Virulence gene profiling and molecular characterization of hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bloodstream infection.
A better understanding of virulence gene profiling and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with bloodstream infection (BSI) may provide further insights related to clinical outcomes with these infections. We analyzed 89 S. aureus isolates including 37 MRSA isolates (41.6%) recovered from 89 adult patients with BSI from 4 hospitals in Zhejiang province, eastern China. Thirty-five (94.6%) of MRSA isolates and 4 (7.7%) of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. All isolates harbored at least 2 of 22 possible virulence genes, including sdrC (92.1%), icaA (89.9%), hla (80.9%), clf (69.7%), sea (68.5%), sdrD (67.4%), hlb (67.4%), sdrE (65.2%), sei (51.7%), seg (50.6%), and cna (50.6%). Forty-four (49.4%) of all S. aureus BSI isolates, including 23 (62.2%) of MRSA isolates, harbored ?10 of the virulence genes evaluated in this study. Sixteen (43.2%) MRSA isolates and 5 (9.6%) MSSA isolates harbored the gene encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Collective genes for pvl, sdrE, sed, seg, and sei among MRSA isolates were significantly more frequent relative to MSSA isolates (P < 0.05). A total of 22 sequence types (STs), including novel ST2184, ST2199, and ST2200, and 33 spa types, including novel spa types t9530 and t9532, were identified among S. aureus BSI isolates, among which ST188 (15.7%) and ST7 (15.7%), and t091 (12.4%) and t189 (12.4%), seldom noted for Chinese isolates previously, were major STs and spa types, respectively. In contrast to previous reports, no predominant clones were found in the present study. Among the MRSA isolates, although ST239-MRSA-SCCmecIII, predominant clone in China, still represented the most common clone, it only accounted for 18.9%. However, ST188-MRSA- SCCmecIV seldom reported before accounted for 10.8%. Among the MSSA isolates, ST7-MSSA represented the most common clone (23.1%), followed by ST188-MSSA and ST630-MSSA (9.6% each). In conclusion, simultaneous carriage of multiple virulence genes and genetically considerable diversity were common among S. aureus BSI isolates. Furthermore, MRSA isolates exhibited more frequent carriage of superantigen genes and pvl relative to MSSA isolates. Taken together, there are distinctive virulence gene profiling and molecular characteristic among S. aureus isolates associated with bloodstream infection in China.