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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rhabdomyosarcoma: Current Challenges and Their Implications for Developing Therapies.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents a rare, heterogeneous group of mesodermal malignancies with skeletal muscle differentiation. One major subgroup of RMS tumors (so-called "fusion-positive" tumors) carries exclusive chromosomal translocations that join the DNA-binding domain of the PAX3 or PAX7 gene to the transactivation domain of the FOXO1 (previously known as FKHR) gene. Fusion-negative RMS represents a heterogeneous spectrum of tumors with frequent RAS pathway activation. Overtly metastatic disease at diagnosis is more frequently found in individuals with fusion-positive than in those with fusion-negative tumors. RMS is the most common pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma, and approximately 60% of all children and adolescents diagnosed with RMS are cured by currently available multimodal therapies. However, a curative outcome is achieved in <30% of high-risk individuals with RMS, including all those diagnosed as adults, those diagnosed with fusion-positive tumors during childhood (including metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors), and those diagnosed with metastatic disease during childhood (including fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors). This white paper outlines current challenges in RMS research and their implications for developing more effective therapies. Urgent clinical problems include local control, systemic disease, need for improved risk stratification, and characterization of differences in disease course in children and adults. Biological challenges include definition of the cellular functions of PAX-FOXO1 fusion proteins, clarification of disease heterogeneity, elucidation of the cellular origins of RMS, delineation of the tumor microenvironment, and identification of means for rational selection and testing of new combination therapies. To streamline future therapeutic developments, it will be critical to improve access to fresh tumor tissue for research purposes, consider alternative trial designs to optimize early clinical testing of candidate drugs, coalesce advocacy efforts to garner public and industry support, and facilitate collaborative efforts between academia and industry.
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Fas signaling promotes chemoresistance in gastrointestinal cancer by up-regulating P-glycoprotein.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Fas signaling promotes metastasis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and EMT acquisition has been found to cause cancer chemoresistance. Here, we demonstrated that the response to chemotherapy of GI cancer patients with higher expression of FasL was significantly worse than patients with lower expression. Fas-induced activation of the ERK1/2-MAPK pathway decreased the sensitivity of GI cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and promoted the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). FasL promoted chemoresistance of GI cancer cell via upregulation of P-gp by increasing ?-catenin and decreasing miR-145. ?-catenin promoted P-gp gene transcription by binding with P-gp promoter while miR-145 suppressed P-gp expression by interacting with the mRNA 3'UTR of P-gp. Immunostaining and qRT-PCR analysis of human GI cancer samples revealed a positive association among FasL, ?-catenin, and P-gp, but a negative correlation between miR-145 and FasL or P-gp. Altogether, our results showed Fas signaling could promote chemoresistance in GI cancer through modulation of P-gp expression by ?-catenin and miR-145. Our findings suggest that Fas signaling-based cancer therapies should be administered cautiously, as activation of this pathway may not only lead to apoptosis but also induce chemoresistance.
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Comparison of clinical outcomes of Chinese men and women after coronary stenting for coronary artery disease: a multi-center retrospective analysis of 4,334 patients.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The outcome differences between Chinese male and female patients within one-year follow-up after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent remain unclear. The present study was aimed to compare clinical outcomes in such two populations. From May 1999 to December 2009, 4,334 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina, stable angina, or silent ischemia, who underwent PCI, were registered at our centers. Among these, 3,089 were men and 1,245 were women. We compared these groups with respect to the primary outcomes of MI and secondary outcomes including a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including cardiac death, MI, target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization (TVR), stent thrombosis (ST), definite ST and probable ST at one-year follow-up. Chinese male patients had a higher MACE rate (13% vs. 10.7%, P ?=? 0.039), mainly led by TVR (9.09% vs. 6.98%, P?=?0.024) at one year, which was significantly different than female patients. Chinese male and female patients showed a significant difference on MACEs. However, there was no significant difference with respect to MI between these groups.
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Bevacizumab Treatment for Acute Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Accompanied by Subretinal Hemorrhage.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in the treatment of acute (<3 months [mo]. duration) macular edema (ME), with or without subretinal hemorrhage (SRH), resulting from branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 33 consecutive patients (n?=?33 eyes) with ME caused by acute BRVO. All patients received an injection of IVB at baseline examination. All patients were followed monthly, with administration of additional IVB injections if there was persistent or recurrent ME. Specific patterns of ME were investigated using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results: SD-OCT revealed serous retinal detachments in the fovea of 15 eyes, 10 of which had accompanying foveal SRH. Based on initial detection of foveal SRH, patients were divided into SRH-negative (n?=?23 eyes) or SRH-positive (n?=?10 eyes) groups. Initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) did not differ between the two groups. In the SRH-negative group, both BCVA and central macular thickness (CMT) improved significantly after IVB injections (mean, 2.3 injections) at the 6-mo. follow-up examination. In the SRH-positive group, there was no significant improvement in BCVA after IVB injections (mean, 2.0 injections), although there was a significant decrease in CMT. The final BCVA of the SRH-positive group was significantly poorer than that of the SRH-negative group (p?=?0.001). Conclusion: The presence of foveal SRH may be a negative predictor of IVB treatment outcomes for BRVO patients with ME.
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Promoting the Recovery of Injured Liver with Poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-3-Hydroxyvalerate-Co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate) Scaffolds Loaded with Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Cell-based therapies are major focus of current research for treatment of liver diseases. In this study, mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs). Results confirmed that WJ-MSCs isolated in this study could express the typical MSC-specific markers and be induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. They could also be induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBVHHx) is a new member of polyhydroxyalkanoate family and biodegradable polyester produced by bacteria. PHBVHHx scaffolds showed much higher cell attachment and viability than the other polymers tested. PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs were transplanted into liver-injured mice. Liver morphology improved after 30 days of transplantation and looked similar to normal liver. Concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin were significantly lower, and albumin was significantly higher on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that liver had similar structure of normal liver lobules and similar size and shape of normal hepatic cells, and Masson staining demonstrated that liver had less blue staining for collagen after 30 days of transplantation. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of the bile duct epithelial cell gene CK-19 in mouse liver is significantly lower on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group than in the CCl4 group. Real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group. Real-time RT-PCR also demonstrated that WJ-MSCs in scaffolds expressed endothelial cell genes Flk-1, vWF, and VE-cadherin on days 14 and 30 in the WJ-MSCs+scaffold group, indicating that WJ-MSCs also differentiated into endothelial-like cells. These results demonstrated that PHBVHHx scaffolds loaded with WJ-MSCs significantly promoted the recovery of injured liver and could be further studied for liver tissue engineering.
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Identification of a Novel NHS Mutation in a Chinese Family with Nance-Horan Syndrome.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To identiy the disease causing mutation in a Chinese family presenting with early-onset cataract and dental anomalies. Materials and Methods: A specific Hereditary Eye Disease Enrichment Panel (HEDEP) (personalized customization by MyGenostics, Baltimore, MD) based on targeted exome capture technology was used to collect the protein coding regions of 30 early-onset cataract associated genes, and high throughput sequencing was done with Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The identified variant was confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Results: A novel deletion in exon 4 (c.852delG) of NHS gene was identified; the identified 1?bp deletion altered the reading frame and was predicted to result in a premature stop codon after the addition of twelve novel amino acid (p.S285PfsX13). This mutation co-segregated in affected males and obligate female carriers, but was absent in 100 matched controls. Conclusions: Our findings broaden the spectrum of NHS mutations causing Nance-Horan syndrome and phenotypic spectrum of the disease in Chinese patients.
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Variant recurrent risk among stroke patients with different CYP2C19 phenotypes and treated with clopidogrel.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract Polymorphisms of CYP2C19 have been associated with variant risk of subsequent cardiovascular events in survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) receiving clopidogrel. This study evaluated the impacts of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on stroke recurrence and other vascular events in a cohort of Chinese patients receiving clopidogrel. From Nanjing Stroke Registry Program, 625 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled between May 2008 and April 2010. CYP2C19 variants (*2, *3, and *17) were genotyped. Clinical outcomes were determined with three monthly follow-up. The primary endpoint was a composite of vascular death, non-fatal ischemic stroke, and non-fatal MI. The second endpoint was bleeding events. The median exposure to clopidogrel was 13.2 (interquartile range, 8.9-18.0) months. Primary endpoint was observed in 85 (13.6%) patients and secondary endpoint in 13 (2.1%) patients. Frequencies of CYP2C19*1, *2, *3, and *17 alleles were 61.2, 34.0, 3.8, and 1.0%, respectively, in this patient cohort. CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele (*2 and *3, LOF) carriers were observed with higher risk of subsequent vascular events compared with non-carriers (17.2 versus 8.1%, HR?=?2.16, 95% CI: 1.31-3.56, p?=?0.003). After adjusted for age, sex, major cardiovascular risk factors, and drug agent, CYP2C19 LOF carrier was independently associated with primary endpoint (HR?=?2.31, 95% CI: 1.39-3.84, p?=?0.001). No significant association between CYP2C19 gain-of-function (*17, GOF) and clinical events was detected. In Chinese stroke survivors treated with clopidogrel, carriers of CYP2C19 LOF allele may have increased risk of recurrence.
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MicroRNA-182 drives metastasis of primary sarcomas by targeting multiple genes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Metastasis causes most cancer deaths, but is incompletely understood. MicroRNAs can regulate metastasis, but it is not known whether a single miRNA can regulate metastasis in primary cancer models in vivo. We compared the expression of miRNAs in metastatic and nonmetastatic primary mouse sarcomas and found that microRNA-182 (miR-182) was markedly overexpressed in some tumors that metastasized to the lungs. By utilizing genetically engineered mice with either deletion of or overexpression of miR-182 in primary sarcomas, we discovered that deletion of miR-182 substantially decreased, while overexpression of miR-182 considerably increased, the rate of lung metastasis after amputation of the tumor-bearing limb. Additionally, deletion of miR-182 decreased circulating tumor cells (CTCs), while overexpression of miR-182 increased CTCs, suggesting that miR-182 regulates intravasation of cancer cells into the circulation. We identified 4 miR-182 targets that inhibit either the migration of tumor cells or the degradation of the extracellular matrix. Notably, restoration of any of these targets in isolation did not alter the metastatic potential of sarcoma cells injected orthotopically, but the simultaneous restoration of all 4 targets together substantially decreased the number of metastases. These results demonstrate that a single miRNA can regulate metastasis of primary tumors in vivo by coordinated regulation of multiple genes.
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Psychometric properties of a chinese version of the duke university religion index in college students and community residents in china.
Psychol Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Summary.-A Chinese version of the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was developed and the psychometric properties were assessed. The study was conducted in two separate samples of 1,285 college students and 2,564 community residents. To assess test-retest reliability, the DUREL was re-administered after 1 wk. to 105 college students and 199 community residents. In both samples, three factors were extracted using principal components factor analysis with Promax rotation, which is consistent with the scale content. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable. Test-retest ICCs ranged from .45 to .89 in college students and .75 to .93 in community residents. The Chinese version of the DUREL is a useful measure of religiosity in Mandarin-speaking populations.
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Notable epigenetic role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Atherosclerosis is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors. There is an increasing body of evidences to indicate that epigenetic mechanisms also play an essential role in atherogenesis by influencing gene expression. Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid formed during methionine metabolism. Elevated plasma level of homocysteine is generally termed as hyperhomocysteinemia. As a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, hyperhomocysteinemia may initiate or motivate atherogenesis by modification of DNA methylation. The underlying epigenetic mechanism is still unclear with controversial findings. This review focuses on epigenetic involvement and mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis. Considering the potential beneficial effects of anti-homocysteinemia treatments in preventing atherosclerosis, further studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis are warranted.
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Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in women referred for colposcopic examination in Beijing.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin, and oropharynx. This study investigated the prevalence of infection by 37 HPV genotypes among women of the Beijing area in China. Cervical specimens from 1,082 patients and 165 healthy controls were tested for HPV genotypes using a chip hybridization assay. Based on the local pathology, patients were divided into cervicitis and cervical lesion groups. Overall HPV infection rates were 30.5% for the cervicitis group and 78.4% for the cervical lesion group; whereas infection rates for high-risk HPV types (i.e., those associated with cervical cancers) were 24.0% and 73.4%, respectively. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV 52, 16, 81, 58, and 18 in healthy controls, HPV 52, 61, 55, 16, and 53 in those with cervicitis, HPV 52, 16, 33, 39, and 58 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, HPV 16, 58, 31, 52, and 33 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or grade 3, and HPV 16, 33, 18, 52, and 58 in cervical cancer. Established high-risk HPV showed two peaks, in patients aged 30-34 and 55-79 years. In Beijing, HPV 16, 52, 58, and 33 are the most prevalent HPV types in women with cervical lesions, which should affect development of a cervical cancer vaccination for local use.
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The Association between Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Different Ethnic Minority Groups in China.
Int J Alzheimers Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The association, in different ethnic groups, of apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been unclear. Few studies have examined the association in Chinese minorities. The current study explores the association between apoE gene polymorphism and MCI in one of the biggest ethnic groups-the Hui-and compares it with the Han. The Minimental State Exam, Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 306 ethnic Hui and 618 ethnic Han people aged ?55 years. ApoE genotypes were determined using the high resolution melting curve method. The distribution of the apoE genotype and the frequency of alleles ?2, ?3, and ?4 were similar in the Hui and Han groups. In analyses adjusted for age, gender, and education level, the ?4 allele was a risk factor for MCI in both the Hui group (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.02-6.66) and the Han group (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.19-4.67), but the apoE ?2 allele was protective for MCI only in the Han group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.38-0.88). The association of some apoE genotypes with MCI may differ in different ethnic groups in China. Further studies are needed to explore this effect among different populations.
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PRKCH 1425G/A Polymorphism Predicts Recurrence of Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Population.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a nonsynonymous SNP (1425G/A) in PRKCH which was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine whether this functional polymorphism is associated with stroke onset and prognosis in a Chinese population. We genotyped PRKCH 1425G/A using Improved Multiple Ligase Detection Reaction in 919 patients with ischemic stroke. Analyses of genotype association with onset and prognosis outcomes were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards models. PRKCH 1425G/A was not associated with age of stroke onset (P?=?0.323). However, this functional polymorphism was significantly associated with risk of stroke recurrence in recessive models (hazard ratio [HR]?=?2.23; 95 % confidential interval [CI], 1.06 to 4.68; P?=?0.014), and this effect was more predominant among smokers (HR?=?3.67; 95 % CI, 1.47-9.18; P?=?0.005). Moreover, the variant genotypes of PRKCH 1425G/A are an independent prognostic factor for ischemic stroke in the final multivariate Cox regression model. Our findings show that PRKCH 1425G/A may be a useful biomarker for predicting the recurrence of ischemic stroke.
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Epigenetic silencing of miRNA?9 is correlated with promoter?proximal CpG island hypermethylation in gastric cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Silencing of protein?coding tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by CpG island hypermethylation is a common occurrence in gastric cancer (GC). Here, we examine if tumor suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs) are silenced in a similar manner. Real?time quantitative PCR (RTQ?PCR) was employed to investigate the expression level of four candidate miRNAs in GC tissues (n=30) and cell lines. Basing on RTQ?PCR results and bioinformatics approach, miR?9 was chosen for further study on epigenetic regulation. Bisulfite genomic sequencing PCR (BSP) was performed to assess the methylation status of miR?9 in GC tissues. In both GC cell lines and animal models, demethylation was performed either by treatment with 5?aza?2'?deoxycytidine (5?AZA?CdR) or by siRNA targeting DNMT1. We also analyzed the relationship between miRNAs and several clinicopathological features. Candidate miRNAs (miR?9, miR?433, miR?19b, and miR?370) were found strongly downregulated in GC tissues and cell lines. Their expression was increased following 5?AZA?CdR treatment. CpG island methylation of miR?9 was significantly higher in GC tissues compared to normal controls. After two demethylation treatments, miR?9 methylation degree was significantly decreased and miR?9 expression was ob-viously restored in GC cells and animal models. Deregulation of miR?9 was positively correlated with tumor lesion size. Three other miRNAs, miR?19b, miR?433, and miR?370 were ass?ciated with lymph node metastasis, decreased curvature, and poorly differentiated carcinoma. miR?19b and miR?433 were positively correlated with male gender. Of four candidate miRNAs downregulated in GC, miR?9 is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation both in vitro and in vivo.
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Phase I trial of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine with modified oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (m-FOLFOX6) in Chinese patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary efficacy of concurrent hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine (FUDR) and systemic modified oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (m-FOLFOX6) in Chinese patients with unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.
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Genomic sequence analysis and biological characteristics of a rescued clone of avian leukosis virus strain JS11C1, isolated from indigenous chickens.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The strain JS11C1, a member of a putative new subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV) that is different from all six known subgroups from chickens based on Gp85 amino acid sequence comparison, was isolated from Chinese native chicken breeds in 2012. In order to further study the genome structure, biological characteristics, and the evolutionary relationship of the virus with others of known subgroups from infected chickens, we determined the complete genome sequence, constructed an infectious clone of ALV strain JS11C1, and performed comparative analysis using the whole genome sequence or elements with that of other ALVs available in GenBank. The results showed that the full-length sequence of the JS11C1 DNA provirus genome was 7707 bp, which is consistent with a genetic organization typical of a replication-competent type C retrovirus lacking viral oncogenes. The rescued infectious clone of JS11C1 showed similar growth rate and biological characteristics to its original virus. All the comparison analyses based on whole genomes support the opinion that the new isolates are relatively distantly related to any known subgroups of ALVs and might be classified as a new subgroup.
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Isolation, identification, and gp85 characterization of a subgroup A avian leukosis virus from a contaminated live Newcastle Disease virus vaccine, first report in China.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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To identify if any exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) exists in a live vaccine of poultry according to the directives of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, a live vaccine strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was neutralized using an anti-NDV antibody, and was subsequently used to inoculate DF-1 cells to investigate the presence of exogenous ALV. The DF-1 cells were cultured for 21 d and subsequently screened using an ELISA for the p27 antigen of the ALV. An exogenous ALV, designated ALV-NDVP4, was identified. The nucleotide sequence of the gp85 gene of the ALV-NDVP4 was compared with those of the various subgroups of the ALV. The amino acid sequence identities for the predicted gp85 of the ALV-NDVP4 and those of the ALV reference strains ranged from 88.2 to 99.5% for the 12 of the subgroup A strains of ALV (ALV-A) and from 82.7 to 87.4% for the B, C, D, and E subgroup strains. The amino acid sequence identities for the gp85 of the ALV-NDVP4 and those of the subgroup J reference strains ranged from 48.7 to 49.9%. The ALV-NDVP4 shared the highest level of homology with the SDAU09C3 strain of ALV-A, which was isolated in China, suggesting a common origin. This is the first report of ALV-A contamination in a live vaccine for poultry in China. Our findings highlight the need for improved monitoring methods for poultry vaccine production.
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Quantitative analysis of dietary protein intake and stroke risk.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To perform a meta-analysis of prospective studies to evaluate the relation between dietary protein intake and stroke risk.
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Synergetic effects of subgroup J avian leukosis virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus co-infection on growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P<0.05). Chickens inoculated with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower weights than chickens in all other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two single infection groups and co-infection group (P>0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.
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The molecular mechanism of curcumol on inducing cell growth arrest and apoptosis in Jurkat cells, a model of CD4? T cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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CD4(+) T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) express growth signaling pathway in association with deregulated growth and resistance to apoptosis. The janus kinase (Jak) 3 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway play a critical role in interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced CD4(+) T cell proliferation. The present study aimed to explore the anti-cell proliferation mechanism of curcumol, a pure monomer extracted from Chinese medical plant Rhizoma curcumae. Cell proliferation was determined using WST-1 assay after curcumol treatment. The cell cycle distribution and Bcl-2 protein expression were assessed by flow cytometry. The cellular morphology of apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining. The expressions of phosphorylated-Jak3 (p-Jak3), p-STAT3, and p-STAT5a following IL-2 stimulation were determined by western blot analysis. The Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay was used to detect the DNA binding activities of transcription factors STAT3 and STAT5. The study results showed that curcumol could inhibit the IL-2-induced Jurkat cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in vitro. Curcumol could cause cell cycle arrest at the S phase, induce cell apoptosis, and inhibit the expression of Bcl-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumol at 50?g/mL and Jak3 inhibitor ZM39923 could inhibit the phosphorylation of Jak3 and STAT5a. In conclusion, the underlying mechanism of curcumol on suppressing CD4(+) T cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis might partly be mediated by inhibition of Jak3-STAT5-related molecular activities and Bcl-2 expression, respectively; further studies are required in vivo to test the use of curcumol as a promising therapeutic option for RA.
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A Quantitative Assessment of the Association Between 1425G/A Polymorphism in PRKCH and Risk of Stroke.
Neuromolecular Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Previous studies suggested an association between 1425G/A polymorphism in PRKCH and stroke risk, but the results were inconsistent. To obtain a more precise estimation, we carried out a meta-analysis to analyze the effect of 1425G/A SNP in PRKCH on stroke risk. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WANFANG Data for all eligible case-control studies through April 2014. The odds ratios (ORs), together with the 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), were calculated to evaluate the strength of association between 1425G/A SNP and stroke risk. Overall, seven eligible studies involving a total of 4,574 cases and 5,471 controls were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that the variant genotypes of 1425G/A polymorphism in PRKCH were significantly associated with a higher risk of stroke in all genetic models (GA vs. GG: OR 1.35, 95 % CI 1.24-1.47, P < 0.001; AA vs. GG: OR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.24-1.82, P < 0.001; GA/AA vs. GG: OR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.26-1.49, P < 0.001; AA vs.
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Effect of the addition of six antioxidants on sperm motility, membrane integrity and mitochondrial function in red seabream (Pagrus major) sperm cryopreservation.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The present study was to evaluate the effects of six antioxidants on frozen-thawed sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and mitochondrial function in red seabream (Pagrus major) by computer-assisted sperm analysis system and flow cytometry, respectively. All the parameters tested in this study were determined using one-way ANOVA and identified using the SNK test (P < 0.05). The results demonstrated that on the first day, the highest motility and longevity occurred in 100 mM trehalose (78.34 ± 3.41 %, 29 ± 4.00 days) and 50 mM taurine (77.46 ± 1.54 %, 29.33 ± 4.04 days), followed by 25 mM vitamin C (79.03 ± 5.37 %, 17 ± 1.00 days), 25 mM vitamin E (69.64 ± 1.64 %, 27.67 ± 1.53 days) and 25 mM vitamin A (78.89 ± 2.81 %, 9.33 ± 1.53 days), which were all higher than frozen-thawed sperm without antioxidant (control) (66.80 ± 5.55, 5.67 ± 1.15 days). Especially, the percentages of class A sperm with the addition of 100 mM trehalose (40.39 ± 5.20 %) and 50 mM taurine (37.78 ± 3.22 %) were significantly improved compared to the control (19.63 ± 5.44 %). The viability of all groups on the third and sixth day showed a similar trend. Moreover, during the 4 °C storage process, the decrease of frozen-thawed sperm motility was closely associated with the decrease in membrane integrity and mitochondrial function. In conclusion, the present study indicated that antioxidant (100 mM trehalose and 50 mM taurine) provided the most pronounced protective effect in improving frozen-thawed quality of red seabream sperm. The addition of antioxidant may be capable of scavenging the ROS generated during the cryopreservation process and 4 °C storage.
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Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of (e)-3,4-dihydroxystyryl aralkyl sulfones and sulfoxides as novel multifunctional neuroprotective agents.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Novel (E)-3,4-dihydroxystyryl aralkyl sulfones and sulfoxides were designed and synthesized as new analogues of 1, which showed interesting multifunctional neuroprotective effects, including antioxidative and antineuroinflammatory properties. Specifically, target compounds display excellent potency in scavenging reactive free radicals and demonstrate potent effects against various kinds of toxicities, including H2O2, 6-hydroxydopamine, and lipopolysaccharide in different types of neuronal cells. The antioxidative properties of the target compounds are more potent than that of 1, and the antineuroinflammatory properties are less strong than that of 1. According to the parallel artificial membrane permeation assay for the blood-brain barrier, target compounds possess greater blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability than 1. In short, due to improvement of the antioxidative effect, stability, and BBB permeability, (E)-3,4-dihydroxystyryl aralkyl sulfones and sulfoxides can thus be considered as potential multifunctional neuroprotective agents and serve as new lead candidates in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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[Clinicopathological analysis of 61 patients with rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To explore the clinicopathological characteristics, efficacy, and prognostic factors for patients with rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST).
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[Role of molecular subtypes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors in a clinical setting].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GIST) are known for their molecular alterations in KIT or PDGFR genes, and have become the paradigm of molecularly targeted therapies for solid tumors. Recent researches of genotype and phenotype demonstrate that molecular subtypes can predict the response to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and are related with prognosis. Different strategies will be recommended according to different molecular subtypes of GIST in the future for treatment optimization and individualization.
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Comparative transcriptional activity of five promoters in BAC-cloned MDV for the expression of the hemagglutinin gene of H9N2 avian influenza virus.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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On the basis of recent studies, much attention has been given to recombinant MDV (rMDV)-based vaccines. During the construction of rMDV, the activity of promoters to transcribe foreign genes is one of the major factors that can affect protective efficacy. To investigate the transcription activity and efficacy of five different promoters, the advantage of an existing rMDV BAC infectious clone that had been previously constructed was used to construct rMDVs. The expression cassette of the hemagglutinin gene (HA) from a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H9N2 strain was inserted into the US2 region under five selected promoters. These five promoters included three MDV endogenous promoters (the promoter for the gB gene and a bi-directional promoter in both directions for pp38 (ppp38) and 1.8 kb RNA transcripts (p1.8 kb)), and two exogenous promoters (CMV and SV40). Among these five promoters, the CMV promoter demonstrated the highest activity, followed by p1.8 kb and SV40, which had a similar transcriptional activity level. Two of the MDV endogenous promoters showed much lower transcriptional activities, particularly the promoter ppp38, which had the lowest activity. The results of the in vivo experiment proved that none of the three recombinant viruses of rGX-CMV-HA, rGX-SV40-HA and rGX-p1.8kb-HA provided protection in SPF chickens. Chickens vaccinated with rGX-pPP38-HA induced 50% and rGX-gB-HA induced 25% protection against the challenge with H9N2, respectively.
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[A cross-sectional survey on behavior problems among eco-migrant children of Hui and Han in Ningxia, China].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To investigate the detection rate and correlates of behavioral problems among eco-migrant children in Hui and Han ethnicities.
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Human Error Data Collection and Comparison with Predictions by SPAR-H.
Risk Anal.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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There is a scarcity of empirical data on human error for human reliability analysis (HRA). This situation can increase the variability and impair the validity of HRA outcomes in risk analysis. In this work, a microworld study was used to investigate the effects of performance shaping factors (PSFs) and their interrelationships and combined effects on the human error probability (HEP). The PSFs involved were task complexity, time availability, experience, and time pressure. The empirical data obtained were compared with predictions by the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Method (SPAR-H) and data from other sources. The comparison included three aspects: (1) HEP, (2) relative effects of the PSFs, and (3) error types. Results showed that the HEP decreased with experience and time availability levels. The significant relationship between task complexity and the HEP depended on time availability and experience, and time availability affected the HEP through time pressure. The empirical HEPs were higher than the HEPs predicted by SPAR-H under different PSF combinations, showing the tendency of SPAR-H to produce relatively optimistic results in our study. The relative effects of two PSFs (i.e., experience/training and stress/stressors) in SPAR-H agreed to some extent with those in our study. Several error types agreed well with those from operational experience and a database for nuclear power plants (NPPs).
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Human serum inhibits adhesion and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Candida albicans can form biofilms on intravenous catheters; this process plays a key role in the pathogenesis of catheter infections. This study evaluated the effect of human serum (HS) on C. albicans biofilm formation and the expression of adhesion-related genes in vitro. A C. albicans laboratory strain (ATCC90028) and three clinical strains were grown for 24 h in RPMI 1640 supplemented with HS or RPMI 1640 alone (as a control). The growth of biofilm cells of four strains was monitored by a Live Cell Movie Analyzer, and by XTT reduction assay. The expression of the adhesion-related genes BCR1, ALS1, ALS3, HWP1 and ECE1 was analyzed by RT-PCR at three time points (60 min, 90 min, and 24 h).
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Transcriptional activity comparison of different sites in recombinant Marek's disease virus for the expression of the H9N2 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin gene.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Over the last two decades, much attention has been paid to MDV-vectored recombinant vaccines. Many factors have influenced their protective efficacy, and insertion site has been among the main influential factors for the expression of foreign genes in recombinant Marek's disease virus (rMDV). To compare the transcriptional activity of different sites of rMDV, an H9N2 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin gene (AIV-H9N2-HA) expression cassette that used the bi-directional promoter of serotype 1 MDV (MDV1) in the 1.8kb RNA transcript direction (p1.8kb) as a promoter was inserted into 4 different regions of MDV using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector and FLP/FRT recombination technique. The insertion regions included 3 of its own sites (US2, US10 and one of Meq genes) in the MDV genome and a foreign site (gpt gene) in the BAC vector. Quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyze and compare the H9N2-HA expression levels of these different rMDVs both at the mRNA level and at the protein level. The results indicated that among the four tested insertion regions, the HA expression cassette in the US2 region demonstrated the highest activity, followed by that in the Meq region, which was almost equal to that of US10. Further, the expression cassette had the lowest activity in the foreign region gpt gene. The above data could be useful for choosing proper recombinant insertion regions in the construction of rMDV to express different foreign genes, and it is a prerequisite for developing effective MDV-vectored recombinant vaccines.
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Distinct lineage-dependent structural and functional organization of the hippocampus.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The hippocampus, as part of the cerebral cortex, is essential for memory formation and spatial navigation. Although it has been extensively studied, especially as a model system for neurophysiology, the cellular processes involved in constructing and organizing the hippocampus remain largely unclear. Here, we show that clonally related excitatory neurons in the developing hippocampus are progressively organized into discrete horizontal, but not vertical, clusters in the stratum pyramidale, as revealed by both cell-type-specific retroviral labeling and mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM). Moreover, distinct from those in the neocortex, sister excitatory neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 region of the hippocampus rarely develop electrical or chemical synapses with each other. Instead, they preferentially receive common synaptic input from nearby fast-spiking (FS), but not non-FS, interneurons and exhibit synchronous synaptic activity. These results suggest that shared inhibitory input may specify horizontally clustered sister excitatory neurons as functional units in the hippocampus.
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Enhancement of skin wound healing with decellularized scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and epidermal growth factor.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Current therapy for skin wound healing still relies on skin transplantation. Many studies were done to try to find out ways to replace skin transplantation, but there is still no effective alternative therapy. In this study, decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments, and scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested for their effect on wound healing. MTT assay showed that EGF increased NIH3T3 cell viability and confirmed that EGF used in this study was biologically active in vitro. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that HA stably attached to scaffolds even after soaking in PBS for 48h. ELISA assay showed that HA increased the adsorption of EGF to scaffolds and sustained the release of EGF from scaffolds. Animal study showed that the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF recovered best among all 4 groups and had wound healing rates of 49.86%, 70.94% and 87.41% respectively for days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery compared to scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 29.26%, 42.80% and 70.14%. In addition, the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF alone were smaller than no EGF scaffolds on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining confirmed these results by showing that on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF than scaffolds alone. In addition, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF than scaffolds alone. Skin appendages were observed on day 20 only in the wound covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF. These results demonstrate that the scaffolds containing HA and EGF can enhance wound healing.
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Liposomes containing recombinant gp85 protein vaccine against ALV-J in chickens.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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To study the potential of liposome vaccines in the clinical prevention of ALV-J, the effect of recombinant gp85 protein of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) entrapped by liposomes in chickens against ALV-J infection was investigated in this paper. A recombinant plasmid (PET28a-gp85) containing the PET28a vector and gp85 gene was constructed and then expressed in Rosetta (DE3) cells with 0.5mM IPTG to produce recombinant gp85 proteins that could be entrapped by liposomes through reverse-phase evaporation. The chickens were inoculated intramuscularly either once or twice with the liposomes or with Freund's adjuvant emulsion containing recombinant gp85 protein. Sixty chickens were raised to one week old for the first inoculation and to three weeks old for the second inoculation. Chickens raised to five weeks old were challenged with a 10(2.4) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of ALV-J. Blood samples were collected from each chicken at weekly intervals for serum antibody and viremia analyses. Changes in serum antibodies showed that positive serum antibodies (S/P value >0.6) could be induced in all groups regardless of the frequency of inoculation but improved significantly in the twice-inoculated groups. As well, high levels of antibodies emerged earlier in the Freund's adjuvant groups but persisted longer in the liposome groups. Detection of viremia indicated that the liposomes provide better protection against ALV-J than Freund's adjuvant emulsion and that this protection is directly influenced by serum antibody levels. Overall, this study reveals the potential of liposome vaccines containing recombinant gp85 protein in the clinical prevention of ALV-J.
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Association of heme oxygenase-1 gene rs2071746 polymorphism with vascular outcomes in patients with atherosclerotic stroke.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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As an inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO), HO-1 was suggested to have an anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effect. It was regarded as an important cytoprotective enzyme. We undertook this study to investigate whether HO-1 gene rs2071746 polymorphism was associated with clinical outcomes in atherosclerosis ischemic stroke patients. Between December 2009 and October 2012, consecutive atherosclerosis ischemic stroke patients were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the composite of vascular death, nonfatal ischemic stroke and myocardial infarct. A total of 961 patients were enrolled. After an average follow-up of 15.13 (SD=7.42) months, 89 patients (9.26%) had the primary endpoint. The cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint was significantly lower in A carriers (AT+AA) than TT genotype (7.9% vs. 12.2%, HR=0.648, 95% CI: 0.425-0.988, P=0.044). After adjustment for age, sex and other cardiovascular risk factors, we found that A carrier was an independent protective factor for atherosclerosis ischemic stroke (HR=0.646, 95% CI: 0.420-0.994, P=0.047). Age (HR=1.023, P=0.028) and low level of HDL (HR=1.772, P=0.012) were independent risk factors for the primary endpoint. In conclusion, HO-1 gene rs2071746 A allele carrier might be a protective factor for patients with atherosclerotic stroke.
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Generation and evaluation of avian leukosis virus subgroup J envelope glycoprotein recombinant pseudovirions.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Retroviral and lentiviral vector pseudotypes (based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) have been used for stable and safe gene transfer because of their broad host ranges and high mechanical strength. In the present study, a recombinant avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) polypeptide pseudotyped with lentivirus membrane glycoproteins gp85 and gp37, HIV/env-ALV, was generated, characterized in vitro and evaluated for its ability to infect natural host cells. We optimized the newly developed micro-neutralization (MN) assay using recombinant pseudovirion HIV/env-ALV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein and well-characterized sera from chickens with confirmed ALV-J disease or virus-free controls. HIV/env-ALV could infect CEF and DF-1 but not pk15, 293FT, MDCK or VERO E6 cells, therefore demonstrating a cellular tropism similar to the wild-type ALV-J. The MN assay indicated that the IC50 values of positive sera offered a considerable advantage in both speed and accuracy. These results suggest that this pseudotyped lentivirus is a good model for studying the functions of ALV-J env and that the MN assay is a reliable serological method for assessing antibody levels in investigating the actual status of the current ALV-J epidemic. These recombinant pseudovirions may prove to be useful for studying ALV-J biology in lower biosafety level laboratory environments, and also for the detection and quantification of neutralizing antibodies to ALV-J in a manner akin to ELISA assays, but that would also be applicable to other viruses.
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Influence of interleukin-28B polymorphism on progression to hepatitis virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Genetic variation of interleukin-28B (IL-28B) rs12979860 T/C polymorphism is associated with the immune response to interferon (IFN) therapy, which is applied in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). These chronic liver diseases could progress to end-stage liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to clarify whether there exists a causal association between IL-28B rs12979860 T/C polymorphism and development of HCC. In a meta-analysis of six studies with 850 cases and 811 controls, we summarized the data on the association between IL-28B rs12979860 T/C polymorphism and HCC risk and calculated ORs and 95 % CIs to estimate the association strength. We observed that IL-28B rs12979860 T/C polymorphism was positively associated with overall HCC risk (TT vs. CC: OR?=?2.38; 95 %, 1.60-3.55; TT vs CT?+?CC: OR?=?1.79; 95 %, 1.23-2.60). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, the robust association retained in Caucasians with higher risk among TT carriers relative to the CC carriers. A similar trend was found in the studies of healthy controls when data were stratified by source of controls. The combined data suggest that IL-28B rs12979860 T/C polymorphism seems to augment the risk of developing HCC, especially in Caucasians.
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MicroRNAs: new regulators of Toll-like receptor signalling pathways.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a critical family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are responsible for the innate immune responses via signalling pathways to provide effective host defence against pathogen infections. However, TLR-signalling pathways are also likely to stringently regulate tissue maintenance and homeostasis by elaborate modulatory mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators and as an essential part of the networks involved in regulating TLR-signalling pathways. In this review, we highlight our understanding of the regulation of miRNA expression profiles by TLR-signalling pathways and the regulation of TLR-signalling pathways by miRNAs. We focus on the roles of miRNAs in regulating TLR-signalling pathways by targeting multiple molecules, including TLRs themselves, their associated signalling proteins and regulatory molecules, and transcription factors and functional cytokines induced by them, at multiple levels.
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In vivo detection of severity of optic nerve crush using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in rats.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is one of the reasons for permanent vision loss. Currently, the clinical practices may not be sufficient for direct assessments and comprehensively determining the location and extent of the patients with optic nerve injury in traumatic optic neuropathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a non-invasive option. However, rare reports have found whether the differentdegree of injury of the optic nerve can be detected by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). This study aimed to explore the efficacy of MEMRI in the visual pathway for different severity of opitic nerve injury in rats.
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A two-year follow-up for Chinese patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm undergoing open/endovascular repair.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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A number of studies have demonstrated the rates of overall and aneurysm-related mortality and morbidity in Western populations. The cardiovascular risk factors influencing postoperative outcome have been also reported. Until recently, little has been known about the prognosis in this patient cohort in the Chinese population. We evaluated the independent predictors of mortality and morbidity in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients undergoing elective surgical treatment and emphasized whether the coronary artery revascularization could have any effect on the overall mortality and morbidity in patients following the current guideline recommendation.
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Impacts of COX-1 gene polymorphisms on vascular outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke and treated with aspirin.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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As the key point of function for aspirin to educe anti-platelet effects, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) gene polymorphisms have long been suspected as a potential cause for aspirin nonresponsiveness. But this hypothesis has not been confirmed by large longitudinal studies. This study prospectively evaluated the impacts of COX-1 gene polymorphisms on stroke recurrence and other vascular events in a large cohort of Chinese patients with ischemic stroke and treated with aspirin. Between December 2009 and October 2012, consecutive patients with ischemic stroke and treated with aspirin were enrolled. Polymorphisms of four alleles (rs1330344, rs10306114, rs3842788 and rs5788) in COX-1 gene were determined at baseline. The primary endpoint was a composite of nonfatal ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from cardiovascular causes. Impacts of COX-1 gene polymorphisms on vascular outcomes were evaluated with multivariate analysis. A total of 859 patients were included in data analysis. The minor allele frequencies of rs1330344, rs10306114, rs3842788 and rs5788 were 38.53%, 0.12%, 6.64% and 5.53%, respectively. During 14.64 ± 7.44 months of follow-up, primary endpoint was observed in 67 (7.80%) patients. Incidence of primary endpoint was higher in patients with CC genotype of rs1330344 than in patients with CT or TT genotype (HR=1.916, 95% CI: 1.126-3.260, P=0.016). After being adjusted for potential confounding factors, rs1330344 CC genotype was still independently associated with incidence of primary endpoint (HR=1.958, 95% CI: 1.151-3.332, P=0.013). The impacts of other three tested polymorphisms on primary endpoint were unremarkable. In conclusion, in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke and treated with aspirin, CC genotype of rs1330344 may increase the risk of subsequent vascular events.
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Xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix is useful for the wound healing of severely damaged extremities.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of improving the success rate of patient treatment and promoting wound healing by utilizing xenogenic (porcine) acellular dermal matrix (XADM) to cover large areas of severely damaged wounds. Patients with severely damaged large-area wounds (56 cases) were enrolled in the study from May 2002 to May 2012. All patients admitted to hospital received a rapid infusion via intravenous access to maintain an effective circulating blood volume and to correct disorders of water and electrolytes. The wounds were exposed and covered with XADM during the initial surgery. All patients subsequently received secondary stage surgery. Of the patients, 47 cases received an autologous skin graft for wound closure, six cases underwent wound repair with a local flap and three cases underwent wound repair with an axial flap. There were two cases of amputation and three cases of mortality. The cases of two of the patients are described in detail. XADM was demonstrated to reduce the risk of emergency during surgery and improve the success rate of wound healing and patient treatment.
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Construction of recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) lacking the meq oncogene and co-expressing AIV-H9N2 HA and NA genes under control of exogenous promoters.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To develop a recombinant Marek's disease virus (rMDV1) co-expressing the hemagglutinin gene (HA) and neuramidinase gene (NA) from a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) H9N2 strain and lacking the meq oncogene that shares homology with the Jun/Fos family of transcriptional factors, a wild strain of MDV GX0101 was used as parental virus, the HA and NA genes co-expression cassette under control of the CMV and SV40 early promoters was inserted at two meq sites of GX0101 to form a new meq knock-out mutant MDV (MZC12HA/NA) through homologous recombination. MZC12HA/NA was reconstituted by transfection of recombinant BAC-MDV DNA into the secondary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. Highly purified MZC12HA/NA was obtained after four rounds of plaque purification and proliferation. In vitro growth properties of recombinant virus were also inspected and concluded that the MZC12HA/NA had the same growth kinetics in CEF cultures as its parental wild type virus GX0101. Southern blot indicated that co-expression cassette was successfully inserted at two copies sites of meq gene, so two meq genes were knocked-out completely. RT-qPCR showed transcription and expression levels of the HA and NA genes were both significantly higher than that of GX0101 own pp38 gene. Indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test, and Western blot analyses indicated that HA and NA genes were co-expressed simultaneously under control of the different promoters but meq genes were not. These results herald a new and effective recombinant meq-deleted MDV-based AIV-H9N2 vaccine may be useful in protecting chickens from very virulent MDV and H9N2 challenges.
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Extracts of Cistanche deserticola Can Antagonize Immunosenescence and Extend Life Span in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAM-P8) Mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 substrain (SAM-P8), widely accepted as an animal model for studying aging and antiaging drugs, was used to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with extracts of Cistanche deserticola (ECD) which has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine because of its perceived ability to promote immune function in the elderly. Eight-month-old male SAM-P8 mice were treated with ECD by daily oral administrations for 4 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation of 150?mg/kg and 450?mg/kg of ECD could extend the life span measured by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in dose-dependent manner. Dietary supplementation of SAM-P8 mice for 4 weeks with 100, 500, and 2500?mg/kg of ECD was shown to result in significant increases in both naive T and natural killer cells in blood and spleen cell populations. In contrast, peripheral memory T cells and proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6 in serum, were substantially decreased in the mice that ingested 100 and 500?mg/kg of ECD daily. Additionally, Sca-1 positive cells, the recognized progenitors of peripheral naive T cells, were restored in parallel. Our results provide clear experimental support for long standing clinical observational studies showing that Cistanche deserticola possesses significant effects in extending life span and suggest this is achieved by antagonizing immunosenescence.
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Histological and enzymatic responses of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ? × P. dentatus ?) to chronic heat stress.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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This study investigated the effects of long-term heat exposure on Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and its hybrids (P. olivaceus ? × summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus ?). From 24 ± 0.5°C, temperature was increased by 1 ± 0.5°C in a day and was kept at that temperature for 5 days before next rise. Cumulative survival rate (CSR), cumulative survival rate under different temperature (CSR-T), histological alteration, and related enzyme activities were investigated. In P. olivaceus, mass mortality occurred at 29 and 32 °C (the CSR-T dropped to 42.39%), and serious gill damages appeared at 30 and 32°C. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lysozyme (LZM), and pyruvate kinase (PK) declined around 29 and 32°C (except for CAT). In comparison with P. olivaceus, the CSR of the hybrids was higher, the gill kept a better structural integrity, and the activities of SOD, CAT, LZM, and PK showed tiny fluctuations. The results suggested that during the process of chronic heat stress, P. olivaceus seemed to be more sensitive to 29 and 32°C, and the manifestations in survival, histology, and enzyme activity were generally consistent. For the hybrids, the comparatively insensitivity to high temperature might imply its better heat tolerance.
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NSFC Health Research Funding and Burden of Disease in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Allocation of health research funds among diseases has never been evaluated in China. This study aimed to examine the relationship between disease-specific funding levels of National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the main governmental resource for health research in China, and burden of disease.
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Overexpression of wip1 is associated with biologic behavior in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase (Wip1 or PPM1D) has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various cancers and correlated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the function of Wip1 in RCC remains unclear. The present study investigated its abnormal expression and dysfunctions in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in vitro. With the combination of immunohistochemistry, western blotting, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays, we found that levels of Wip1 mRNA and protein were dramatically increased in human ccRCC tissues (P<0.001 for both), and upregulation of Wip1 was significantly associated with depth of invasion (P<0.001), Distant metastasis (P?=?0.001), lymph node status (P<0.001) and Fuhrman grade (P<0.001). Wip1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of 786-O and RLC-310 cells, whereas Wip1 overexpression promoted the growth and aggressive phenotype of 786-O and RLC-310 cells in vitro. The uni- and multivariate analyses indicated that expression of Wip1 was an independent predictor for survival of ccRCC patients (P?=?0.003, P?=?0.027 respectively). Wip1- negative patients had a higher tumor-free/overall survival rate than patients with high Wip1 expression (P?=?0.001, P?=?0.002 respectively). Overexpression of Wip1 is useful in the prediction of survival in ccRCC patients.
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High-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure.
Front Neuroinform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many contemporary neuroscientific investigations face significant challenges in terms of data management, computational processing, data mining, and results interpretation. These four pillars define the core infrastructure necessary to plan, organize, orchestrate, validate, and disseminate novel scientific methods, computational resources, and translational healthcare findings. Data management includes protocols for data acquisition, archival, query, transfer, retrieval, and aggregation. Computational processing involves the necessary software, hardware, and networking infrastructure required to handle large amounts of heterogeneous neuroimaging, genetics, clinical, and phenotypic data and meta-data. Data mining refers to the process of automatically extracting data features, characteristics and associations, which are not readily visible by human exploration of the raw dataset. Result interpretation includes scientific visualization, community validation of findings and reproducible findings. In this manuscript we describe the novel high-throughput neuroimaging-genetics computational infrastructure available at the Institute for Neuroimaging and Informatics (INI) and the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) at University of Southern California (USC). INI and LONI include ultra-high-field and standard-field MRI brain scanners along with an imaging-genetics database for storing the complete provenance of the raw and derived data and meta-data. In addition, the institute provides a large number of software tools for image and shape analysis, mathematical modeling, genomic sequence processing, and scientific visualization. A unique feature of this architecture is the Pipeline environment, which integrates the data management, processing, transfer, and visualization. Through its client-server architecture, the Pipeline environment provides a graphical user interface for designing, executing, monitoring validating, and disseminating of complex protocols that utilize diverse suites of software tools and web-services. These pipeline workflows are represented as portable XML objects which transfer the execution instructions and user specifications from the client user machine to remote pipeline servers for distributed computing. Using Alzheimer's and Parkinson's data, we provide several examples of translational applications using this infrastructure.
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Novel mutations of CRB1 in Chinese families presenting with retinal dystrophies.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To identify disease-causing mutations in Chinese families who presented with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA).
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Construction of recombinant Marek's disease virus (rMDV) co-expressing AIV-H9N2-NA and NDV-F genes under control of MDV's own bi-directional promoter.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To qualitatively analyze and evaluate a bi-directional promoter transcriptional function in both transient and transgenic systems, several different plasmids were constructed and recombinant MDV type 1 strain GX0101 was developed to co-express a Neuraminidase (NA) gene from Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 strain and a Fusion (F) gene from the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The two foreign genes, NDV-F gene and AIV-NA gene, were inserted in the plasmid driven in each direction by the bi-directional promoter. To test whether the expression of pp38/pp24 heterodimers are the required activators for the expression of the foreign genes, the recombinant plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F containing expression cassette for the two foreign genes was co-transfected with a pp38/pp24 expression plasmid, pBud-pp38-pp24, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells. Alternatively, plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F was transfected in GX0101-infected CEFs where the viral endogenous pp38/pp24 were expressed via virus infection. The expression of both foreign genes was activated by pp38/pp24 dimers either via virus infection, or co-expression. The CEFs transfected with pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F alone had no expression. We chose to insert the expression cassette of Ppp38-NA/1.8kb-F in the non-essential region of GX0101?Meq US2 gene, and formed a new rMDV named MZC13NA/F through homologous recombination. Indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) test, ELISA and Western blot analyses indicated that F and NA genes were expressed simultaneously under control of the bi-directional promoter, but in opposite directions. The data also indicated the activity of the promoter in the 1.8-kb mRNA transcript direction was higher than that in the direction for the pp38 gene. The expression of pp38/pp24 dimers either via co-tranfection of the pBud-pp38-pp24 plasmid, or by GX0101 virus infection were critical to activate the bi-directional promoter for expression of two foreign genes in both directions. Therefore, the confirmed function of the bi-directional promoter provides better feasibilities to insert multiple foreign genes in MDV genome based vectors.
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Seizure control of current shunt on rats with temporal lobe epilepsy and neocortical epilepsy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To examine the effects of current shunt on rats with temporal lobe epilepsy and neocortex epilepsy.
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Novel mutations of RPGR in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa patients and the genotype-phenotype correlation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) accounts for 10-20% of all RP cases, and represents the most severe subtype of this disease. Mutations in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) gene are the most common causes of XLRP, accounting for over 70-75% of all XLRP cases. In this work, we analyzed all the exons of RPGR gene with Sanger sequencing in seven Chinese XLRP families, two of these with a provisional diagnosis of adRP but without male-to-male transmission. Three novel deletions (c.2233_34delAG; c.2236_37delGA and c.2403_04delAG) and two known nonsense mutations (c.851C?G and c.2260G?T) were identified in five families. Two novel deletions (c.2233_34delAG and c.2236_37delGA) resulted in the same frame shift (p.E746RfsX22), created similar phenotype in Family 3 and 4. The novel deletion (c.2403_04delAG; p.E802GfsX31) resulted in both XLRP and x-linked cone-rod dystrophy within the male patients of family 5, which suggested the presence of either genetic or environmental modifiers, or both, play a substantial role in disease expression. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggested that (1) both patients and female carriers with mutation in Exon 8 (Family 1) manifest more severe disease than did those with ORF15 mutations (Family 2&3&4); (2) mutation close to downstream of ORF15 (Family 5) demonstrate the early preferential loss of cone function with moderate loss of rod function.
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Significant population genetic structure detected in the small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis inferred from mitochondrial control region.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Abstract The population genetic structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) between China and Korea was further estimated by broad-scale sampling locations (Gulf of Bohai, Yellow Sea including Korea). One hundred and seventeen individuals from eight localities from coastal waters of China and Korea were analyzed based on mtDNA control region sequences (5 mtDNA CR). A total of 97 polymorphic sites were checked, which defined 136 haplotypes. A pattern with high levels of haplotype diversity (h?=?0.994?±?0.002) and nucleotide diversity (??=?0.020?±?0.010) was detected in the examined range, and the genetic diversity of Korea populations was higher than that of China populations. Population genetic structure analyses (MDS, AMOVA, Fst, Barrier) showed that significant genetic differentiation existed between China and Korea populations. The migration analysis indicated asymmetry migration also existed among populations, which was consistent with the result of population genetic structure. Using a variety of phylogenetic methods, coalescent reasoning, and molecular dating interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimateic and physiographic evidence, we inferred that the genetic make-up of extant populations of L. polyactis was shaped by Pleistocene environmental impacts on the historical demography of this species. Coalescent analyses (Neutrality tests, Mismatch distribution analysis, Bayesian skyline analyses) showed that the species along coastline of China and Korea has experienced population expansions originated in its most recent history at about 32-196 kya and 166-662 kya before present, respectively.
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Targeted exome capture and sequencing identifies novel PRPF31 mutations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in Chinese families.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To identify disease-causing mutations in two Chinese families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP).
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[Efficacy of intramedullary and extramedullary decompression on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament with spinal cord signal change].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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To evaluate the clinical effect of different surgical approaches for treating cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) with spinal cord signal change.
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Tissue kallikrein preventing the restenosis after stenting of symptomatic MCA atherosclerotic stenosis (KPRASS).
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Many recent studies suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system play a protective role in the impairment of vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular endothelial cell.
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Higher numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in stroke patients with intracranial arterial stenosis.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Bone marrow-derived endothelial stem cells participate in vascular repairs. Numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) are associated with atherosclerosis. Fibrinogen plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Objective was to assess if cEPC counts were associated with atherosclerotic intracranial artery stenosis (IAS).
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Preparation and immunoprotection of subgroup B avian leukosis virus inactivated vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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To develop an inactivated vaccine against subgroup B avian leukosis virus (ALV-B) and determine if vaccination of chicken breeders could protect young chicks from ALV-B horizontal infection at early stage and accelerate eradication progress.
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Autologous transplantation of simple retinal pigment epithelium sheet for massive submacular hemorrhage associated with pigment epithelium detachment.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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To evaluate the long-term outcome of autologous simple RPE sheet transplantation in patients with simultaneous massive submacular hemorrhage and pigment epithelium detachment (PED).
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Distinct and overlapping sarcoma subtypes initiated from muscle stem and progenitor cells.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children, whereas undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in adults. To investigate the myogenic cell(s) of origin of these sarcomas, we used Pax7-CreER and MyoD-CreER mice to transform Pax7(+) and MyoD(+) myogenic progenitors by expressing oncogenic Kras(G12D) and deleting Trp53 in vivo. Pax7-CreER mice developed RMS and UPS, whereas MyoD-CreER mice developed UPS. Using gene set enrichment analysis, RMS and UPS each clustered specifically within their human counterparts. These results suggest that RMS and UPS have distinct and overlapping cells of origin within the muscle lineage. Taking them together, we have established mouse models of soft tissue sarcoma from muscle stem and progenitor cells.
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Promoter hypermethylation contributes to the frequent suppression of the CDK10 gene in human nasopharyngeal carcinomas.
Cell Oncol (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Previous studies have shown a down-regulation of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase 10 (CDK10) in hepatocellular carcinomas. Here we provide evidence that down-regulation of the CDK10 gene is mediated by promoter hypermethylation in primary human nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) and NPC-derived cell lines.
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[Detection of fps tumor antigen with mono-specific anti-fps serum in tumors induced by acute transforming ALV].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To prepare anti-fps mono-specific serum, and detect the fps antigen in tumors induced by acute transforming avian leukosis/sarcoma virus containing v-fps oncogene.
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[Preparation and identification of polyclonal antibody to serotype I Mareks disease virus sorf2 protein].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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To obtain mice and rabbit polyclonal antibody of serotype I Mareks disease virus (MDV) sorf2 protein with higher titer and to identify the specificity.
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A tailing genome walking method suitable for genomes with high local GC content.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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The tailing genome walking strategies are simple and efficient. However, they sometimes can be restricted due to the low stringency of homo-oligomeric primers. Here we modified their conventional tailing step by adding polythymidine and polyguanine to the target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The tailed ssDNA was then amplified exponentially with a specific primer in the known region and a primer comprising 5 polycytosine and 3 polyadenosine. The successful application of this novel method for identifying integration sites mediated by ?C31 integrase in goat genome indicates that the method is more suitable for genomes with high complexity and local GC content.
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Mental workload measurement for emergency operating procedures in digital nuclear power plants.
Ergonomics
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Mental workload is a major consideration for the design of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) in nuclear power plants. Continuous and objective measures are desired. This paper compares seven mental workload measurement methods (pupil size, blink rate, blink duration, heart rate variability, parasympathetic/sympathetic ratio, total power and (Goals, Operations, Methods, and Section Rules)-(Keystroke Level Model) GOMS-KLM-based workload index) with regard to sensitivity, validity and intrusiveness. Eighteen participants performed two computerised EOPs of different complexity levels, and mental workload measures were collected during the experiment. The results show that the blink rate is sensitive to both the difference in the overall task complexity and changes in peak complexity within EOPs, that the error rate is sensitive to the level of arousal and correlate to the step error rate and that blink duration increases over the task period in both low and high complexity EOPs. Cardiac measures were able to distinguish tasks with different overall complexity. The intrusiveness of the physiological instruments is acceptable. Finally, the six physiological measures were integrated using group method of data handling to predict perceived overall mental workload.
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Impacts and interactions of PDGFRB, MMP-3, TIMP-2, and RNF213 polymorphisms on the risk of Moyamoya disease in Han Chinese human subjects.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Polymorphisms of PDGFRB, MMP-3, TIMP-2, RNF213, TGFB1, Raptor and eNOS genes have been associated with Moyamoya disease (MMD) separately in studies, but their interactions on MMD have never been evaluated in one study. This study enrolled 96 MMD patients and 96 controls to evaluate the contributions and interactions of these polymorphisms on MMD in Chinese Hans. After genotyping, five polymorphisms loci were deemed suitable for analysis, rs3828610 in PDGFRB, rs3025058 in MMP-3, rs8179090 in TIMP-2, rs112735431 and rs148731719 in RNF213. Interactions of different loci on MMD were evaluated by multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. Significantly higher frequencies of A allele and G/A genotype of rs112735431 in RNF213 were observed in MMD patients compared with controls (P=0.011; P=0.018, respectively). In the dominant model, G/A genotype of rs112735431 was associated with increased risk of MMD (P=0.018). A higher frequency of G allele and G/G genotype of rs148731719 in RNF213 gene in patient than control group (P<0.001; P<0.01, respectively) was also detected. No significant association between MMD and other three loci (P>0.05) was detected. MDR analysis failed to detect any significant interaction among these five loci in the occurrence of MMD (P>0.05), but the combination of three loci (rs112735431 in RNF213, rs3828610 in PDGFRB, rs3025058 in MMP-3) could have the maximum testing accuracy (57.29%) and cross-validation consistency (10/10). The results indicated that RNF213 rs112735431 and rs148731719 may exert a significant influence on MMD occurrence. Compared with this overwhelming effect, the influences of PDGFRB, MMP-3, and TIMP-2 on MMD may be unremarkable in Chinese Hans. There may be no prominent interaction among these five gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of MMD.
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Synthesis and neuroprotective effect of E-3,4-dihydroxy styryl aralkyl ketones derivatives against oxidative stress and inflammation.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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E-3,4-Dihydroxy styryl aralkyl ketones as well as their 3,4-diacetylated derivatives as the analogues of neuroprotective agent CAPE were designed and synthesized for improving stability and lipid solubility. The neuroprotective activities of target compounds 10a-g and 11a-g were tested by three models in vitro, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, neuronal protecting effect against damage induced by H2O2 in PC12 cells and nitric oxide suppression effect in BV2 microglial cells. The results demonstrated that compounds 10f and 11f exhibited the most potent neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress and inflammation, which is higher than that of the lead compound CAPE.
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Fluorescent protein-based detection of ?C31 integrase activity in mammalian cells.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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The enzyme ?C31 integrase from Streptomyces phage has been documented as functional in mammalian cells and, therefore, has the potential to be a powerful gene manipulation tool. However, the activity of this enzyme is cell-type dependent. The more active mutant forms of ?C31 integrase are required. Therefore, a rapid and effective method should be developed to detect the intracellular activity of ?C31 integrase. We devised in this study an integrase-inversion cassette that contains the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and the reverse complementary DsRed gene, which are flanked by attB and reverse complementary attP. This cassette can be inverted by ?C31 integrase, thereby altering the fluorescent protein expression. Thus, ?C31 integrase activity can be qualitatively or quantitatively evaluated based on the detected fluorescence. Furthermore, this cassette-based method was applied to several cell types, demonstrating that it is an efficient and reliable tool for measuring ?C31 integrase activity in mammalian cells.
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Risk factors, anatomical, and visual outcomes of injured eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy: eye injury vitrectomy study.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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To investigate potential risk factors for development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) post trauma and evaluate the effect of PVR on anatomical and visual outcomes in injured eyes.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.