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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
CD147: regulator of hyaluronan signaling in invasiveness and chemoresistance.
Adv. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Major determinants that influence negative outcome in cancer patients are the abilities of cancer cells to resist current therapies and to invade surrounding host tissue, consequently leading to local and metastatic dissemination. Hyaluronan (HA), a prominent constituent of the tumor microenvironment, not only provides structural support but also interacts with cell surface receptors, especially CD44, that influence cooperative signaling pathways leading to chemoresistance and invasiveness. CD147 (emmprin; basigin) is a member of the Ig superfamily that has also been strongly implicated in chemoresistance and invasiveness. CD147 both regulates HA synthesis and interacts with the HA receptors, CD44, and LYVE-1. Increased CD147 expression induces formation of multiprotein complexes containing CD44 (or LYVE-1) as well as members of the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, receptor tyrosine kinase, ABC drug transporter, or monocarboxylate transporter families, which become assembled in specialized lipid raft domains along with CD147 itself. In each case, multivalent HA-receptor interactions are essential for formation or stabilization of the lipid raft complexes and for downstream signaling pathways or transporter activities that are driven by these complexes. We conclude that cooperativity between HA, HA receptors, and CD147 may be a major driver of the interconnected pathways of invasiveness and chemoresistance widely critical to malignancy.
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Emergence of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance among livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus ST9 clinical isolates.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) is a valuable alternative to vancomycin for the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, not long after Q/D was approved, bacteria with resistance to this newer antimicrobial agent were reported. To investigate the prevalence of Q/D resistance, a total of 1476 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates, including 775 MRSA, from a Chinese tertiary hospital were selected randomly from 2003 to 2013. Of the 775 MRSA, 3 (0.4%) were resistant to Q/D. All meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were susceptible to Q/D. The prevalence of Q/D resistance among S. aureus was 0.2% (3/1476). The three isolates with Q/D resistance had the same antimicrobial resistance profile, except for cefaclor and chloramphenicol. All three Q/D-resistant MRSA were positive for five streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA and msrB) and two streptogramin A resistance genes (vatC and vgaA) as determined by PCR and DNA sequencing. MRSA WZ1031 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecV-t899, whilst MRSA WZ414 and WZ480 belonged to ST9-MRSA-SCCmecNT(non-typeable)-t899. ST9 has been reported predominantly in livestock-associated (LA) MRSA in some Asian countries. The three patients with these MRSA isolates were not livestock handlers and did not keep close contact with livestock. The origin of these important LA-MRSA isolates causing human infections is not known. Taken together, Q/D resistance, which was caused by a combination of ermA-ermB-ermC-msrA-msrB-vatC-vgaA, was first found among S. aureus clinical isolates in China. The present study is the first report of the emergence of human infections caused by ST9 LA-MRSA isolates with Q/D resistance.
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Targeting xCT, a cystine-glutamate transporter induces apoptosis and tumor regression for KSHV/HIV-associated lymphoma.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which represents a rapidly progressing malignancy arising in HIV-infected patients. Conventional chemotherapy for PEL treatment induces unwanted toxicity and is ineffective--PEL continues to portend nearly 100% mortality within a period of months, which requires novel therapeutic strategies. The amino acid transporter, xCT, is essential for the uptake of cystine required for intracellular glutathione (GSH) synthesis and for maintaining the intracellular redox balance. Inhibition of xCT induces growth arrest in a variety of cancer cells, although its role in virus-associated malignancies including PEL remains unclear. In the current study, we identify that xCT is expressed on the surface of patient-derived KSHV+ PEL cells, and targeting xCT induces caspase-dependent cell apoptosis. Further experiments demonstrate the underlying mechanisms including host and viral factors: reducing intracellular GSH while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), repressing cell-proliferation-related signaling, and inducing viral lytic genes. Using an immune-deficient xenograft model, we demonstrate that an xCT selective inhibitor, Sulfasalazine (SASP), prevents PEL tumor progression in vivo. Together, our data provide innovative and mechanistic insights into the role of xCT in PEL pathogenesis, and the framework for xCT-focused therapies for AIDS-related lymphoma in future.
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Aptamer TY04 inhibits the growth of multiple myeloma cells via cell cycle arrest.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The aptamer TY04 is a single-stranded DNA. However, its biological function has not been elucidated. Here, we found that TY04 specifically bound to multiple myeloma cells MM.1S, and some membrane proteins on the surface of MM.1S cells constituted the target molecules of TY04. TY04 inhibited the growth of multiple myeloma cell lines, induced cell cycle arrest in mitosis, and resulted in a significant accumulation of binucleated cells. Following TY04 treatment, a concomitant increase in CDK1 and cyclin B1 expression occurred. In addition, TY04 treatment also resulted in a significant downregulation of ?-tubulin. Considering the unique advantages of aptamers, TY04 shows great potential as a drug candidate to treat multiple myeloma.
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Death due to fulminant neuroleptic malignant syndrome induced by low doses of haloperidol: a rare case.
J Forensic Leg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The paper reports on a rare case of fulminant neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) with several risk factors, typical manifestation and rapid death induced by low doses of haloperidol. The pathological findings, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, risk factors and other features of NMS are discussed. The importance of forensic pathologists being aware of the possibility of NMS as the cause of death in people taking antipsychotic drugs is stressed.
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Sphingosine kinase-2 maintains viral latency and survival for KSHV-infected endothelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phosphorylation of sphingosine by sphingosine kinases (SphK1 and SphK2) generates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid which promotes cancer cell survival and tumor progression in vivo. We have recently reported that targeting SphK2 induces apoptosis for human primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines infected by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and this occurs in part through inhibition of canonical NF-?B activation. In contrast, pharmacologic inhibition of SphK2 has minimal impact for uninfected B-cell lines or circulating human B cells from healthy donors. Therefore, we designed additional studies employing primary human endothelial cells to explore mechanisms responsible for the selective death observed for KSHV-infected cells during SphK2 targeting. Using RNA interference and a clinically relevant pharmacologic approach, we have found that targeting SphK2 induces apoptosis selectively for KSHV-infected endothelial cells through induction of viral lytic gene expression. Moreover, this effect occurs through repression of KSHV-microRNAs regulating viral latency and signal transduction, including miR-K12-1 which targets I?B? to facilitate activation of NF-?B, and ectopic expression of miR-K12-1 restores NF-?B activation and viability for KSHV-infected endothelial cells during SphK2 inhibition. These data illuminate a novel survival mechanism and potential therapeutic target for KSHV-infected endothelial cells: SphK2-associated maintenance of viral latency.
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Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from periodontal pathogenic bacteria facilitate oncogenic herpesvirus infection within primary oral cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains the most common tumor arising in patients with HIV/AIDS, and involvement of the oral cavity represents one of the most common clinical manifestations of this tumor. HIV infection incurs an increased risk for periodontal diseases and oral carriage of a variety of bacteria. Whether interactions involving pathogenic bacteria and oncogenic viruses in the local environment facilitate replication or maintenance of these viruses in the oral cavity remains unknown. In the current study, our data indicate that pretreatment of primary human oral fibroblasts with two prototypical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produced by oral pathogenic bacteria-lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), increase KSHV entry and subsequent viral latent gene expression during de novo infection. Further experiments demonstrate that the underlying mechanisms induced by LTA and/or LPS include upregulation of cellular receptor, increasing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activating intracellular signaling pathways such as MAPK and NF-?B, and all of which are closely associated with KSHV entry or gene expression within oral cells. Based on these findings, we hope to provide the framework of developing novel targeted approaches for treatment and prevention of oral KSHV infection and KS development in high-risk HIV-positive patients.
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Systematic analysis of a xenograft mice model for KSHV+ primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is the causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which arises preferentially in the setting of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Even with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, PEL continues to cause high mortality rates, requiring the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PEL xenograft models employing immunodeficient mice have been used to study the in vivo effects of a variety of therapeutic approaches. However, it remains unclear whether these xenograft models entirely reflect clinical presentations of KSHV(+) PEL, especially given the recent description of extracavitary solid tumor variants arising in patients. In addition, effusion and solid tumor cells propagated in vivo exhibit unique biology, differing from one another or from their parental cell lines propagated through in vitro culture. Therefore, we used a KSHV(+) PEL/BCBL-1 xenograft model involving non-obese diabetic/severe-combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice, and compared characteristics of effusion and solid tumors with their parent cell culture-derived counterparts. Our results indicate that although this xenograft model can be used for study of effusion and solid lymphoma observed in patients, tumor cells in vivo display unique features to those passed in vitro, including viral lytic gene expression profile, rate of solid tumor development, the host proteins and the complex of tumor microenvironment. These items should be carefully considered when the xenograft model is used for testing novel therapeutic strategies against KSHV-related lymphoma.
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Targeting Sphingosine Kinase Induces Apoptosis and Tumor Regression for KSHV-Associated Primary Effusion Lymphoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Sphingosine kinase (SPHK) is overexpressed by a variety of cancers, and its phosphorylation of sphingosine results in accumulation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and activation of antiapoptotic signal transduction. Existing data indicate a role for S1P in viral pathogenesis, but roles for SPHK and S1P in virus-associated cancer progression have not been defined. Rare pathologic variants of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arise preferentially in the setting of HIV infection, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a highly mortal tumor etiologically linked to the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). We have found that ABC294640, a novel clinical-grade small molecule selectively targeting SPHK (SPHK2 > SPHK1), induces dose-dependent caspase cleavage and apoptosis for KSHV(+) patient-derived PEL cells, in part through inhibition of constitutive signal transduction associated with PEL cell proliferation and survival. These results were validated with induction of PEL cell apoptosis using SPHK2-specific siRNA, as well as confirmation of drug-induced SPHK inhibition in PEL cells with dose-dependent accumulation of proapoptotic ceramides and reduction of intracellular S1P. Furthermore, we demonstrate that systemic administration of ABC294640 induces tumor regression in an established human PEL xenograft model. Complimentary ex vivo analyses revealed suppression of signal transduction and increased KSHV lytic gene expression within drug-treated tumors, with the latter validated in vitro through demonstration of dose-dependent viral lytic gene expression within PEL cells exposed to ABC294640. Collectively, these results implicate interrelated mechanisms and SPHK2 inhibition in the induction of PEL cell death by ABC294640 and rationalize evaluation of ABC294640 in clinical trials for the treatment of KSHV-associated lymphoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 1-11. ©2013 AACR.
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Emmprin and KSHV: new partners in viral cancer pathogenesis.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Emmprin (CD147; basigin) is a multifunctional glycoprotein expressed at higher levels by cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Through direct effects within tumor cells and promotion of tumor-stroma interactions, emmprin participates in induction of tumor cell invasiveness, angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance. Although its contribution to cancer progression has been widely studied, the role of emmprin in viral oncogenesis still remains largely unclear, and only a small body of available literature implicates emmprin-associated mechanisms in viral pathogenesis and tumorigenesis. We summarize these data in this review, focusing on the role of emmprin in pathogenesis associated with the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a common etiology for cancers arising in the setting of immune suppression. We also discuss future directions for mechanistic studies exploring roles for emmprin in viral cancer pathogenesis.
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Sudden twin infant death on the same day: a case report and review of the literature.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a major contributor to infant mortality. The cause of death is unknown: suggested possibilities include cardiovascular disease, anaphylactic shock, and suffocation. The occurrence of simultaneous sudden infant death syndrome is uncommon, such cases being extremely rare in forensic pathologic practice. We report two 10-week-old male twins who appeared well at the time of their evening feeding, yet died while sleeping on their backs. Both infants had petechial hemorrhages on the visceral pleura, epicardial surface of the heart, and thymus gland. Microscopic examination revealed pulmonary edema, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, and minor lymphocytic infiltration, again in both infants. In this report, we discuss the risk factors for SIDS, which should be considered individually or in combination as possible causes of death.
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Alleles of keratin 1 in families and populations.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Keratin 1 is found in the upper layers of the epidermis, on the surface of endothelial cells and in the membrane of the neuroblastoma NMB7. It is important for the structural integrity of the skin, has been found to regulate the activity of kinases, such as protein kinase C (PKC) and SRC, to participate in complement activation by the lectin pathway and to be involved in fibrinolysis, angiogenesis and the response to oxidative stress. Studies of the polymorphisms of the Keratin 1 (KRT1) gene have been driven mostly by interest in its role in skin diseases. However, much of the KRT1 variation occurs in normal populations and is not associated with dermal pathology. In the present experiments, we have investigated the polymorphism of KRT1 genes by nucleotide sequencing in normal families and normal populations of European, African, Hispanic and Asian background. The frequencies of the KRT1 alleles were strikingly different in the four ethnic groups and most of the mutations resulted in amino acid substitutions, with only 3 out of 19 being synonymous. Analysis of selective neutrality by the Ewens-Watterson and Tajima D statistics showed that KRT1 allele homozygosity was decreased in three of the populations suggesting that KRT1 genes may be under the influence of balancing selection. It is possible that the role of KRT1 as a receptor, rather than its structural function in the epidermis, is what drives the selective forces that are apparent in the inheritance of this gene.
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Identification of endothelial cell surface antigens encoded by genes other than HLA. A combined immunoprecipitation and proteomic approach for the identification of antigens recognized by antibodies against endothelial cells in transplant recipients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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It has been known for some time that transplant recipients may have antibodies to endothelial cells which are not detected on lymphocytes. However, little progress has been made in the analysis of these endothelial antigens. In the present experiments we have attempted to characterize endothelial cell surface antigens to which antibodies were produced during graft rejection. We have used a panel of endothelial cells from umbilical cord veins and found that antibodies with a polymorphic pattern in the panel appeared to correlate with transplant failure of kidney allografts and with the development of transplant-related coronary artery disease (TCAD) in heart transplant recipients. Among 39 patients with kidney allografts, 21 were negative for antibodies to endothelial cells and did well and 18 were positive and had frequent transplant loss (p=0.001). In 18 patients with TCAD and 20 patients of a comparator group without TCAD, association of coronary disease with endothelial cell antibodies was observed (p<0.02). To characterize the endothelial antigens responsible for these serologic reactions we performed immunoprecipitation of reactive antibodies with the corresponding endothelial cell surface antigens, followed by protein identification of the target antigens. Nine proteins were identified in these experiments, 5 were non-polymorphic and appeared to represent autoantigens. Four of the isolated proteins appeared to be polymorphic. They were the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA), already known to be associated with antibody production and graft failure, human keratin 1, a protein known to be polymorphic and expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, eukaryotic translation initiation factor (EIF) 2A and ErbB3-binding protein 1. The possible role of keratin 1 and the other antigens in allograft rejection requires further investigation.
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Blunt liver injury with intact ribs under impacts on the abdomen: a biomechanical investigation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s). Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance.
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Emergence of blaNDM-1 among Klebsiella pneumoniae ST15 and novel ST1031 clinical isolates in China.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The emergence of NDM-1 has become established as a major public health threat and represents a new and major challenge in the treatment of infectious diseases. A total of 39 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from patients receiving care at 5 teaching hospitals in Jiangxi province, central China, were analyzed for carriage of resistance genes, including bla(NDM-1). Two carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (NC12 and NC18) were found to harbor bla(NDM-1). In addition to bla(NDM-1), NC12 also carried bla(SHV-1), while NC18 harbored additional resistance genes, including bla(SHV-12), bla(CTX-M-14), armA and bla(TEM-1). NC12 and NC18 belonged to ST15 and novel ST1031 and were clonally unrelated. Carbapenem resistance for NC12 could be transferred to Escherichia coli recipients through conjugation and chemical transformation, while carbapenem resistance for NC18 was only transferred to E. coli recipients by chemical transformation. The EcoR1-digested DNA pattern of plasmids from the transformants of NC12 was identical to that for NC18. Taken together, this is the first report of bla(NDM-1) carriage by K. pneumoniae clinical isolates in mainland China, indicating that bla(NDM-1) is disseminated among Enterobacteriaceae in China. Systemic surveillance should focus on the dissemination of bla(NDM-1) among Gram-negative clinical isolates, especially some major clones, such as K. pneumoniae ST15 which is a major clone among CTX-M-15-producing isolates.
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Expression of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin mRNA among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Associates with Specific Clinical Presentations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL; gene designation lukF/S-PV) is likely an important virulence factor for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), as qualitative expression of the protein correlates with severity for specific clinical presentations, including skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Development of genetic approaches for risk-assessment of patients with S. aureus infections may prove clinically useful, and whether lukF/S-PV gene expression correlates with specific clinical presentations for S. aureus has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we quantified lukS-PV mRNA among 96 S. aureus isolates to determine whether expression levels correlated with specific clinical presentations in adults and children. Expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among isolates from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) was significantly greater than among isolates from blood stream infection (BSIs), and expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among BSI isolates from children was significantly greater than for BSI isolates among adults. Moreover, expression level of lukS-PV mRNA among community-acquired (CA) isolates was significantly greater than for hospital-acquired (HA) isolates. These data justify additional studies to determine the potential clinical utility for lukS-PV mRNA quantification as a predictive tool for severity of S. aureus infection.
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Antibodies against nucleolin in recipients of organ transplants.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Patients who reject allografts frequently make strong antibody responses against donor human leukocyte antigens and autoantigens such as vimentin, collagen V, or alpha-tubulin and it has been postulated that autoantibodies may play a role in allograft failure.
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Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induces a functional tumor-associated phenotype for oral fibroblasts.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), the most common HIV/AIDS-associated tumor worldwide. Involvement of the oral cavity portends a poor prognosis for patients with KS, but mechanisms for KSHV regulation of the oral tumor microenvironment are largely unknown. Infiltrating fibroblasts are found with KS lesions, and KSHV establishes latent infection within human primary fibroblasts in vitro, but contributions for KSHV-infected fibroblasts to the KS microenvironment have not been previously characterized. Secretion of pro-migratory factors and intratumoral invasion are characteristics of tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) found in the microenvironment of non-viral malignancies. In the present study, we show that latent KSHV infection of primary human fibroblasts isolated from the oral cavity enhances their secretion of KS-promoting cytokines and intrinsic invasiveness through VEGF-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, we find that KSHV induces these effects through Sp1- and Egr2-dependent transcriptional activation of the Extracellular Matrix MetalloPRoteinase INducer (emmprin). These data implicate KSHV activation of emmprin in the induction of a "TAF-like" phenotype for oral fibroblasts in the KS microenvironment and support the potential utility of targeting TAFs and/or emmprin in the treatment of oral KS.
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Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.
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KSHV activation of VEGF secretion and invasion for endothelial cells is mediated through viral upregulation of emmprin-induced signal transduction.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS)-one of the most common tumors arising in the setting of immune suppression. Hallmarks of KS lesions include KSHV-infected cells of endothelial lineage and neoangiogenesis. Promigratory factors secreted in the tumor microenvironment by KSHV-infected cells promote endothelial cell (EC) migration and angiogenesis but existing therapies targeting these pathways are not widely utilized. This underscores the need for additional characterization of KSHV-host interactions relevant to EC pathogenesis to identify new therapeutic targets. We recently demonstrated that de novo infection by KSHV promotes EC invasion through upregulation of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (emmprin)-a multifunctional glycoprotein previously shown to induce tumor cell invasion and regional angiogenesis through upregulation of signal transduction and promotion of tumor-stroma interactions. This study was undertaken to determine whether EC invasion for KSHV-infected cells is induced through activation of specific signal transduction pathways and proangiogenic factors by emmprin. We found that KSHV activation of emmprin induces PI3K/Akt- and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Functionally, EC invasion following de novo infection is induced by emmprin-dependent PI3K/Akt and MAPK activation of VEGF. These findings support the potential utility of targeting emmprin for reducing VEGF secretion and EC migration in the KS microenvironment.
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Interactions between Hsp90 and oncogenic viruses: implications for viral cancer therapeutics.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Oncogenic viruses are the etiologic agents for a significant proportion of human cancers, but effective therapies and preventative strategies are lacking for the majority of virus-associated cancers. Targeting of virus-induced signal transduction or virus-host protein interactions may offer novel therapeutic strategies for viral cancers. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a well-characterized, multifunctional molecular chaperone involved in regulation of signal transduction, transcriptional activation, oncogenic protein stabilization, and neovascularization-pathogenic elements relevant to viral cancer pathogenesis. This review will summarize mechanistic concepts involving regulation of viral oncogenesis by both intracellular and extracellular Hsp90, as well as current therapeutic implications of these data.
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Extracellular Hsp90 serves as a co-factor for NF-?B activation and cellular pathogenesis induced by an oncogenic herpesvirus.
Am J Cancer Res
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS)-the most common tumor associated with HIV infection and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. The majority of patients with KS exhibit little or no clinical response to existing therapies. The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) family of transcription factors plays a critical role in facilitating cancer pathogenesis associated with oncogenic viruses, and a better understanding of how cellular factors regulate NF-?B activation in the context of KSHV infection may facilitate development of new therapies for KS. Existing data implicate heat shock protein-90 associated with the cell surface (csHsp90) as a co-factor in cancer cell migration and invasion, and we recently reported that csHsp90 serves as a co-factor for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation during de novo KSHV infection. However, whether csHsp90 regulates NF-?B activation, or cellular pathogenesis associated with KS, has not been established. We have found that csHsp90 serves as an important co-factor for canonical NF-?B activation by KSHV during de novo infection of primary human cells relevant to KS. Furthermore, our correlative functional studies reveal that csHsp90 inhibition suppresses KSHV-induced, NF-?B-dependent secretion of the pro-migratory factors interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor as well as invasiveness for primary cells following de novo infection. These data implicate csHsp90 in KSHV-mediated activation of NF-?B and associated pathogenesis, and support the potential utility of targeting csHsp90 as a therapeutic approach for KS.
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High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates from pediatric patients with diarrhea in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%), tetracycline (80.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%), chloramphenicol (66.1%), cefotaxime (27.4%). Forty-nine (79.0%) of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for bla(TEM-1b) and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0%) were positive for bla(CTX-M-1-group) and bla(CTX-M-9-group), and all isolates harboring bla(CTX-M) genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of bla(CTX-M-55) within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates.
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Synergistic effect of hyperthermia and neferine on reverse multidrug resistance in adriamycin-resistant SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) plays a major obstacle to successful gastric cancer chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MDR reversal effect and mechanisms of hyperthermia in combination with neferine (Nef) in adriamycin (ADM) resistant human SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells. The MDR cells were heated at 42°C and 45°C for 30 min alone or combined with 10 ?g/mL Nef. The cytotoxic effect of ADM was evaluated by MTT assay. Cellular plasma membrane lipid fluidity was detected by fluorescence polarization technique. Intracellular accumulation of ADM was monitored with high performance liquid chromatography. Mdr-1 mRNA, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ?H2AX expression and ?H2AX foci formation were determined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemical staining respectively. It was found that different heating methods induced different cytotoxic effects. Water submerged hyperthermia had the strongest cytotoxicity of ADM and Nef combined with hyperthermia had a synergistic cytotoxicity of ADM in the MDR cells. The water submerged hyperthermia increased the cell membrane fluidity. Both water submerged hyperthermia and Nef increased the intracellular accumulation of ADM. The water submerged hyperthermia and Nef down-regulated the expression of mdr-1 mRNA and P-gp. The water submerged hyperthermia could damage DNA and increase the ?H2AX expression of SGC7901/ADM cells. The higher temperature was, the worse effect was. Our results show that combined treatment of hyperthermia with Nef can synergistically reverse MDR in human SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells.
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Regulation of Nm23-H1 and cell invasiveness by Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS), and the induction of an invasive cellular phenotype by KSHV following de novo infection is an important pathogenic component mediating tumor progression. The metastasis suppressor gene known as Nm23-H1 regulates tumor cell invasiveness, but whether KSHV itself regulates Nm23-H1 expression or subcellular localization, and whether this impacts cell invasiveness, has not been established. We found that KSHV increases expression and nuclear translocation of Nm23-H1 and that nuclear translocation of Nm23-H1 is regulated by the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). Moreover, activation of the Ras-BRaf-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signal transduction pathway, secretion of promigratory factors associated with this pathway, and cell invasiveness are dependent on KSHV regulation of Nm23-H1. Finally, induction of cytoplasmic overexpression of Nm23-H1 using a pharmacologic inhibitor of DNA methylation reduced KSHV-associated Ras-BRaf-MAPK pathway activation and suppressed KSHV-induced invasiveness. These data provide the first evidence for KSHV regulation of Nm23-H1 as a mechanism for KSHV induction of an invasive cellular phenotype and support the potential utility of targeting Nm23-H1 as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of KS.
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Direct activation of emmprin and associated pathogenesis by an oncogenic herpesvirus.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Emmprin (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) is a multifunctional glycoprotein expressed by cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Through both direct effects within tumor cells and promotion of tumor-stroma interactions, emmprin induces tumor cell invasiveness and regional angiogenesis. The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a common etiology for cancers arising in the setting of immune suppression, including Kaposis sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma. However, whether emmprin expression and function are regulated by KSHV or other oncogenic viruses in the tumor microenvironment to promote viral cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells support latent KSHV infection and represent cellular components of Kaposis sarcoma lesions. Therefore, we used primary human fibroblasts and endothelial cells to determine whether KSHV itself regulates emmprin expression, and whether KSHV-emmprin interactions mediate cell invasiveness. We found that KSHV promotes fibroblast and endothelial cell invasiveness following de novo infection through the upregulation of emmprin, and that this effect is mediated by the KSHV-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen. We also found that emmprin promotes invasiveness, as well as colony formation, by primary effusion lymphoma cells derived from human tumors. Collectively, these data implicate KSHV activation of emmprin as an important mechanism for cancer progression and support the potential utility of targeting emmprin as a novel therapeutic approach for KSHV-associated tumors.
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Extracellular Hsp90 serves as a co-factor for MAPK activation and latent viral gene expression during de novo infection by KSHV.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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The Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS), an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. KSHV interaction with the cell membrane triggers activation of specific intracellular signal transduction pathways to facilitate virus entry, nuclear trafficking, and ultimately viral oncogene expression. Extracellular heat shock protein 90 localizes to the cell surface (csHsp90) and facilitates signal transduction in cancer cell lines, but whether csHsp90 assists in the coordination of KSHV gene expression through these or other mechanisms is unknown. Using a recently characterized non-permeable inhibitor specifically targeting csHsp90 and Hsp90-specific antibodies, we show that csHsp90 inhibition suppresses KSHV gene expression during de novo infection, and that this effect is mediated largely through the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by KSHV. Moreover, we show that targeting csHsp90 reduces constitutive MAPK expression and the release of infectious viral particles by patient-derived, KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. These data suggest that csHsp90 serves as an important co-factor for KSHV-initiated MAPK activation and provide proof-of-concept for the potential benefit of targeting csHsp90 for the treatment or prevention of KSHV-associated illnesses.
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Upregulation of xCT by KSHV-encoded microRNAs facilitates KSHV dissemination and persistence in an environment of oxidative stress.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Upregulation of xCT, the inducible subunit of a membrane-bound amino acid transporter, replenishes intracellular glutathione stores to maintain cell viability in an environment of oxidative stress. xCT also serves as a fusion-entry receptor for the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the causative agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS). Ongoing KSHV replication and infection of new cell targets is important for KS progression, but whether xCT regulation within the tumor microenvironment plays a role in KS pathogenesis has not been determined. Using gene transfer and whole virus infection experiments, we found that KSHV-encoded microRNAs (KSHV miRNAs) upregulate xCT expression by macrophages and endothelial cells, largely through miR-K12-11 suppression of BACH-1-a negative regulator of transcription recognizing antioxidant response elements within gene promoters. Correlative functional studies reveal that upregulation of xCT by KSHV miRNAs increases cell permissiveness for KSHV infection and protects infected cells from death induced by reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Interestingly, KSHV miRNAs simultaneously upregulate macrophage secretion of RNS, and biochemical inhibition of RNS secretion by macrophages significantly reduces their permissiveness for KSHV infection. The clinical relevance of these findings is supported by our demonstration of increased xCT expression within more advanced human KS tumors containing a larger number of KSHV-infected cells. Collectively, these data support a role for KSHV itself in promoting de novo KSHV infection and the survival of KSHV-infected, RNS-secreting cells in the tumor microenvironment through the induction of xCT.
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Pivotal advance: Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded microRNA specifically induce IL-6 and IL-10 secretion by macrophages and monocytes.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Macrophages are an important source of inflammatory cytokines generated during the innate immune response,but in the microenvironment of certain tumors,macrophages promote tumor progression through their preferential secretion of cytokines that support tumor cell growth and suppress antitumoral immune responses. KSHV is the causative agent of KS and lymphomas preferentially arising in immuno compromised patients, and specific cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-10, have been implicated in KSHV-associated cancer pathogenesis. However, the contribution of KSHV-infected macrophages to the cytokine milieu within KSHV-related tumors is unclear. We found that individual KSHV-encoded miRNA induce IL-6 and IL-10 secretion independently and additively by murine macrophages and human myelomonocytic cells. Bioinformatics analysis identified KSHV miRNA binding sites formiR-K12-3 and miR-K12-7 within the 3UTR of the basic region/leucine zipper motif transcription factor C/EBPbeta, a known regulator of IL-6 and IL-10 transcriptional activation.Subsequent immunoblot analyses revealed that miR-K12-3 and miR-K12-7 preferentially reduce expression of C/EBPbeta p20 (LIP), an isoform of C/EBPbeta known to function as a negative transcription regulator. In addition,RNA interference specifically targeting LIP induced basal secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 by macrophages.Taken together, these data support a role for KSHV miRNA in the programming of macrophage cytokine responses in favor of KSHV-related tumor progression.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products inhibit staphylococcal growth, and disrupt established biofilms produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Multiple bacterial species often coexist as communities, and compete for environmental resources. Here, we describe how an opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses extracellular products to interact with the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. S. epidermidis biofilms and planktonic cultures were challenged with P. aeruginosa supernatant cultures overnight. Results indicated that quorum-sensing-controlled factors from P. aeruginosa supernatant inhibited S. epidermidis growth in planktonic cultures. We also found that P. aeruginosa extracellular products, mainly polysaccharides, disrupted established S. epidermidis biofilms. Cellulase-treated P. aeruginosa supernatant, and supernatant from pelA, pslF and pelApslBCD mutants, which are deficient in polysaccharide biosynthesis, diminished the disruption of S. epidermidis biofilms. In contrast, S. epidermidis supernatant in overnight cultures had no effect on established P. aeruginosa biofilms and planktonic growth. These findings reveal that P. aeruginosa extracellular products are important microbial competition factors that overcome competition with S. epidermidis, and the results may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for controlling S. epidermidis biofilms.
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Organic compounds inhibiting S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation.
Ultramicroscopy
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2009
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The formation of biofilms on surfaces of indwelling medical devices is a serious medical problem. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen found to colonize implanted devices and as a biofilm is more resistant to the host immune system as well as to antibiotic treatments. Combating S. epidermidis infections by preventing or eradicating biofilm formation of the bacterium is therefore a medically important challenge. We report here a study of biofilm formation of S. epidermidis on solid surfaces using a combination of confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both air and aqueous environments. We have investigated the inhibitory effects of surfaces treated with four organic compounds, two benzoate derivatives denoted as compound 59 and 75 and two carboxamide derivatives denoted as compound 47 and 73, on S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. All four compounds evoke significant inhibitory effects on the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms with compounds 47 and 73 being most effective. None of the compounds were found to inhibit growth of S. epidermidis in liquid cultures. Bacteria attached to the substrate when exposed to the compounds were not affected indicating that these compounds inhibit initial adhesion. These results suggest a pretreatment for medically implanted surfaces that can prevent the biofilm formation and reduce infection.
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Polymorphisms of MICA recognized by human alloantibodies.
Immunogenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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MICA antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins expressed on the surface of human endothelial cells and other cells. Antibodies against MICA have been found in transplant recipients and were found to be associated with decreased survival of kidney allografts. In the present work, we investigated the polymorphisms that are recognized by antibodies against MICA. Soluble MICA recombinant proteins representing 11 common alleles, two hybrid alleles, and two single amino acid mutated alleles were produced. Patterns of reactivity were determined with MICA bound to Luminex beads. In some studies, sera containing antibodies against MICA were absorbed by cell lines transfected with MICA*001, MICA*002, MICA*008, and MICA*009 or with untransfected cells, followed by testing of antibody reactivity against MICA proteins bound to beads. The monoclonal antibodies and sera used in this study were found to recognize up to 14 distinct MICA epitopes as demonstrated by their differential absorption/reactivity patterns. Among these, nine epitopes correlated with a single unique amino acid: one shared two signature amino acids, one shared three signature amino acids in close proximity, and three epitopes involved multiple amino acids in a nonlinear sequence. Two groups of public epitopes (MICA-G1 and MICA-G2) were characterized. MICA shared epitopes were determined by reactivity loss in single MICA antigen bead assays by absorption with MICA transfectants. Since these epitopes may be targets for antibody binding and possibly antibody-mediated allograft rejection, epitope identification may help understand the development of MICA antibodies and to identify suitable donors for sensitized transplant recipients.
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The emerging issue of MICA antibodies: antibodies to MICA and other antigens of endothelial cells.
Contrib Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes the HLA class I antigens expressed on the surface of most nucleated cells and the HLA class II antigens which are expressed mostly in B lymphocytes, monocytes and dendritic cells. Mismatched HLA antigens are the main source of the immune response that leads to the rejection of allografts. In some patients however, rejection may occur without a detectable response to donor HLA antigens. We have been interested in characterizing antibodies that develop in transplant recipients who do not appear to have antibodies against HLA. For this purpose, we focused our attention to antigens which are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and are not found on peripheral blood lymphocytes. These include the MICA and MICB antigens, which are encoded by loci in the MHC; certain autoantigens expressed on the endothelium; and a family of polymorphic antigens expressed on endothelial cells which are distinct from HLA and elicit production of antibodies that appear also to be associated with graft failure. Antibodies against MICA have been associated with allograft rejection. MICB antibodies are only rarely found. The autoantibodies and the endothelial specific alloantibodies are being characterized in ongoing studies.
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Sudden Unexpected Death due to Chiari Type I Malformation in a Road Accident Case.
J. Forensic Sci.
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This case concerns a sudden death of a patient with Chiari I malformation. A 17-year-old female was seen unconscious then fell off a motorbike during the vehicle acceleration. The girl was confirmed dead on the way to hospital, being previously asymptomatic and with a clean medical record. Autopsy findings showed an extremely extra-long cerebellar tonsillar herniation in the left side and unexplained multiple small cavities in cerebral hemispheres. Microscopic findings revealed loss and abnormal migration of the Purkinje cells, as well as capillary congestion in the herniated tonsil. The cause and mechanisms of this sudden death are considered as the cardiopulmonary dysfunction and arrest resulted from compression of the medulla and cervical cord, which was induced by both the positional insult and minor head trauma. In addition, this study stresses the importance of cervical cord examination in the case of unexpected sudden death following road accidents.
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Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus suppression of DUSP1 facilitates cellular pathogenesis following de novo infection.
J. Virol.
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Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposis sarcoma (KS), and KSHV activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) initiates a number of key pathogenic determinants of KS. Direct inhibition of signal transduction as a therapeutic approach presents several challenges, and a better understanding of KSHV-induced mechanisms regulating MAPK activation may facilitate the development of new treatment or prevention strategies for KS. MAPK phosphatases, including dual-specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP1), negatively regulate signal transduction and cytokine activation through MAPK dephosphorylation or interference with effector molecule binding to MAPKs, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We found that ERK-dependent latent viral gene expression, the induction of promigratory factors, and cell invasiveness following de novo infection of primary human endothelial cells are in part dependent on KSHV suppression of DUSP1 expression during de novo infection. KSHV-encoded miR-K12-11 upregulates the expression of xCT (an amino acid transporter and KSHV fusion/entry receptor), and existing data indicate a role for xCT in the regulation of 14-3-3?, a transcriptional repressor of DUSP1. We found that miR-K12-11 induces endothelial cell secretion of promigratory factors and cell invasiveness through upregulation of xCT-dependent, 14-3-3?-mediated suppression of DUSP1. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments revealed that pharmacologic upregulation of DUSP1 inhibits the induction of promigratory factors and cell invasiveness during de novo KSHV infection. These data reveal an indirect role for miR-K12-11 in the regulation of DUSP1 and downstream pathogenesis.
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Virulence gene profiling and molecular characterization of hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bloodstream infection.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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A better understanding of virulence gene profiling and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bloodstream infection (BSI) may provide further insights related to clinical outcomes with these infections. We analyzed 89 S. aureus isolates including 37 MRSA isolates (41.6%) recovered from 89 adult patients with BSI from 4 hospitals in Zhejiang province, eastern China. Thirty-five (94.6%) of MRSA isolates and 4 (7.7%) of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. All isolates harbored at least 2 of 22 possible virulence genes, including sdrC (92.1%), icaA (89.9%), hla (80.9%), clf (69.7%), sea (68.5%), sdrD (67.4%), hlb (67.4%), sdrE (65.2%), sei (51.7%), seg (50.6%), and cna (50.6%). Forty-four (49.4%) of all S. aureus BSI isolates, including 23 (62.2%) of MRSA isolates, harbored ?10 of the virulence genes evaluated in this study. Sixteen (43.2%) MRSA isolates and 5 (9.6%) MSSA isolates harbored the gene encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Collective genes for pvl, sdrE, sed, seg, and sei among MRSA isolates were significantly more frequent relative to MSSA isolates (P < 0.05). A total of 22 sequence types (STs), including novel ST2184, ST2199, and ST2200, and 33 spa types, including novel spa types t9530 and t9532, were identified among S. aureus BSI isolates, among which ST188 (15.7%) and ST7 (15.7%), and t091 (12.4%) and t189 (12.4%), seldom noted for Chinese isolates previously, were major STs and spa types, respectively. In contrast to previous reports, no predominant clones were found in the present study. Among the MRSA isolates, although ST239-MRSA-SCCmecIII, predominant clone in China, still represented the most common clone, it only accounted for 18.9%. However, ST188-MRSA- SCCmecIV seldom reported before accounted for 10.8%. Among the MSSA isolates, ST7-MSSA represented the most common clone (23.1%), followed by ST188-MSSA and ST630-MSSA (9.6% each). In conclusion, simultaneous carriage of multiple virulence genes and genetically considerable diversity were common among S. aureus BSI isolates. Furthermore, MRSA isolates exhibited more frequent carriage of superantigen genes and pvl relative to MSSA isolates. Taken together, there are distinctive virulence gene profiling and molecular characteristic among S. aureus isolates associated with bloodstream infection in China.
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Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from indwelling catheters exhibit enhanced biofilm dispersal and "self-renewal" through downregulation of agr.
BMC Microbiol.
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In recent years, Staphylococcus epidermidis ( Se) has become a major nosocomial pathogen and the most common cause of infections of implanted prostheses and other indwelling devices. This is due in part to avid biofilm formation by Se on device surfaces. However, it still remains unknown that how the process of Se biofilm development is associated with relapsed infection in such patients.
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KSHV-Encoded MicroRNAs: Lessons for Viral Cancer Pathogenesis and Emerging Concepts.
Int J Cell Biol
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The human genome contains microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs that orchestrate a number of physiologic processes through regulation of gene expression. Burgeoning evidence suggests that dysregulation of miRNAs may promote disease progression and cancer pathogenesis. Virus-encoded miRNAs, exhibiting unique molecular signatures and functions, have been increasingly recognized as contributors to viral cancer pathogenesis. A large segment of the existing knowledge in this area has been generated through characterization of miRNAs encoded by the human gamma-herpesviruses, including the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Recent studies focusing on KSHV miRNAs have led to a better understanding of viral miRNA expression in human tumors, the identification of novel pathologic check points regulated by viral miRNAs, and new insights for viral miRNA interactions with cellular ("human") miRNAs. Elucidating the functional effects of inhibiting KSHV miRNAs has also provided a foundation for further translational efforts and consideration of clinical applications. This paper summarizes recent literature outlining mechanisms for KSHV miRNA regulation of cellular function and cancer-associated pathogenesis, as well as implications for interactions between KSHV and human miRNAs that may facilitate cancer progression. Finally, insights are offered for the clinical feasibility of targeting miRNAs as a therapeutic approach for viral cancers.
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Outbreak of pulmonary infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates harbouring blaIMP-4 and blaDHA-1 in a neonatal intensive care unit in China.
J. Med. Microbiol.
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Outbreaks caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae producing carbapenemases and other ?-lactamases have been reported. Four neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a Chinese hospital developed respiratory infection while receiving intensive care. In all four cases, multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae was isolated from multiple respiratory specimens, leading to additional characterization of these organisms and investigation of the local environment in the NICU. Multiple ?-lactamase genes, including bla(TEM-1), bla(IMP-4), bla(DHA-1) and bla(CTX-M-14), as well as the quinolone resistance gene qnrB4, were harboured by transferable plasmids from all four clinical isolates. Furthermore, PFGE confirmed that three of the four clinical isolates from the patients and three K. pneumoniae isolates collected from the hands of health-care workers and an incubator in the NICU belonged to the same PFGE cluster, indicating that an outbreak due to multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae carrying bla(IMP-4) and bla(DHA-1) occurred in this NICU. As far as is known, this is the first report of the co-existence of bla(IMP-4) and bla(DHA-1) in the same K. pneumoniae isolate. These data suggest that additional precautions are needed to prevent outbreaks of infection caused by multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae resulting from environmental exposure in NICUs.
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