles, but may be associated with an increased postoperative heart block when compared to conventional prostheses.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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