Articles by Alexandra K. Lorenz in JoVE
The Multi-organ Chip - A Microfluidic Platform for Long-term Multi-tissue Coculture Eva-Maria Materne*1, Ilka Maschmeyer*1,2, Alexandra K. Lorenz1, Reyk Horland1,2, Katharina M. S. Schimek1, Mathias Busek3, Frank Sonntag3, Roland Lauster1, Uwe Marx1,2 1Medical Biotechnology, Technische Universität Berlin, 2TissUse GmbH, 3Fraunhofer IWS Here, we present a protocol to coculture primary cells, tissue models and punch biopsies in a microfluidic multi-organ chip for up to 28 days. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, liver aggregates and skin biopsies were successfully combined in a common media circulation.
Other articles by Alexandra K. Lorenz on PubMed
TLR9 in Peritoneal B-1b Cells is Essential for Production of Protective Self-reactive IgM to Control Th17 Cells and Severe Autoimmunity Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21859955 The role of TLR9 in the development of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus is controversial. In different mouse models of the disease, loss of TLR9 abolishes the generation of anti-nucleosome IgG autoantibodies but at the same time exacerbates lupus disease. However, the TLR9-dependent tolerance mechanism is unknown. In this study, we show that loss of TLR9 is associated with low peritoneal B-1b cell numbers and low levels of protective self-reactive IgM serum autoantibodies in lupus-prone FcγRIIB-deficient mice leading to the uncontrolled accumulation of proinflammatory CD4(+) cells and exacerbated autoimmunity. TLR7 signaling was not able to compensate for the loss of TLR9 signaling in peritoneal B-1b cells to induce IgM Abs. Transfer of TLR9-expressing peritoneal B-1b cells from FcγRIIB-deficient mice or of recombinant monoclonal self-reactive IgM Abs was sufficient to reduce the frequency of proinflammatory Th17 cells and lupus disease in FcγRIIB/TLR9 double-deficient mice. Taken together, these data provide evidence for a TLR9-dependent tolerance mechanism of peritoneal B-1b cells generating protective self-reactive IgM in lupus-prone mice to control Th17 cell development and severe autoimmunity.
Tolerance Induction with T Cell-dependent Protein Antigens Induces Regulatory Sialylated IgGs The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22502800 Under inflammatory conditions, T cell-dependent (TD) protein antigens induce proinflammatory T- and B-cell responses. In contrast, tolerance induction by TD antigens without costimulation triggers the development of regulatory T cells. Under both conditions, IgG antibodies are generated, but whether they have different immunoregulatory functions remains elusive.
T Cell-independent B Cell Activation Induces Immunosuppressive Sialylated IgG Antibodies The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Sep, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23979161 Antigen-specific Abs are able to enhance or suppress immune responses depending on the receptors that they bind on immune cells. Recent studies have shown that pro- or antiinflammatory effector functions of IgG Abs are also regulated through their Fc N-linked glycosylation patterns. IgG Abs that are agalactosylated (non-galactosylated) and asialylated are proinflammatory and induced by the combination of T cell-dependent (TD) protein antigens and proinflammatory costimulation. Sialylated IgG Abs, which are immunosuppressive, and Tregs are produced in the presence of TD antigens under tolerance conditions. T cell-independent (TI) B cell activation via B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking through polysaccharides or via BCR and TLR costimulation also induces IgG Abs, but the Fc glycosylation state of these Abs is unknown. We found in mouse experiments that TI immune responses induced suppressive sialylated IgGs, in contrast to TD proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 immune responses, which induced agalactosylated and asialylated IgGs. Transfer of low amounts of antigen-specific sialylated IgG Abs was sufficient to inhibit B cell activation and pathogenic immune reactions. These findings suggest an immune regulatory function for TI immune responses through the generation of immunosuppressive sialylated IgGs and may provide insight on the role of TI immune responses during infection, vaccination, and autoimmunity.