JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ultralow-intensity near-infrared light induces drug delivery by upconverting nanoparticles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesoporous silica coated upconverting nanoparticles are loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin and grafted with ruthenium complexes as photoactive molecular valves. Drug release was triggered by 974 nm light with 0.35 W cm(-2). Such low light intensity minimized overheating problems and prevented photodamage to biological samples.
Related JoVE Video
Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of high resting heart rate on the stability of carotid artery plaque in a middle and advanced aged population].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effect of high resting heart rate (RHR) on the stability of carotid artery plaque in a middle and advanced aged population.
Related JoVE Video
Selective adhesion and controlled activity of yeast cells on honeycomb-patterned polymer films via a microemulsion approach.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Selective adhesion, growth promotion, proliferation inhibition and in situ transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells have been realized in a limited space of honeycomb-patterned polystyrene films prepared through a microemulsion method.
Related JoVE Video
How Does a Servant Leader Fuel the Service Fire? A Multilevel Model of Servant Leadership, Individual Self Identity, Group Competition Climate, and Customer Service Performance.
J Appl Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Building on a social identity framework, our cross-level process model explains how a manager's servant leadership affects frontline employees' service performance, measured as service quality, customer-focused citizenship behavior, and customer-oriented prosocial behavior. Among a sample of 238 hairstylists in 30 salons and 470 of their customers, we found that hair stylists' self-identity embedded in the group, namely, self-efficacy and group identification, partially mediated the positive effect of salon managers' servant leadership on stylists' service performance as rated by the customers, after taking into account the positive influence of transformational leadership. Moreover, group competition climate strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and service performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Related JoVE Video
The analysis of deregulated expression and methylation of the PER2 genes in gliomas.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Growing evidence shows that disruption of circadian rhythm may be a risk factor in the development of glioma. However, the molecular mechanisms of genes controlling circadian rhythm in glioma cells have not been explored and differential expression of the circadian clock genes in glioma and non-tumor cells may provide a molecular basis for manifesting this mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Cross reactivity of Neisseria meningitidis crgA diagnostic PCR primers with nontypeable haemophilus influenzae.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CrgA based PCR are usually used for diagnosis of Neisseria meningitidis while the crgA gene was observed in the genomes of Haemophilus influenzae. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the crgA primers routinely used in the diagnosis of N. meningitidis could cross react with H. influenzae isolates.
Related JoVE Video
Overview and appraisal of the current concept and technologies for improvement of sublingual drug delivery.
Ther Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sublingual drug delivery is capable of achieving high bioavailability by avoiding first-pass liver extraction and enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as achieving rapid onset of effect. Thus, this route of administration can offer attractive therapeutic advantages for certain drugs as a convenient substitute for parenteral administration and has been applied successfully to a number of therapeutic conditions, especially urgent cardiovascular conditions and acute severe pain control. However, due to inherent limitations such as small sublingual mucosa area for absorption, primarily passive mechanism of transport, short residence time, and potential local irritation, a relatively small number of sublingual products have been successfully developed to date. In this Review, key concepts and technologies for potential improvement of sublingual drug delivery are reviewed. The optimal application of these concepts and technologies, together with clinical need for non-parenteral delivery, will hopefully broaden the development of sublingual drug delivery in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Focus on China: should clinicians engage in research? and lessons from other countries.
Quant Imaging Med Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Following tremendous economic progress, society in China is also undergoing fundamental changes, as is the healthcare system. Currently the training of Chinese young doctors and their future work placement are all undergoing re-structuring. We compiled some thoughts and opinions on the topic of 'should clinicians in China engage in research?', and publish them as a special report in this issue of Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery (QIMS). The contributors included some editorial members of this journal, and a few personal friends. Besides a few minor linguistic corrections, opinions from the contributors have not been edited, as we want authors' to write their own independent views. However, it is possible there is a selection bias of the contributors of this paper; more likely those who are interested in the medical research are selected and therefore the views of the contributors may not be generalizable. To compare the structure and funding of China with other countries, authors from UK, The Netherlands, France, and USA are also invited.
Related JoVE Video
Cytotoxic and antiangiogenic paclitaxel solubilized and permeation-enhanced by natural product nanoparticles.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most potent intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to date, yet an oral formulation has been problematic because of its low solubility and permeability. Using the recently discovered solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB), we investigated the unique PTX-RUB formulation. PTX was solubilized by RUB in water to levels of 1.6-6.3?mg/ml at 10-40% weight/volume. These nanomicellar PTX-RUB complexes were dried to a powder, which was subsequently reconstituted in physiologic solutions. After 2.5?h, 85-99% of PTX-RUB remained soluble in gastric fluid, whereas 79-96% remained soluble in intestinal fluid. The solubilization of PTX was mechanized by the formation of water-soluble spherical nanomicelles between PTX and RUB, with an average diameter of 6.6?nm. Compared with Taxol, PTX-RUB nanoparticles were nearly four times more permeable in Caco-2 cell monocultures. In a side-by-side comparison with dimethyl sulfoxide-solubilized PTX, PTX-RUB maintained the same level of cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4 to 20?nmol/l. In addition, tubule formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inhibited at levels as low as 5?nmol/l. These chemical and biological properties demonstrated by the PTX-RUB nanoparticles may improve oral bioavailability and enable further pharmacokinetic, toxicologic, and efficacy investigations.
Related JoVE Video
New KF-PP-SVM classification method for EEG in brain-computer interfaces.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Classification methods are a crucial direction in the current study of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). To improve the classification accuracy for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, a novel KF-PP-SVM (kernel fisher, posterior probability, and support vector machine) classification method is developed. Its detailed process entails the use of common spatial patterns to obtain features, based on which the within-class scatter is calculated. Then the scatter is added into the kernel function of a radial basis function to construct a new kernel function. This new kernel is integrated into the SVM to obtain a new classification model. Finally, the output of SVM is calculated based on posterior probability and the final recognition result is obtained. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed KF-PP-SVM method, EEG data collected from laboratory are processed with four different classification schemes (KF-PP-SVM, KF-SVM, PP-SVM, and SVM). The results showed that the overall average improvements arising from the use of the KF-PP-SVM scheme as opposed to KF-SVM, PP-SVM and SVM schemes are 2.49%, 5.83 % and 6.49 % respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanisms of Tigecycline Resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Of 26 tigecycline-nonsusceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (TNSKP) clinical isolates, 25 had nonsynonymous mutations in ramR and/or acrR (23 in ramR and 10 in acrR). Eight TNSKP isolates possessed overexpression of ramA, acrB, rarA, and oqxB simultaneously, while 8 and 1 TNSKP strains had upregulation of ramA and acrB and of rarA and oqxB, respectively. Thus, resistance mechanisms of 9 TNSKP isolates cannot be explained by the present pathways. This study underscores the role of RamA in TNSKP and suggests the presence of novel tigecycline resistance mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Crystal structure of (E)-N'-benzyl-idene-1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrrole-2-carbohydrazide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the title compound, C13H12N4O3, the dihedral angle between the planes of the pyrrole and benzene rings is 7.47?(1)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are arranged in sheets lying parallel to (101). Neighbouring sheets are linked by N-H?O hydrogen bonds, weak ?-? [centroid-centroid distance between the pyrrole rings = 3.765?(11)?Å] and C-H?? inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional structure.
Related JoVE Video
Crystal structure of 4-meth-oxy-N-phenyl-benzamide.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the title mol-ecule, C14H13NO2, the dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 65.18?(4)°. The central amide group has about the same degree of twist with respect to both ring planes, as indicated by the dihedral angles of 34.70?(8) and 30.62?(8)° between its plane and that of the phenyl and 4-meth-oxy-benzene rings, respectively. The C atom of the meth-oxy group is close to being coplanar with its attached ring [deviation = -0.112?(2)?Å]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by inter-amide N-H?O hydrogen bonds, which generate C(4) chains propagating in the [100] direction. Adajcent mol-ecules in the chain are related by translational symmetry.
Related JoVE Video
Knockdown of NOB1 expression inhibits the malignant transformation of human prostate cancer cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nin one binding-1 protein (NOB1) is a kind of zinc protein involved in ribosome biogenesis and controlled proteolysis. To explore the function of NOB1 in human prostate malignancy, we analyzed the expression of NOB1 in prostate cancer and found that NOB1 was elevated in prostate cancer tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Knockdown of NOB1 by lentivirus-shRNA inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation ability of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that silencing of NOB1 caused G0/G1 phase arrest and a slight decrease in S phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore, knockdown of NOB1 significantly suppressed the mobility of PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells (P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggested that NOB1 might be involved in tumorigenecity of prostate cancer, and could be a potential molecular target for prostate cancer gene therapy.
Related JoVE Video
A promising new class of high-temperature alloys: eutectic high-entropy alloys.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) can have either high strength or high ductility, and a simultaneous achievement of both still constitutes a tough challenge. The inferior castability and compositional segregation of HEAs are also obstacles for their technological applications. To tackle these problems, here we proposed a novel strategy to design HEAs using the eutectic alloy concept, i.e. to achieve a microstructure composed of alternating soft fcc and hard bcc phases. As a manifestation of this concept, an AlCoCrFeNi2.1 (atomic portion) eutectic high-entropy alloy (EHEA) was designed. The as-cast EHEA possessed a fine lamellar fcc/B2 microstructure, and showed an unprecedented combination of high tensile ductility and high fracture strength at room temperature. The excellent mechanical properties could be kept up to 700°C. This new alloy design strategy can be readily adapted to large-scale industrial production of HEAs with simultaneous high fracture strength and high ductility.
Related JoVE Video
Proliposomes as a drug delivery system to decrease the hepatic first-pass metabolism: case study using a model drug.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective of the present study was to develop a proliposomal formulation to decrease the hepatic first-pass metabolism of a highly metabolized drug. Lovastatin was chosen as the model drug. Proliposomes were prepared by mixing different ratios of phospholipids such as soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC), hydrogenated egg phosphatidylcholine (HEPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) individually with drug and cholesterol in an organic solvent. Proliposomal powder was obtained following evaporation of the solvent. The proliposomal powder was either filled into capsules or compressed into tablets. Physical characterization, in vitro drug transport studies and in vitro dissolution of formulations and pure drug was carried out. In vitro transport across the membrane was evaluated using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). The extent of drug released from various proliposomal formulations in the first 30 min was 85%, 87% and 96% with DMPG, SPC and HEPC containing formulations respectively, while the pure drug formulation showed 48% drug release in the same period. In vivo studies were carried out in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following single oral administration of the selected formulation (F9), a relative bioavailability of 162% was achieved compared to pure lovastatin. The study demonstrated that proliposomes can be used as a drug delivery system to decrease the hepatic first-pass metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence of topological surface state in three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Cd3As2.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The three-dimensional topological semimetals represent a new quantum state of matter. Distinct from the surface state in the topological insulators that exhibits linear dispersion in two-dimensional momentum plane, the three-dimensional semimetals host bulk band dispersions linearly along all directions. In addition to the gapless points in the bulk, the three-dimensional Weyl/Dirac semimetals are also characterized by "topologically protected" surface state with Fermi arcs on their surface. While Cd3As2 is proposed to be a viable candidate of a Dirac semimetal, more investigations are necessary to pin down its nature. In particular, the topological surface state, the hallmark of the three-dimensional semimetal, has not been observed in Cd3As2. Here we report the electronic structure of Cd3As2 investigated by angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the (112) crystal surface and detailed band structure calculations. The measured Fermi surface and band structure show a good agreement with the band structure calculations with two bulk Dirac-like bands approaching the Fermi level and forming Dirac points near the Brillouin zone center. Moreover, the topological surface state with a linear dispersion approaching the Fermi level is identified for the first time. These results provide experimental indications on the nature of topologically non-trivial three-dimensional Dirac cones in Cd3As2.
Related JoVE Video
Adipogenic changes of hepatocytes in a high-fat diet-induced fatty liver mice model and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by steatosis associated with liver inflammation. As NAFLD progresses, triglycerides increase within hepatocytes, causing typical vacuoles that resemble adipocytes. However, whether these morphological changes in hepatocytes indicate potential functional changes is unclear. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 42 % fat. Markers for adipocytes in the liver were measured using real-time PCR, Western blot, and double immunofluorescent labeling. Cytokines in cell culture supernatants were quantified with ELISA. To determine the macrophage phenotype, hepatic classical M1 markers and alternative M2 markers were analyzed. After a 24-week feeding period, adipocyte markers aP2 and PPAR? increased at both the mRNA and protein level in the liver of HFD-fed mice. FITC-labeled aP2 and rhodamine-labeled albumin were both stained in the cytoplasm of steatotic hepatocytes as observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell membrane-bound E-cadherin and albumin expression were reduced in steatotic hepatocytes compared to controls. However, hepatic adiponectin and adiponectin receptor-2 expression decreased with upregulation of hepatic CD36, suggesting impaired adiponectin activity in livers of HFD-fed mice. Moreover, steatotic primary hepatocytes not only released pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF?, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-18, but also could activate macrophages when co-cultured in vitro. In vivo, hepatic expression of M1 genes such as iNOS and TNF? was markedly increased in HFD-fed mice. In contrast, hepatic expression of M2 genes such as Arg1 and CD206 was significantly reduced. Specifically, the ratio of TNF? to CD206 in HFD-fed mice was notably upregulated. Overexpression of adipocyte-specific genes in hepatocytes and their secretory function and epithelial phenotype impairment in NAFLD cause functional changes in steatotic hepatocytes aside from morphological changes. This suggests that adipogenic changes in hepatocytes are involved in pathogenesis of NAFLD.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane proteome using two-dimensional native/native and native/sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Analysis of the oligomeric state of a protein may provide insights into its physiological functions. Because membrane proteins are considered to be the workhorses of energy generation and polypeptide and nutrient transportation, in this study we characterized the membrane-associated proteome of Streptomyces coelicolor by two-dimensional (2D) blue native/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), high-resolution clear native/native PAGE, and native/SDS-PAGE. A total of 77 proteins were identified, and 20 proteins belonging to 15 complexes were characterized. Moreover, the resolution of high-resolution clear native/SDS-PAGE is much higher than that of blue native/SDS-PAGE. OBP (SCO5477) and BldKB (SCO5113) were identified as the main protein spots from the membrane fractions of S. coelicolor M145, suggesting that these two proteins are involved in extracellular peptide transportation. These two transporters exhibited multiple oligomeric states in the native PAGE system, which may suggest their multiple physiological functions in the development of S. coelicolor.
Related JoVE Video
Beyond the individual victim: Multilevel consequences of abusive supervision in teams.
J Appl Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We conceptualize a multilevel framework that examines the manifestation of abusive supervision in team settings and its implications for the team and individual members. Drawing on Hackman's (1992) typology of ambient and discretionary team stimuli, our model features team-level abusive supervision (the average level of abuse reported by team members) and individual-level abusive supervision as simultaneous and interacting forces. We further draw on team-relevant theories of social influence to delineate two proximal outcomes of abuse-members' organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) at the individual level and relationship conflict at the team level-that channel the independent and interactive effects of individual- and team-level abuse onto team members' voice, team-role performance, and turnover intentions. Results from a field study and a scenario study provided support for these multilevel pathways. We conclude that abusive supervision in team settings holds toxic consequences for the team and individual, and offer practical implications as well as suggestions for future research on abusive supervision as a multilevel phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Related JoVE Video
Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.
Related JoVE Video
Fabrication of Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanoparticles supported by graphene oxide sheets for the repeated adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under UV irradiation.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A quaternary nanocomposite Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2/graphene oxide (GO) was for the first time successfully synthesized in this work for the repeated use in simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of aromatically structured chemical pollutants. The resulting sample was characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR, TG-DTG, XPS, PL, and VSM. Its photocatalytic activity was evaluated in the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under high-pressure mercury lamp irradiation. The results showed that about 63% of RhB was absorbed onto the prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2/GO nanocomposites by just 30 minute mixing, and after 120 min high-pressure mercury lamp irradiation, about 92.03% of RhB was converted. The photocatalytic degradation followed pseudo first-order reaction with an apparent rate constant of 0.0136 min(-1). Compared with the Fe3O4@SiO2@TiO2 nanoparticles, it exhibits an excellent ability to adsorb aromatic compounds via ?-? stacking and a higher photocatalytic activity due to the presence of GO. In addition, the synthesized nanomaterial exhibited good magnetic response and the reusability study suggested that the prepared nanocomposites were stable enough and maintained high degradation rate and catalyst recovery even after five cycles, verifying their potential application in water purification.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibiting CB1 receptors improves lipogenesis in an in vitro non-alcoholic fatty liver disease model.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The endocannabinoids system (ECs) mediated mainly by CB1 and CB2 receptors plays an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating lipid metabolism. This study is to further investigate the expression of CB1 and CB2 in the fat accumulation liver cells and to identify possible underlying mechanism by detecting the key lipogenesis factors.
Related JoVE Video
[Survey on the applicability of SF-36 version-2 (SF-36v2) in assessment quality of life among urban residents in Chengdu city].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the psychometric performances and applicability of SF-36v2 in assessment quality of life among urban residents in Chengdu.
Related JoVE Video
An HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of the active metabolites of febuxostat (67M-1, 67M-2 and 67M-4) in human plasma.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determination of the active metabolites (67M-1, 67M-2 and 67M-4) in human plasma using clopidogrel as the internal standard was developed and validated. The compounds were extracted by protein precipitation using acetonitrile and separated using a C8 column by a gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (containing 0.1% formic acid) and 0.1% formic acid. Quantification was performed using multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode with m/z transitions of 333.1-261.0, 333.1-261.0, 347.0-261.0 and 322.2-184.1 for 67M-1, 67M-2, 67M-4 and clopidogrel (Internal Standard), respectively. This method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The lower limit of quantification of this method was 0.5 ng/mL and the calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.5-150 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-run precision was less than 11.67% and 8.64%, respectively, with the accuracy between 98.33% and 108.38%. The samples were stable under all the tested conditions. This method has been successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of febuxostat in healthy Chinese volunteers following oral administration of 40 mg and 80 mg febuxostat.
Related JoVE Video
The neurovascular protective effects of huperzine A on D-galactose-induced inflammatory damage in the rat hippocampus.
Gerontology
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic administration of D-galactose (D-gal) results in oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory aging. Age-related changes in the brain result in neurovascular damage and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. However, little is known regarding D-gal-induced neurovascular damage, as well as the protective effects of huperzine A.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of four single nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA-coding genes on lung cancer risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
No clear consensus has been reached on the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (miR-196a2 gene rs11614913, miR-146a gene rs2910164, miR-149 gene rs2292832, and miR-499 gene rs3746444) in microRNA-coding genes and lung cancer risk. We performed a meta-analysis in an effort to systematically explore the possible association. A computer retrieval of PubMed, Embase, and Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science electronic databases was conducted prior to May 2014. References of retrieved articles were also screened. The fixed effects model and the random effects model were applied for dichotomous outcomes to combine the results of the individual studies. Seven studies including 3,705 cases and 4,099 controls were finally included according to the inclusion criteria. Statistical association could be found between rs11614913 polymorphism and lung cancer [C vs. T: P?=?0.01, odds ratio (OR)?=?1.11, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.20, P heterogeneity?=?0.22, fixed effects model; CC?+?CT vs. TT: P?=?0.01, OR?=?1.18, 95 % CI 1.04-1.34, P heterogeneity?=?0.32, fixed effects model; CC vs. TT: P?=?0.009, OR?=?1.24, 95 % CI 1.06-1.45, P heterogeneity?=?0.34, fixed effects model]. Subgroup analysis found this association in the East Asians. As for rs2910164 polymorphism and lung cancer risk, significant association could be found in allele comparison (G vs. C: P?=?0.03, OR?=?0.92, 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, P heterogeneity?=?0.15, fixed effects model) and in the dominant genetic model (GG?+?CG vs. CC: P?=?0.03, OR?=?0.86, 95 % CI 0.76-0.99, P heterogeneity?=?0.31, fixed effects model). In the East Asian subgroup, association could also be found. No association was observed on rs2292832 or rs3746444 polymorphism and lung cancer. Our study suggested that the miR-196a2 gene rs11614913 polymorphism and the miR-146a gene rs2910164 polymorphism might associate with lung cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
ERK1 and ERK2 regulate chondrocyte terminal differentiation during endochondral bone formation.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chondrocytes in the epiphyseal cartilage undergo terminal differentiation prior to their removal through apoptosis. To examine the role of ERK1 and ERK2 in chondrocyte terminal differentiation, we generated Osx-Cre; ERK1(-/-) ; ERK2(flox/flox) mice (cKOosx ), in which ERK1 and ERK2 were deleted in hypertrophic chondrocytes. These cKOosx mice were grossly normal in size at birth, but by 3 weeks of age exhibited shorter long bones. Histological analysis in these mice revealed that the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate was markedly expanded. In situ hybridization and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that Mmp13 and Osteopontin expression was significantly decreased, indicating impaired chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Moreover, Egr1 and Egr2, transcription factors whose expression is restricted to the last layers of hypertrophic chondrocytes in wild type mice, were also strongly downregulated in these cKOosx mice. In transient transfection experiments in the RCS rat chondrosarcoma cell line, the expression of Egr1, Egr2, or a constitutively active mutant of MEK1 increased the activity of an Osteopontin promoter, while the MEK1-induced activation of the Osteopontin promoter was inhibited by the co-expression of Nab2, an Egr1 and Egr2 co-repressor. These results suggest that MEK1-ERK signaling activates the Osteopontin promoter in part through Egr1 and Egr2. Finally, our histological analysis of cKOosx mice demonstrated enchondroma-like lesions in the bone marrow that are reminiscent of human metachondromatosis, a skeletal disorder caused by mutations in PTPN11. Our observations suggest that the development of enchondromas in metachondromatosis may be caused by reduced ERK MAPK signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Highly enantioselective [3+2] coupling of indoles with quinone monoimines promoted by a chiral phosphoric acid.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly enantioselective [3+2] coupling of 3-substituted indoles with quinone monoimines promoted by a chiral phosphoric acid has been reported. A large variety of benzofuroindolines were prepared in moderate to good yields (up to 98%) with generally excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee).
Related JoVE Video
Luminescence and energy transfer of tunable emission phosphor Ca2PO4Cl:Ce(3+), Mn(2+)
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of Ca2PO4Cl:Ce(3+), Mn(2+) phosphors are synthesized by a high temperature solid state reaction method, and their luminescent properties are investigated. Ca2PO4Cl:Ce(3+), Mn(2+) has an obvious absorption in the region of 300-350nm, and energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+) in Ca2PO4Cl has been validated, and proved to be a resonant type via a dipole-dipole interaction. Orange red emission intensity of Mn(2+) can be obviously enhanced via the efficient energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Mn(2+), and critical distance of energy transfer is also calculated by concentration quenching method, and about 14.1Å. The results show that Ce(3+) ion may be an available sensitizer for Ca2PO4Cl:Mn(2+), and Ca2PO4Cl:Ce(3+), Mn(2+) may have potential application in white light emitting diodes.
Related JoVE Video
Association of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene polymorphism, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis using a Mendelian randomization approach.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent randomized controlled trials have challenged the concept that increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk reduction. The causal role of HDL-C in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. To increase precision and to minimize residual confounding, we exploited the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-TaqIB polymorphism as an instrument based on Mendelian randomization.
Related JoVE Video
Fenofibrate enhances radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1? expression.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiation therapy is widely used in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Promoting radiation sensitivity is important. Recent studies have shown that fenofibrate can inhibit the growth of several cancer lines and hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) expression in MCF-7 cells. However, few studies on the radiosensitive effect of fenofibrate on ESCCs under hypoxic condition have been conducted. In this study, we assessed the radiosensitive effects of fenofibrate on human ESCC cells. In vitro experiments showed the inhibition of cytotoxic effects after ionizing irradiation. We measured cell viability and clonogenic survival rate. Flow cytometry showed that fenofibrate pretreatment promoted apoptosis. The in vivo data also suggest that fenofibrate had radiosensitizing effects in ECA-109 cells xenografted into nude mice. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the HIF-1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein content decreased by fenofibrate. Thus, the inhibition of HIF-1? and VEGF expression in ESCC cells contributed to the radiosensitive effect. These data suggest that fenofibrate may be a potential radiosensitive drug.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of N, N-dimethylformamide on oxidation or antioxidation status among occupational exposed workers].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effect of N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF) on oxidation or antioxidation status among occupational exposed workers.
Related JoVE Video
Variations in the contents of gingerols and chromatographic fingerprints of ginger root extracts prepared by different preparation methods.
J AOAC Int
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present study, an HPLC-DAD method was optimized for the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in ginger extracts. A chromatographic fingerprinting method was also established to differentiate and evaluate the ginger extracts for bioactivity. Twenty-one extracts were prepared by methods differing in ginger type (fresh versus dried), solvent, and extraction methods. The ANOVA analysis showed the methods' influence on the mean extraction yields of gingerols increased in the order of: high pressure-high temperature (HP)>blender (BD)>low pressure (LP). The optimal solvent to extract gingerols was found to be 95% ethanol. The type of ginger used had significant effects on the content of gingerols, but its overall influence depended on the solvent used. In order to maximize the extraction efficiency of gingerols, a combination of dry ginger, 95% ethanol, and the HP extraction method should be employed. The chromatographic fingerprints were obtained to differentiate the unknown components from all ginger extracts. The similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints was used to evaluate the differences among all extracts. It can be concluded that the chromatographic fingerprints are able to ensure the stability of each extract and have some correlation with the observed bioactivity.
Related JoVE Video
Development of an indirect ELISA for detection of E. Coli antibodies in cow serum using a recombinant OmpT as antigen.
J Immunoassay Immunochem
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this article was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for efficient detection of the infection of E. coli in cattle. OmpT, a highly conserved protease in all E. coli strains, was successfully expressed in E. coli XL-1-Blue strain with PET32a vector. Molecular weight of recombinant protein was identified by analyzing SDS-PAGE and the immunogenicity of OmpT was confirmed by Western Blotting. The recombinant OmpT was then employed as capture antigen in the ELISA. The antigen concentration and serum dilution were determined using a checkerboard titration. Results showed that the optimal concentration of coated antigen was 1 ?g/ml at a serum dilution of 1:640 and the cut-off value of the assay was 0.335. In addition, the cross-reactivity assay showed that the OmpT was E. coli specific and the reproducibility experiments displayed good repeatability of the assay. Three hundred and forty cattle serum samples were tested by rOmpT-ELISA and sera coagulation tests. The ELISA has showed relative sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96.47%. Results of these experiments indicated that the rOmpT-ELISA is a simple, rapid, and convenient method for detection the infection of E. coli with different serotype strains.
Related JoVE Video
Dithiothreitol-capped fluorescent gold nanoclusters: an efficient probe for detection of copper(II) ions in aqueous solution.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report here a Green method for the synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters using dithiothreitol (DTT) as both a capping agent and reducing agent at 22 °C and pH 8. The physical and chemical properties of the synthesized AuNCs@DTT were studied by TEM and UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AuNCs@DTT recognizes cupric ions with high selectivity and sensitivity, which allows this material to act as a copper(II) sensor in aqueous solution. A linear relationship was observed between the fluorescence intensity of the DTT capped gold nanoclusters and the concentration of copper(II) ions, in the range of 0-60 ?M with a detection limit of 80 nM. The copper content in serum was also analyzed by using this copper sensor. It was shown that data obtained using the proposed method was comparable to values obtained by the traditional colorimetric method. This technique represents an alternative method for the determination of serum copper in clinical diagnosis especially for those laboratories which lack expensive analytical facilities.
Related JoVE Video
Importance of cell-cell contact in the therapeutic benefits of cardiosphere-derived cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) effect therapeutic regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI) both in animal models and in humans. Here, we test the hypothesis that cell-cell contact plays a role in mediating the observed therapeutic benefits of CDCs, above and beyond conventional paracrine effects. Human CDCs or vehicle were injected into immunodeficient (SCID) mouse hearts during acute MI. CDC transplantation augmented the proportion of cycling (Ki67(+) ) cardiomyocytes and improved ventricular function. CDC-conditioned media only modestly augmented the percentage of Ki67(+) cardiomyocytes (>control but
Related JoVE Video
Dendritic cell motility and T cell activation requires regulation of Rho-cofilin signaling by the Rho-GTPase activating protein myosin IXb.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Directed migration of stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) to secondary lymphoid organs and their interaction with Ag-specific T cells is a prerequisite for the induction of primary immune responses. In this article, we show that murine DCs that lack myosin IXB (Myo9b), a motorized negative regulator of RhoA signaling, exhibit increased Rho signaling activity and downstream acto-myosin contractility, and inactivation of the Rho target protein cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor. On a functional level, Myo9b(-/-) DCs showed impaired directed migratory activity both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, despite unaltered Ag presentation and costimulatory capabilities, Myo9b(-/-) DCs were poor T cell stimulators in vitro in a three-dimensional collagen matrix and in vivo, associated with altered DC-T cell contact dynamics and T cell polarization. Accordingly, Myo9b(-/-) mice showed an attenuated ear-swelling response in a model of contact hypersensitivity. The impaired migratory and T cell stimulatory capacity of Myo9b(-/-) DCs was restored in large part by pharmacological activation of cofilin. Taken together, these results identify Myo9b as a negative key regulator of the Rho/RhoA effector Rho-kinase [Rho-associated coiled-coil-forming kinase (ROCK)]/LIM domain kinase signaling pathway in DCs, which controls cofilin inactivation and myosin II activation and, therefore may control, in part, the induction of adaptive immune responses.
Related JoVE Video
The Effects of Varicocelectomy on Testicular Arterial Blood Flow: Laparoscopic Surgery versus Microsurgery.
Urol J
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the long term effects of laparoscopic varicocelectomy (LV) and microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy (MV) on ipsilateral testicular microcirculation using Color Doppler Flow Imaging (CDFI).
Related JoVE Video
Loss of jab1 in osteochondral progenitor cells severely impairs embryonic limb development in mice.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The transcriptional cofactor Jab1 controls cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in diverse developmental processes by regulating the activity of various transcription factors. To determine the role of Jab1 during early limb development, we developed a novel Jab1(flox/flox) ; Prx1-Cre conditional Knockout (cKO) mutant mouse model in which Jab1 was deleted in the osteochondral progenitor cells of the limb buds. Jab1 cKO mutant mice displayed drastically shortened limbs at birth. The short-limb defect became apparent in Jab1 cKO mutants at E15.5 and increasingly worsened thereafter. By E18.5, Jab1 cKO mutant mice exhibited significantly shorter limbs with: very few hypertrophic chondrocytes, disorganized chondrocyte columns, much smaller primary ossification centers, and significantly increased apoptosis. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed decreased expression of Sox9, Col2a1, Ihh, and Col10a1 in Jab1 cKO mutant long bones, indicating impaired chondrogenesis. Furthermore, in a micromass culture model of early limb mesenchyme cells, alcian blue staining showed a significant decrease in chondrogenesis in Jab1 cKO limb bud cells. The expression of Sox9 and its downstream targets Col2a1 and Aggrecan, as well as BMP signaling downstream targets, Noggin, Id1, and Ihh, were significantly decreased in Jab1 cKO micromass cultures. Moreover, over-expression of SOX9 in Jab1 cKO micromass cultures partially restored Col2a1and Aggrecan expression. Jab1-deficient micromass cultures also exhibited decreased BMP signaling response and reduced BMP-specific reporter activity ex vivo. In summary, our study demonstrates that Jab1 is an essential regulator of early embryonic limb development in vivo, likely in part by co-activating Sox9 and BMP signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Adsorption of antimony onto iron oxyhydroxides: adsorption behavior and surface structure.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antimony is detected in soil and water with elevated concentration due to a variety of industrial applications and mining activities. Though antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Europe Union (EU), very little is known about its environmental behavior and adsorption mechanism. In this study, the adsorption behaviors and surface structure of antimony (III/V) on iron oxides were investigated using batch adsorption techniques, surface complexation modeling (SCM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). The adsorption isotherms and edges indicated that the affinity of Sb(V) and Sb(III) toward the iron oxides depended on the Sb species, solution pH, and the characteristics of iron oxides. Sb(V) adsorption was favored at acidic pH and decreased dramatically with increasing pH, while Sb(III) adsorption was constant over a broad pH range. When pH is higher than 7, Sb(III) adsorption by goethite and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) was greater than Sb(V). EXAFS analysis indicated that the majority of Sb(III), either adsorbed onto HFO or co-precipitated by FeCl3, was oxidized into Sb(V) probably due to the involvement of O2 in the long duration of sample preservation. Only one Sb-Fe subshell was filtered in the EXAFS spectra of antimony adsorption onto HFO, with the coordination number of 1.0-1.9 attributed to bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing ((2)E) between Sb and HFO.
Related JoVE Video
Insights into mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis from the structure of heterotetrameric 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase/3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is essential for respiratory growth in yeast and mammalian embryonic survival. The human 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (KAR) of mtFAS is a heterotetrameric ?2?2-assembly composed of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-8 (HSD17B8, ?-subunit) and carbonyl reductase type-4 (CBR4, ?-subunit). Here we provide a structural explanation for the stability of the heterotetramer from the crystal structure with NAD(+) and NADP(+) bound to the HSD17B8 and CBR4 subunits, respectively, and show that the catalytic activity of the NADPH- and ACP-dependent CBR4 subunit is crucial for a functional HsKAR. Therefore, mtFAS is NADPH- and ACP dependent, employing the 3R-hydroxyacyl-ACP intermediate. HSD17B8 assists in the formation of the competent HsKAR assembly. The intrinsic NAD(+)- and CoA-dependent activity of the HSD17B8 subunit on the 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA intermediates may indicate a role for this subunit in routing 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA esters, potentially arising from the metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids, into the mitochondrial ?-oxidation pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness of individual counseling for smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asymptomatic smokers.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have examined the effect of individual counseling for smoking cessation in China. The present study evaluated the efficacy of individual counseling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asymptomatic smokers. This prospective randomized study evaluated 85 smokers with COPD and 105 asymptomatic smokers with normal lung function. The individuals were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Subjects in the intervention group were provided with individual cognitive counseling based on face-to-face individual consultation, self-help materials and nine telephone follow-ups. Subjects in the control group were provided with simple smoking cessation advice. The smoking status for all subjects and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for COPD patients were assessed at baseline, week 4 and month 6. The COPD patient exacerbations during the 6 months were recorded. In the total study population, individual counseling resulted in higher abstinence rates compared with those in the control: Intervention vs. control, 23.4 vs. 10.4% (P=0.007), respectively. Similar results were observed in the smokers with COPD: Intervention vs. control, 40.5 vs. 18.6% (P=0.027), respectively. However, for asymptomatic smokers, the effect of individual counseling was identified to be statistically insignificant: Intervention vs. control, 9.6 vs. 3.8% (P=0.230), respectively. SGRQ scores and COPD exacerbations were significantly improved in patients who abstained from smoking compared with those in the patients who failed to stop smoking. Airway obstruction, quitting motivation and individual counseling were predictors associated with smoking cessation. Airway obstruction was the most significant predictor of smoking cessation (odds ratio, 4.215; 95% confidence interval, 2.215-7.865). The results of the present study show that individual counseling is an effective method for smoking cessation, particularly in COPD patients. However, its efficacy in asymptomatic smokers requires confirmation in further studies.
Related JoVE Video
Aliskiren-attenuated myocardium apoptosis via regulation of autophagy and connexin-43 in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are controversies about the mechanism of myocardium apoptosis in hypertensive heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among autophagy, Cx43 and apoptosis in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and establish whether Aliskiren is effective or not for the treatment of myocardium apoptosis. Twenty-one SHRs aged 52 weeks were randomly divided into three groups, the first two receiving Aliskiren at a dose of 10 and 25 mg/kg/day respectively; the third, placebo for comparison with seven Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) as controls. After a 2-month treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart to bw ratios (HW/BW%) and angiotensin II (AngII) concentration were significantly enhanced in SHRs respectively. Apoptotic cardiomyocytes detected with TUNEL and immunofluorescent labelling for active caspase-3 increased nearly fourfolds in SHRs, with a decline in the expression of survivin and AKT activation, and an increase in caspase-3 activation and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Myocardium autophagy, detected with immunofluorescent labelling for LC3-II, increased nearly threefolds in SHRs, with the up-regulation of Atg5, Atg16L1, Beclin-1 and LC3-II. The expression of Cx43 plaque was found to be down-regulated in SHRs. Aliskiren significantly reduced SBP, HW/BW%, AngII concentration and the expression of AT(1)R. Thus, Aliskiren protects myocardium against apoptosis by decreasing autophagy, up-regulating Cx43. These effects showed a dose-dependent tendency, but no significance. In conclusion, the myocardium apoptosis developed during the hypertensive end-stage of SHRs could be ameliorated by Aliskiren via the regulation of myocardium autophagy and maladaptive remodelling of Cx43.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates from surimi processing by-products.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) from surimi processing by-products, prepared by Protamex and Alcalase, were evaluated. As the DH increased, the zeta potentials of the hydrolysates increased (p>0.05). The surface hydrophobicity of the hydrolysates was significantly affected by DH (p<0.05). A wide variety of peptides were obtained after hydrolysis by Protamex and Alcalase. The hydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, contained more large protein molecules than did the others. Hydrolysis by both enzymes increased solubility to more than 65% over a wide pH range (pH 2-10). The interfacial activities of hydrolysates decreased with increasing DH (p<0.05). The hydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, exhibited the best interfacial properties among all of the samples. Thermal properties were also affected by the hydrolysis. The results reveal that structures and functionalities of the hydrolysates were determined both by DH and enzyme type employed.
Related JoVE Video
Association of natriuretic peptide polymorphisms with left ventricular dysfunction in southern Han Chinese coronary artery disease patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) occurs with myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease (CAD). The natriuretic peptide system has compensatory vasodilatory, natriuretic and paracrine effects on LVD and subsequent heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between natriuretic peptide polymorphisms and risk of LVD in CAD patients.
Related JoVE Video
Validation and comparison of EuroQoL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) and Short Form-6 dimension (SF-6D) among stable angina patients.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ObjectivesSeveral preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments have been published and widely used in different populations. However no consensus has emerged regarding the most appropriate instrument in therapeutic area of stable angina. This study compared and validated the psychometric properties of two generic preference-based instruments, the EQ-5D and SF-6D, among Chinese stable angina patients.MethodsConvergent validity of the EQ-5D and SF-6D was examined with eight a priori hypotheses from stable angina patients in conjunction with Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). Responsiveness was compared using the effect size (ES), relative efficiency (RE) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Agreement between the EQ-5D and SF-6D was tested using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot. Factors affecting utility difference were explored with multiple linear regression analysis.ResultsIn 411 patients (mean age 68.08¿±¿11.35), mean utility scores (SD) were 0.78 (0.15) for the EQ-5D and 0.68 (0.12) for the SF-6D. Validity was demonstrated by the moderate to strong correlation coefficients (Range: 0.368-0.594, P<¿0.001) for five of the eight hypotheses in both the EQ-5D and SF-6D. There were no serious floor effects for the EQ-5D and SF-6D, but ceiling effects for the EQ-5D were large. The areas under ROC of them all exceeded 0.5 (0.660-0.814, P<¿0.001). The SF-6D showed a better discriminative capacity (ES: 0.573 to 1.179) between groups with different stable-angina-specific health status than the EQ-5D (ES: 0.426 to 1.126). RE suggested that the SF-6D (RE: 44.8 to 177.8%) was more efficient than the EQ-5D except for physical function. Poor agreement between them was observed with ICC (0.448, P<¿0.001) and Bland-Altman plot analysis. Multiple liner regression showed that clinical variables significantly (P<¿0.05) influenced differences in utility scores between the EQ-5D and SF-6D.ConclusionsBoth EQ-5D and SF-6D are valid and sensitive preference-based HRQoL instruments in Chinese stable angina patients. The SF-6D may be a more effective tool with lower ceiling effect and greater sensitivity. Further study is needed to compare other properties, such as reliability and longitudinal response.
Related JoVE Video
Sirtuin SIRT6 suppresses cell proliferation through inhibition of Twist1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SIRT6 is a member of the NAD(+)-dependent class III deacetylase sirtuin family. Current studies have revealed that SIRT6 plays important roles in the epigenetic regulation of genes expression and contribute to the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cancer cells. However, the biological function of SIRT6 in lung cancer has not been elucidated. The present study showed that the mRNA and protein levels of SIRT6 were decreased in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cell lines. MTT assay showed that overexpression of SIRT6 could inhibit the proliferation in NSCLC cells. In contrast, SIRT6 knockdown using small interfering RNA promoted NSCLC cells proliferation. On the molecular level, we found that SIRT6 inhibited the expression of Twist1 both at the mRNA and protein levels in NSCLC cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated for the first time that SIRT6 suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation via down-regulation of Twist1 expression and might provide novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Chorea disclosing a polycythemia vera.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chorea is a rare complication of polycythemia. We report the case of a 70 year-old woman whose polycythemia vera (PV), with Janus Kinase-2 (JAK2) mutation, presented as chorea. Chorea resolved quickly after hydroxyurea therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Heterogeneous effect of two selectin gene polymorphisms on coronary artery disease risk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The selectins play important roles in the inflammatory process of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Previous studies have shown ambiguous findings regarding a possible association between the selectin genes and CAD. The E-selectin Ser128Arg polymorphism and the P-selectin Thr715Pro polymorphism have been investigated widely but with inconsistent results. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to shed light on this issue.
Related JoVE Video
Insights into hepatopancreatic functions for nutrition metabolism and ovarian development in the crab Portunus trituberculatus: gene discovery in the comparative transcriptome of different hepatopancreas stages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The crustacean hepatopancreas has different functions including absorption, storage of nutrients and vitellogenesis during growth, and ovarian development. However, genetic information on the biological functions of the crustacean hepatopancreas during such processes is limited. The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, is a commercially important species for both aquaculture and fisheries in the Asia-Pacific region. This study compared the transcriptome in the hepatopancreas of female P. trituberculatus during the growth and ovarian maturation stages by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing and bioinformatics. The goal was to discover genes in the hepatopancreas involved in food digestion, nutrition metabolism and ovarian development, and to identify patterns of gene expression during growth and ovarian maturation. Our transcriptome produced 303,450 reads with an average length of 351 bp, and the high quality reads were assembled into 21,635 contigs and 31,844 singlets. Based on BLASTP searches of the deduced protein sequences, there were 7,762 contigs and 4,098 singlets with functional annotation. Further analysis revealed 33,427 unigenes with ORFs, including 17,388 contigs and 16,039 singlets in the hepatopancreas, while only 7,954 unigenes (5,691 contigs and 2,263 singlets) with the predicted protein sequences were annotated with biological functions. The deduced protein sequences were assigned to 3,734 GO terms, 25 COG categories and 294 specific pathways. Furthermore, there were 14, 534, and 22 identified unigenes involved in food digestion, nutrition metabolism and ovarian development, respectively. 212 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found between the growth and endogenous stage of the hepatopancreas, while there were 382 DEGs between the endogenous and exogenous stage hepatopancreas. Our results not only enhance the understanding of crustacean hepatopancreatic functions during growth and ovarian development, but also represent a basis for further research on new genes and functional genomics of P. trituberculatus or closely related species.
Related JoVE Video
Two new triterpenoids from Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb.) Makino.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two new triterpenoids were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the roots of Ampelopsis japonica (Thunb.) Makino. Their structures were defined as 3?-trans-feruloyloxy-2?-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (1) and methyl 3?-trans-feruloyloxy-2?-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oate (2) on the basis of spectral analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Changes of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- regulatory T cells in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing surgery.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood after surgery of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. In this study, we investigated whether CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- regulatory T cells are decreased in the peripheral blood of NSCLC patients undergoing surgery. The study group (n=49) comprised NSCLC, and the control group (n=24) consisted of age- and sex-matched nonmalignant diseases. The prevalence of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs was analyzed using flow cytometry. The study group showed significantly higher percentage of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs than control. The percentage of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs increased with tumor stage. One way ANOVA test shows the significant differences between all subgroups. LSD test shows that there was a statistical significance between each of the two subgroups except stage II in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs and control vs. each stage, stage I vs. stage III, and stage IV in CD8+CD28- Tregs. There is no significant difference among stages II, III, and IV in CD8+CD28- Tregs. No differences were found between squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. These levels were dropped significantly after operation. Furthermore postoperative Treg percentage in the early stages (stage I and stage II) was not statistically different from that of controls. Postoperative Treg percentage in advanced stage (III+IV) remained above the values shown by controls. Our findings indicate that the percentage of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD8+CD28- Tregs correlated with the pathological stage in NSCLC and tumor burden.
Related JoVE Video
HSV-1 activates NF-kappaB in mouse astrocytes and increases TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression via Toll-like receptor 3.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of HSV-1 infection via TLR3 on the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB and the expression of cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in astrocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Gene SGL, encoding a kinesin-like protein with transactivation activity, is involved in grain length and plant height in rice.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A kinesin-like protein regulates grain length and plant height by affecting expression levels of genes involved in GA synthesis and response in rice Grain shape, a complex agronomic trait, plays an important role in determining yield and quality in rice. In the present study, a mutant named short grain length (sgl) was identified among explants of tissue cultured japonica variety Kita-ake. It exhibited reduced plant height (about 72 % of WT) and short grain length (about 80 % of WT). The reduced length was due to decreased cell elongation. The Short Grain Length (SGL) gene was isolated via map-based cloning and identified to encode a kinesin-like protein. SGL was expressed in the whole plant, especially in the stem and panicles. SGL was shown to have transcriptional activity. In onion epidermal cells, SGL protein was found mainly in the nucleus. Real-time PCR analyses showed that expression levels of genes involved in gibberellin metabolic pathways were affected in the sgl mutant. These data suggested that SGL protein may be involved in regulating GA synthesis and response genes, that in turn, regulates grain length and plant height.
Related JoVE Video
Downregulated long noncoding RNA MEG3 is associated with poor prognosis and promotes cell proliferation in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged recently as major players in governing fundamental biological processes, and many of which are altered in expression and likely to have a functional role in tumorigenesis. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 that encodes a lncRNA associated with various human cancers. However, its biological role and clinical significance in gastric cancer development and progression are unknown. In this study, to investigate the lncRNA MEG3 expression in gastric cancer, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted. We found that MEG3 levels were markedly decreased in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Its expression level was significantly correlated with TNM stages, depth of invasion, and tumor size. Moreover, patients with low levels of MEG3 expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, knockdown of MEG3 expression by siRNA could promote cell proliferation, while ectopic expression of MEG3 inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and modulated p53 expression in gastric cancer cell lines. By 5-aza-CdR treatment, we also observed that MEG3 expression can be modulated by DNA methylation. Our findings present that MEG3 downexpression can be identified as a poor prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer and regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of somatosensory evoked potentials between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and congenital scoliosis without neural axis abnormalities.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been documented in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with different cure severity. However, few studies investigated whether abnormal SEPs were the cause or effect of idiopathic scoliosis.
Related JoVE Video
The Connexin37 Gene C1019T Polymorphism and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-analysis.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mounting data have emerged suggesting that the Connexin37 C1019T polymorphism increases susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD). However, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. In the current study, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed to investigate whether the C1019T polymorphism is associated with CAD risk.
Related JoVE Video
Wnt Signaling is altered by spinal cord neuronal dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis transgenic mice.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. The etiology and mechanisms of selective motor neuron loss in ALS remain unknown. Wnt signaling is involved in neurodegenerative processes but little is known about the kinetic changes in Wnt signaling during ALS progression. In this study we used transcriptional microarray analysis to examine the expression of Wnt signaling components in the spinal cords of ALS transgenic SOD1(G93A) mice at different stages. We found that ALS onset led to the upregulation of Wnt signaling components and target genes involved in growth regulation and proliferation. We also determined the expression of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (Wif1) and Wnt4 in the spinal cord of ALS transgenic mice at different stages by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. The protein levels of Wif1 and Wnt4 in the spinal cords of ALS transgenic mice were upregulated compared to those in wild-type mice. Moreover, the expression of Wif1 and Wnt4 in mature GFAP+ astrocytes was increased at the end stage of ALS. Our findings demonstrate that Wnt signaling is altered by spinal cord neuronal dysfunction in adult ALS transgenic mice, which provides new insight into ALS pathogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of aqueous humor from patients with branch retinal vein occlusion-induced macular edema.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms responsible for macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) remain to be elucidated. It is known that the expression profile of certain proteins in the aqueous humor (AH) changes in some diseases. Accordingly, determining the expression of these AH proteins may aid in the understanding of their potential role in this pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the possible mechanisms involved in the development of BRVO-induced macular edema. A proteomic analysis of the AH composition in the eyes of patients with BRVO was performed and compared with that in the eyes of patients with cataract (non-BRVO; controls). AH from 6 patients with macular edema due to BRVO and 6 patients with cataract (non-BRVO) was collected. A proteomic approach which included 2?dimensional electrophoresis (2?DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics analysis were used to identify AH proteins with altered expression in patients with macular edema due to BRVO compared with the controls. An enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay was used to validate the proteomic results. The total protein concentration in the AH of patients with BRVO-induced macular edema was significantly greater than that of the controls. In the patients with BRVO, a total of 56 protein spots were significantly altered on the 2D gels. A total of 49 protein spots were identified by MS; many of these proteins have been implicated in angiogenesis, oxidative stress and collagen synthesis. In conclusion, the protein composition in AH differed significantly between the patients with BRVO and the controls. The identified proteins may be potential biomarkers for the development of macular edema due to BRVO and may play a role in the mechanisms responsible for it.
Related JoVE Video
Ligation-assisted endoscopic enucleation for the diagnosis and resection of small gastrointestinal tumors originating from the muscularis propria: a preliminary study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ligation-assisted endoscopic enucleation (EE-L) was developed for the pathological diagnosis and resection of small gastrointestinal tumors originating from the muscularis propria. The technique combines endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic enucleation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EE-L in the diagnosis and resection of gastrointestinal tumors originating from the muscularis propria.
Related JoVE Video
60-kDa Tat-interactive protein (TIP60) positively regulates Th-inducing POK (ThPOK)-mediated repression of eomesodermin in human CD4+ T cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The abundant expression of IFN? in Th-inducing POK (ThPOK)-deficient CD4(+) T cells requires the activation of Eomesodermin (Eomes); however, the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we report that ThPOK binds directly to the promoter region of the Eomes gene to repress its expression in CD4(+) T cells. We identified the histone acetyltransferase TIP60 as a co-repressor of ThPOK-target genes, where ectopically expressed TIP60 increased ThPOK protein stability by promoting its acetylation at its Lys(360) residue to then augment the transcriptional repression of Eomes. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous TIP60 abolished the stabilization of ThPOK in CD4(+) T cells, which led to the transcriptional activation of Eomes and increased production of IFN?. Our results reveal a novel pathway by which TIP60 and ThPOK synergistically suppresses Eomes function and IFN? production, which could contribute to the regulation of inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
HSV-1 activates NF-kappaB in mouse astrocytes and increases TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression via Toll-like receptor 3.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of HSV-1 infection via TLR3 on the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB and the expression of cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in astrocytes.METHODS: HSV-1-infected primary astrocytes were cultured until the third passage and the mRNA and protein levels of TLR3, NF-kappaB, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were assessed by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and Western blot. The effects of the NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and TLR3- neutralizing antibody on the expression of NF-kappaB, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 were investigated.RESULTS: Uninfected astrocytes expressed TLR3 and NF-kappaB at the mRNA and protein levels. After infection with HSV-1, the TLR3 mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated and NF-kappaB protein was highly expressed. Also, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were up-regulated. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibited NF-kappaB activation, resulting in the down-regulation of nuclear NF-kappaB protein, which led to the down-regulation of the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6. After blocking astrocyte membrane TLR3, the nuclear NF-kappaB protein expression was down-regulated and the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were increased. The antiviral functions of astrocytes were weaker, as reflected by higher HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) mRNA expression and increased HSV-1 titers.CONCLUSION: Astrocytes infected with HSV-1 can activate NF-kappaB via TLR3 so as to up-regulate the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 that have antiviral functions.
Related JoVE Video
Rational design of a thrombin electrochemical aptasensor by conjugating two DNA aptamers with G-quadruplex halves.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel strategy for the fabrication of an electrochemical aptasensor is proposed; this strategy has been employed in this work to assay thrombin concentration. Two well-designed oligonucleotides were used as the core element. G-quadruplex-hemin complexes can be formed on the surface of the electrode to give a detectable signal only when thrombin is not bound to the aptamers. The detection limit of the biosensor has been lowered to 10nM. Moreover, since the electroactive probe is not required to be bound to the oligonucleotide, this strategy may integrate the advantages of being both label-free and cost-effective.
Related JoVE Video
A second-order nonlinear optical material with a hydrated homochiral helix obtained via spontaneous symmetric breaking crystallization from an achiral ligand.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A unique supramolecular helix assisted by solvent molecules (water and DMF) is obtained from an achiral flexible V-shaped ligand, and spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in crystallization. Notably, the compound displays strong second-harmonic generation (SHG) response.
Related JoVE Video
Development and validation of a PCR-based functional marker system for the brown planthopper resistance gene Bph14 in rice.
Breed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most damaging rice pest globally. Resistant varieties are the most effective and environmental strategy for protecting the rice crop from BPH. Functional markers (FMs) designed from polymorphic sites within gene sequences affecting phenotypic variation are highly efficient when used for marker assisted selection (MAS). Bph14 is the first and only cloned insect resistance gene so far in rice. Compared to the sequences of its non-effective alleles there are a number SNP differences. In this study, the method of allele-specific amplification (ASA) was adopted to design a simple, co-dominant, functional marker Bph14P/N for Bph14. Bph14P/N was combined with two specific dominant markers: one, named Bph14P, targets the promoter region of Bph14 and amplifies 566 bp fragments; and the other, Bph14N, targets the LRR region of bph14 and amplifies 345 bp fragments. Specificity and applicability of the functional marker system were verified in two breeding populations and a Chinese mini core collection of Oryza sativa. We recommend the use of this simple, low-cost marker system in routine genotyping for Bph14 in breeding populations.
Related JoVE Video
A retrievable and highly selective fluorescent probe for monitoring dihydrogen phosphate ions based on a naphthalimide framework.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel selective fluorescent chemosensor based on naphthalimide derivatives (AN-SB) was synthesized and characterized. Once combined with Cu(2+), compound AN-SB could give rise to a visible yellow to orange color change and fluorescence quenching, while other metal ions showed subtle disturbance. The complex (AN-SB-Cu(2+)) formed by Cu(2+) and AN-SB displayed high specificity for H2PO4(-). Among the various anions, only H2PO4(-) induced the revival of color and fluorescence of AN-SB, resulting in "off-on" type sensing of H2PO4(-) anion. The signal transduction occured via reversible formation-separation of complex AN-SB-Cu(2+), however, slight changes were observed in the presence of other anions.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between the distribution of plasma HDL subclasses and the polymorphisms of APOA5 in hypertriglyceridemia.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to examine the possible associations between high density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass distribution and APOA5-1131T>C polymorphism in hypertriglyceridemia.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.