Articles by Adjimon Gatien Lokossou in JoVE
siRNA Transfection and EMSA Analyses on Freshly Isolated Human Villous Cytotrophoblasts Adjimon Gatien Lokossou1, Chirine Toufaily2, Amandine Vargas3, Benoit Barbeau1 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Quebec in Montreal, 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, 3Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Montreal This protocol describes a method for efficiently transfecting siRNA in freshly isolated human villous cytotrophoblasts using microporation and identifying DNA-protein complexes in these cells. Transfected cells can be monitored by Western blot and EMSA analyses during the 4-day culture time.
Other articles by Adjimon Gatien Lokossou on PubMed
Association of IL-4 and IL-10 Maternal Haplotypes with Immune Responses to P. Falciparum in Mothers and Newborns BMC Infectious Diseases. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23668806 Particular cytokine gene polymorphisms are involved in the regulation of the antibody production. The consequences of already described IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 gene polymorphisms on biological parameters and antibody levels were investigated among 576 mothers at delivery and their newborns in the context of P. falciparum placental malaria infection.
Implication of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Envelope Proteins in Placental Functions Viruses. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25421890 Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent 8% of the total human genome. Although the majority of these ancient proviral sequences have only retained non-coding long terminal repeats (LTRs), a number of "endogenized" retroviral genes encode functional proteins. Previous studies have underlined the implication of these ERV-derived proteins in the development and the function of the placenta. In this review, we summarize recent findings showing that two ERV genes, termed Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-2, which encode former envelope (Env) proteins, trigger fusion events between villous cytotrophoblasts and the peripheral multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer. Such fusion events maintain the stability of this latter cell structure, which plays an important role in fetal development by the active secretion of various soluble factors, gas exchange and regulation of fetomaternal immunotolerance. We also highlight new studies showing that these ERV proteins, in addition to their localization at the cell surface of cytotrophoblasts, are also incorporated on the surface of various extracellular microvesicles, including exosomes. Such exosome-associated proteins could be involved in the various functions attributed to these vesicles and could provide a form of tropism. Additionally, through their immunosuppressive domains, these ERV proteins could also contribute to fetomaternal immunotolerance in a local and more distal manner. These various aspects of the implication of Syncytin-1 and -2 in placental function are also addressed in the context of the placenta-related disorder, preeclampsia.
A CRE/AP-1-like Motif is Essential for Induced Syncytin-2 Expression and Fusion in Human Trophoblast-like Model PloS One. 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25781974 Syncytin-2 is encoded by the envelope gene of Endogenous Retrovirus-FRD (ERVFRD-1) and plays a critical role in fusion of placental trophoblasts leading to the formation of the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Its expression is consequently regulated in a strict manner. In the present study, we have identified a forskolin-responsive region located between positions -300 to -150 in the Syncytin-2 promoter region. This 150 bp region in the context of a minimal promoter mediated an 80-fold induction of promoter activity following forskolin stimulation. EMSA analyses with competition experiments with nuclear extracts from forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells demonstrated that the -211 to -177 region specifically bound two forskolin-induced complexes, one of them containing a CRE/AP-1-like motif. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/AP-1 binding site in the context of the Syncytin-2 promoter or a heterologous promoter showed that this motif was mostly essential for forskolin-induced promoter activity. Transfection experiments with dominant negative mutants and constitutively activated CREB expression vectors in addition to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation suggested that a CREB family member, CREB2 was binding and acting through the CRE/AP-1 motif. We further demonstrated the binding of JunD to this same motif. Similar to forskolin and soluble cAMP, CREB2 and JunD overexpression induced Syncytin-2 promoter activity in a CRE/AP-1-dependent manner and Syncytin-2 expression. In addition, BeWo cell fusion was induced by both CREB2 and JunD overexpression, while being repressed following silencing of either gene. These results thereby demonstrate that induced expression of Syncytin-2 is highly dependent on the interaction of bZIP-containing transcription factors to a CRE/AP-1 motif and that this element is important for the regulation of Syncytin-2 expression, which results in the formation of the peripheral syncytiotrophoblast layer.