In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (53)

Articles by Anthony W. Segal in JoVE

Other articles by Anthony W. Segal on PubMed

Ym1 is a Neutrophil Granule Protein That Crystallizes in P47phox-deficient Mice

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11733538

Crystals were discovered within the aged lung and at sites of chronic inflammation in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease. Following re-crystallization at neutral pH, the crystals were identified as the chitinase-like protein Ym1, expressed in organs of the lymphoreticular system, the lung, and distal stomach. Ym1 was shown to be a neutrophil granule protein and to have weak beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, indicating that it might contribute to the digestion of glycosaminoglycans. Crystal formation is likely to be a function of excess neutrophil turnover at sites of inflammation in the chronic granulomatous disease mouse. Failure to remove subcutaneous Ym1 crystals injected into knockout mice indicates that a failure of digestion may also contribute to crystallization.

Involvement of Protein Kinase D in Fc Gamma-receptor Activation of the NADPH Oxidase in Neutrophils

The Biochemical Journal. Apr, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11903052

Protein kinases involved in the activation of the NADPH oxidase by Fc gamma receptors in neutrophils were studied. Of three different protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, Gö 6976 inhibited the NADPH oxidase completely, whereas bisindolylmaleimide I and Ro 31-8220 caused a 70-80% inhibition. Thus a Gö 6976-sensitive, bisindolylmaleimide I/Ro 31-8220-insensitive component contributes to NADPH oxidase activation induced by Fc gamma receptors. Down-regulation of PKC isotypes resulted in inhibition of Fc gamma-receptor-activated NADPH oxidase, but a down-regulation-insensitive component was still present. This component was sensitive to Gö 6976, but insensitive to Ro 31-8220. It has been shown previously that protein kinase D/PKC-mu (PKD) shows this same pharmacology in vitro. We show that PKD is present in neutrophils and that, in contrast with PKC isotypes, PKD is not down-regulated. Therefore PKD may participate in NADPH oxidase activation. To obtain direct evidence for this we adopted an antisense approach. Antisense PKD inhibited NADPH oxidase induced by Fc gamma-receptor stimulation by 50% and the Ro 31-8220-insensitive component in the activation was inhibited by antisense PKD. In vitro kinase assays showed that PKD is activated by presenting IgG-opsonized particles to neutrophils. Furthermore, PKD localizes to the area of particle intake in the cell and phosphorylates two of the three cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase, p40(phox) and p47(phox). Taken together, these data indicate that Fc gamma receptors engage PKD in the regulation of the NADPH oxidase.

Killing Activity of Neutrophils is Mediated Through Activation of Proteases by K+ Flux

Nature. Mar, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11907569

According to the hitherto accepted view, neutrophils kill ingested microorganisms by subjecting them to high concentrations of highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bringing about myeloperoxidase-catalysed halogenation. We show here that this simple scheme, which for many years has served as a satisfactory working hypothesis, is inadequate. We find that mice made deficient in neutrophil-granule proteases but normal in respect of superoxide production and iodinating capacity, are unable to resist staphylococcal and candidal infections. We also show that activation provokes the influx of an enormous concentration of ROS into the endocytic vacuole. The resulting accumulation of anionic charge is compensated for by a surge of K+ ions that cross the membrane in a pH-dependent manner. The consequent rise in ionic strength engenders the release of cationic granule proteins, including elastase and cathepsin G, from the anionic sulphated proteoglycan matrix. We show that it is the proteases, thus activated, that are primarily responsible for the destruction of the bacteria.

Catalase Negative Staphylococcus Aureus Retain Virulence in Mouse Model of Chronic Granulomatous Disease

FEBS Letters. May, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11997027

Myeloperoxidase-mediated chlorination is thought to be a necessary microbicidal mechanism. The H2O2 required for this process is generated by the NADPH oxidase. Staphylococcus aureus can also produce H2O2, which is not broken down by catalase negative organisms. It has been thought that this bacterial H2O2 can substitute for cellular H2O2 in the halogenation reaction in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) where neutrophils are lacking the NADPH oxidase. We have readdressed this issue in a mouse model of CGD using clinical isolates of catalase positive and negative strains of S. aureus. The results showed these organisms to be equally virulent and that the H2O2 they produced is insufficient to cause significant iodination, a marker for chlorination, thereby contradicting the accepted views on this subject.

PX Domain Takes Shape

Current Opinion in Hematology. Jan, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12483105

In recent years, a number of protein domains have been identified that bind phosphoinositides and direct proteins to membrane targets. A recent addition to this group is the Phox homology or PX domain, a 120-amino acid domain conserved from yeast to humans, which is present in proteins involved in cell signaling, protein sorting, vesicle fusion, and the assembly of components of the superoxide generating system of neutrophils. These domains have varying affinities for phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P), and PI(3,4) and (4,5) bisphosphates, which couple the PI kinase and phosphatase signaling networks to the assembly of proteins at membrane surfaces. These PX domains also contain a PXXP motif, allowing them to bind to proteins containing Src homology 3 (SH3) domains.

Granulocyte Function in Grancalcin-deficient Mice

Molecular and Cellular Biology. Feb, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12529388

Grancalcin, one of the penta-EF-hand Ca(2+) binding proteins, is expressed at high levels in polymorphonuclear granulocytes (neutrophils). EF-hand proteins are implicated in the regulation of diverse processes including cell migration, apoptosis, and mobilization of neutrophil effector functions. To determine the role of grancalcin in vivo, we inactivated the gene encoding grancalcin (Gca) in embryonic stem cells and generated grancalcin-deficient mice. Homozygous Gca mutants appeared healthy and reproduced normally. Leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity upon induction of inflammation was not significantly affected by the absence of grancalcin. The mutants also resisted systemic fungal infection similarly to wild-type mice, and in vitro killing of Staphylococcus aureus by inflammatory cells was not significantly impaired. While marginally increased survival rates of mutants faced with endotoxic shock may indicate a contribution of grancalcin to immunopathogenesis, it is not essential for vital leukocyte effector functions required to control microbial infections.

Reassessment of the Microbicidal Activity of Reactive Oxygen Species and Hypochlorous Acid with Reference to the Phagocytic Vacuole of the Neutrophil Granulocyte

Journal of Medical Microbiology. Aug, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12867557

During phagocytosis, neutrophils undergo a burst of respiration in which oxygen is reduced to superoxide (O(-)(2)), which dismutates to form H(2)O(2). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is discharged from the cytoplasmic granules into the phagosome following particle ingestion. It is thought to utilize H(2)O(2) to oxidize halides, which then react with and kill ingested microbes. Recent studies have provided new information as to the concentration of O(-)(2) and proteins, and the pH, within the vacuole. This study was conducted to examine the antimicrobial effect of O(-)(2), H(2)O(2) and hypochlorous acid under these conditions and it was found that the previously described bactericidal effect of these agents was reversed in the presence of granule proteins or MPO. To establish which cellular proteins were iodinated by MPO, cellular proteins and bacterial proteins, iodinated in neutrophils phagocytosing bacteria in the presence of (125)I, were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. Iodinated spots were detected by autoradiography and the oxidized proteins were identified by MS. The targets of these iodination reactions were largely those of the host cell rather than those of the engulfed microbe.

Lipid Rafts Determine Efficiency of NADPH Oxidase Activation in Neutrophils

FEBS Letters. Aug, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12935894

We have investigated the contribution of lipid rafts to activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme system in neutrophils. Membrane-bound NADPH oxidase subunits are present in the lipid raft compartment of neutrophils. Cytosolic NADPH oxidase components are mainly absent from but are recruited to rafts upon Fcgamma receptor activation. In parallel, protein kinase C isotypes are recruited to the rafts. Kinetic analysis of NADPH oxidase activation revealed that rafts determine the onset but not the maximal rate of enzyme activity. Thus lipid rafts serve to physically juxtapose the NADPH oxidase effector, protein kinase C and Fcgamma receptor, resulting in efficient coupling.

N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Subtypes in Human Neutrophils Activate L-plastin Phosphorylation Through Different Signal Transduction Intermediates

The Biochemical Journal. Jan, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14556648

We investigated the coupling of the fMLP (N -formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine; 'chemotactic peptide') receptor with phosphorylation of the actin-binding protein L-plastin in neutrophils. Using two-dimensional IEF (isoelectric focusing)/PAGE and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight)-MS, L-plastin was identified as a major phosphoprotein in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils whose phosphorylation was dependent on phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PLD (phospholipase D) and PKC (protein kinase C) activity. Two fMLP receptor subtypes were identified in neutrophils, characterized by a distinct sensitivity to fMLP and antagonistic peptides. Both receptor subtypes induced the phosphorylation of L-plastin. L-plastin phosphorylation induced by low-affinity fMLP receptors involves an action of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PLD and PKC isotypes. In contrast, none of these intermediates are utilized by high-affinity fMLP receptors in the phosphorylation of L-plastin. However, the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220 inhibits L-plastin phosphorylation induced by the high-affinity fMLP receptor. Thus, an as yet unknown Ro-31-8220-sensitive kinase regulates L-plastin phosphorylation in response to the high-affinity fMLP receptor. The results suggest a model in which receptor subtypes induce a similar endpoint event through different signal-transduction intermediates. This may be relevant in the context of cell migration in which one receptor subpopulation may become desensitized in a concentration gradient of chemoattractant.

The Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channel is Essential for Innate Immunity

Nature. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14985765

Neutrophil leukocytes have a pivotal function in innate immunity. Dogma dictates that the lethal blow is delivered to microbes by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and halogens, products of the NADPH oxidase, whose impairment causes immunodeficiency. However, recent evidence indicates that the microbes might be killed by proteases, activated by the oxidase through the generation of a hypertonic, K+-rich and alkaline environment in the phagocytic vacuole. Here we show that K+ crosses the membrane through large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK(Ca)) channels. Specific inhibitors of these channels, iberiotoxin and paxilline, blocked oxidase-induced 86Rb+ fluxes and alkalinization of the phagocytic vacuole, whereas NS1619, a BK(Ca) channel opener, enhanced both. Characteristic outwardly rectifying K+ currents, reversibly inhibited by iberiotoxin, were demonstrated in neutrophils and eosinophils and the expression of the alpha-subunit of the BK channel was confirmed by western blotting. The channels were opened by the combination of membrane depolarization and elevated Ca2+ concentration, both consequences of oxidase activity. Remarkably, microbial killing and digestion were abolished when the BK(Ca) channel was blocked, revealing an essential and unexpected function for this K+ channel in the microbicidal process.

The NADPH Oxidase of Professional Phagocytes--prototype of the NOX Electron Transport Chain Systems

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jun, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15238208

The NADPH oxidase is an electron transport chain in "professional" phagocytic cells that transfers electrons from NADPH in the cytoplasm, across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole, to form superoxide. The electron transporting flavocytochrome b is activated by the integrated function of four cytoplasmic proteins. The antimicrobial function of this system involves pumping K+ into the vacuole through BKCa channels, the effect of which is to elevate the vacuolar pH and activate neutral proteases. A number of homologous systems have been discovered in plants and lower animals as well as in man. Their function remains to be established.

How Neutrophils Kill Microbes

Annual Review of Immunology. 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15771570

Neutrophils provide the first line of defense of the innate immune system by phagocytosing, killing, and digesting bacteria and fungi. Killing was previously believed to be accomplished by oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species generated by the NADPH oxidase, and by oxidized halides produced by myeloperoxidase. We now know this is incorrect. The oxidase pumps electrons into the phagocytic vacuole, thereby inducing a charge across the membrane that must be compensated. The movement of compensating ions produces conditions in the vacuole conducive to microbial killing and digestion by enzymes released into the vacuole from the cytoplasmic granules.

Defective Acute Inflammation in Crohn's Disease: a Clinical Investigation

Lancet (London, England). Feb, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16503465

The cause of Crohn's disease has not been mechanistically proven. We tested the hypothesis that the disease is a form of immunodeficiency caused by impaired innate immunity.

The Role of Grancalcin in Adhesion of Neutrophils

Cellular Immunology. Apr, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16934789

Grancalcin is a protein specifically expressed in neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. The function of grancalcin has not been identified. Grancalcin-deficient neutrophils were previously demonstrated to exert normal recruitment to the inflamed site, NADPH oxidase activation, extracellular release of secondary granules, apoptosis and activation-induced Ca2+ flux. In this study we analyzed granule numbers in resting and activated grancalcin-deficient neutrophils, their phagocytic activity and adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. Results revealed normal phagocytosis and degranulation of grancalcin-deficient neutrophils, while their adhesion to fibronectin was decreased by 60%. Consistently, the processes associated with neutrophil adhesion, such as formation of focal adhesion complexes and spreading, were also impaired in grancalcin-deficient neutrophils by 89 and 38%, respectively. In contrast, adherence to other extracellular matrix proteins: collagen, laminin and vitronectin, was not significantly altered. We thus report for the first time a function of grancalcin.

How Superoxide Production by Neutrophil Leukocytes Kills Microbes

Novartis Foundation Symposium. 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17278388

Neutrophils represent the primary innate immune response to infection by bacteria and fungi which they ingest, kill and digest. Killing and digestion are dependent upon oxygen consumption by the NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide (O2-) in the phagocytic vacuole. Killing was thought to occur by free radical reactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the microbes, or through the generation of HOCI by myeloperoxidase acting on H2O2. However, in knockout mice lacking the neutral proteases cathepsin G and elastase, these ROS do not kill microbes despite normal production of oxygen free radicals and halogenation. It turns out that the oxidase has another function. The passage of electrons is electrogenic and the charge generated across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole must be compensated if electron transport is to continue. This compensation is largely accomplished by the passage of Cl-, which enters the vacuole from the granules, where it is present at a concentration of about 500mM, into the cytosol. The pH of the vacuole is regulated by a Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1, which pumps Na+ out of the vacuole in exchange for cytosolic H+ together with a flux of K+ into the vacuole through the BKCa channel. These ion fluxes and pH changes serve to promote microbial killing and digestion by optimizing conditions for the action of the enzymes released from the cytoplasmic granules.

Mice Lacking Neutrophil Elastase Are Resistant to Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

The American Journal of Pathology. Jan, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17200183

Neutrophil elastase is a serine protease stored in the azurophilic granules of leukocytes. It has been implicated in the pathology of several lung diseases and is generally presumed to contribute to the tissue destruction and extracellular matrix damage associated with these conditions. To delineate the role of neutrophil elastase in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, neutrophil elastase-null mice were intratracheally instilled with bleomycin. In neutrophil elastase-null mice, biochemical and morphological characteristics of pulmonary fibrosis were attenuated for at least 60 days after bleomycin administration despite a typical response to bleomycin as evidenced by assessment of indices of DNA and cell damage. Neutrophil burden of bleomycin-treated wild-type and neutrophil elastase-null mice was comparable, and marked neutrophilic alveolitis was manifest in bleomycin-treated neutrophil elastase-null mice. An absence of immunostaining for active transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in lung tissue from bleomycin-treated neutrophil elastase-null mice suggested a defect in TGF-beta activation, which was confirmed by biochemical assessment of TGF-beta levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. These data point to novel and unexpected fibrogenic consequences of neutrophil elastase activity in the inflamed lung.

The Function of the NADPH Oxidase of Phagocytes and Its Relationship to Other NOXs in Plants, Invertebrates, and Mammals

The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18036868

The NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (NOX) of 'professional' phagocytic cells transfers electrons across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole, forming superoxide in the lumen. It is generally accepted that this system promotes microbial killing through the generation of reactive oxygen species and through the activity of myeloperoxidase. An alternative scenario exists in which the passage of electrons across the membrane alters the pH and generates a charge that drives ions into, and out of, the vacuole. It is proposed that the primary function of the oxidase is to produce these pH changes and ion fluxes, and the issues surrounding these processes are considered. The neutrophil oxidase is the prototype of a whole family of NOXs that exist throughout biology, from plants to man, which might function, at least in part, in a similar fashion. Some examples of how these other NOXs might influence ion fluxes are examined.

Phagocyte Dysfunction and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18421761

Inflammatory bowel diseases are common chronic inflammatory disorders. The majority are idiopathic and can be broadly divided into Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Their cause is unknown, but most hypotheses focus on a primary role for T-cell dysfunction. Conversely, there is a collection of congenital disorders of phagocyte function that result not only in immunodeficiency but also in noninfectious inflammatory bowel disease. In all cases, the latter is strikingly reminiscent of the clinical and pathological features of Crohn's disease. This coincides with recent work demonstrating that despite previous emphasis on adaptive immune dysfunction, patients with Crohn's disease actually possess an unusually weak acute innate inflammatory response. This review consolidates the literature on inflammatory bowel disease in congenital immunodeficiencies and considers the role of phagocyte dysfunction in Crohn's disease. Concepts about pathogenesis and treatment that can be carried across these disorders are also discussed.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in CGD Reproduces the Clinicopathological Features of Crohn's Disease

The American Journal of Gastroenterology. Jan, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19098859

Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a rare congenital disorder characterized by defective neutrophil function, frequently develop an inflammatory bowel disease similar to Crohn's disease. The clinical presentations and concordance between the features of the bowel disease in these two conditions have never been formally evaluated.

Subproteome Analysis of the Neutrophil Cytoskeleton

Proteomics. Apr, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19294702

Neutrophils play a key role in the early host-defense mechanisms due to their capacity to migrate into inflamed tissues and phagocytose microorganisms. The cytoskeleton has an essential role in these neutrophil functions, however, its composition is still poorly understood. We separately analyzed different cytoskeletal compartments: cytosolic skeleton, phagosome membrane skeleton, and plasma membrane skeleton. Using a proteomic approach, 138 nonredundant proteins were identified. Proteins not previously known to associate with the skeleton were: n-acetylglucosamine kinase, phosphoglycerate mutase 1, prohibitin, ficolin-1, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucosidase, transketolase, major vault protein, valosin-containing protein, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and lung cancer-related protein-8 (LCRP8). The majority of these proteins can be classified as energy metabolism enzymes. Such a finding was interesting because neutrophil energy metabolism is unusual, mainly relying on glycolysis. The enrichment of phosphoglycerate mutase in cytosolic skeleton was additionally indicated by the use of Western blotting. This is the broadest subcellular investigation to date of the neutrophil cytoskeletal proteome and the first proteomic analysis in any cell type of the phagosome skeleton. The association of metabolic enzymes with cytoskeleton is suggestive of the importance of their localized enrichment and macromolecular organization in neutrophils.

Disordered Macrophage Cytokine Secretion Underlies Impaired Acute Inflammation and Bacterial Clearance in Crohn's Disease

The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Aug, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19652016

The cause of Crohn's disease (CD) remains poorly understood. Counterintuitively, these patients possess an impaired acute inflammatory response, which could result in delayed clearance of bacteria penetrating the lining of the bowel and predispose to granuloma formation and chronicity. We tested this hypothesis in human subjects by monitoring responses to killed Escherichia coli injected subcutaneously into the forearm. Accumulation of (111)In-labeled neutrophils at these sites and clearance of (32)P-labeled bacteria from them were markedly impaired in CD. Locally increased blood flow and bacterial clearance were dependent on the numbers of bacteria injected. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by CD macrophages was grossly impaired in response to E. coli or specific Toll-like receptor agonists. Despite normal levels and stability of cytokine messenger RNA, intracellular levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were abnormally low in CD macrophages. Coupled with reduced secretion, these findings indicate accelerated intracellular breakdown. Differential transcription profiles identified disease-specific genes, notably including those encoding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. Intracellular destruction of TNF was decreased by inhibitors of lysosomal function. Together, our findings suggest that in CD macrophages, an abnormal proportion of cytokines are routed to lysosomes and degraded rather than being released through the normal secretory pathway.

The Immunopathogenesis of Crohn's Disease: a Three-stage Model

Current Opinion in Immunology. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19665880

The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) has remained an enigma for at least a century. There was considerable optimism that genetic linkage and genome-wide association (GWA) studies had identified genes causally responsible. However, the realisation that these genes make a relatively minor contribution to the development of CD has led to the acceptance of a 'missing heritability'. In contrast to the weak genetic effects, patients with CD almost without exception exhibit a gross phenotype, namely a profound systemic failure of the acute inflammatory response. This results in markedly delayed clearance of bacteria from the tissues, leading to local chronic granulomatous inflammation and compensatory adaptive immunological changes, as well as constitutional symptoms.

Impaired Macrophage Function Following Bacterial Stimulation in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Immunology. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19740382

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is critical for phagocyte anti-microbial activity and plays a major role in innate immunity. Defects in genes coding for components of the NADPH oxidase enzyme system are responsible for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a rare primary neutrophil immunodeficiency associated with recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Microbial killing and digestion within the neutrophil phagosomal compartment are defective in these patients. NADPH oxidase activity is also crucial for optimal macrophage and dendritic cell function and has recently been implicated in both cross-presentation and T-cell priming. We present evidence of impaired macrophage function in CGD, with attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine and increased interleukin-10 secretion following bacterial stimulation. These results highlight additional abnormalities in macrophage function associated with CGD and the importance of NADPH oxidase activity in immunity.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Mutations Affecting the Interleukin-10 Receptor

The New England Journal of Medicine. Nov, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19890111

The molecular cause of inflammatory bowel disease is largely unknown.

Diminished Macrophage Apoptosis and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation After Phorbol Ester Stimulation in Crohn's Disease

PloS One. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19907654

Crohn's Disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Although its pathogenesis is complex, we have recently shown that CD patients have a systemic defect in macrophage function, which results in the defective clearance of bacteria from inflammatory sites.

Crohn's Disease: an Immune Deficiency State

Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19437144

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Its clinical manifestations arise from a substantial infiltration of the intestinal mucosa by activated leukocytes and the downstream consequences of chronic inflammation. The underlying cause driving this immunological reaction remains poorly understood. A number of hypotheses have been proposed, most of which postulate a primary over-activation of the immune response, based on the pathological appearances of active Crohn's lesions. Interestingly, none of these theories have been mechanistically proven. It is possible that the immunological events responsible for disease initiation are quite different from those contributing to its persistence and propagation. A substantial body of data has emerged in recent years to suggest that the primary defect in Crohn's disease is actually one of relative immunodeficiency. This review considers the evidence for such a phenomenon in contrast to alternative prevailing hypotheses and attempts to address some of the potential paradoxes that it generates.

CO Binding and Ligand Discrimination in Human Myeloperoxidase

Biochemistry. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20146436

Despite the fact that ferrous myeloperoxidase (MPO) can bind both O(2) and NO, its ability to bind CO has been questioned. UV/visible spectroscopy was used to confirm that CO induces small spectral shifts in ferrous MPO, and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy showed definitively that these arose from formation of a heme ferrous-CO compound. Recombination rates after CO photolysis were monitored at 618 and 645 nm as a function of CO concentration and pH. At pH 6.3, k(on) and k(off) were 0.14 mM(-1) x s(-1) and 0.23 s(-1), respectively, yielding an unusually high K(D) of 1.6 mM. This affinity of MPO for CO is 10 times weaker than its affinity for O(2). The observed rate constant for CO binding increased with increasing pH and was governed by a single protonatable group with a pK(a) of 7.8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed two different conformations of bound CO with frequencies at 1927 and 1942 cm(-1). Their recombination rate constants were identical, indicative of two forms of bound CO that are in rapid thermal equilibrium rather than two distinct protein populations with different binding sites. The ratio of bound states was pH-dependent (pK(a) approximately 7.4) with the 1927 cm(-1) form favored at high pH. Structural factors that account for the ligand-binding properties of MPO are identified by comparisons with published data on a range of other ligand-binding heme proteins, and support is given to the recent suggestion that the proximal His336 in MPO is in a true imidazolate state.

Delayed Resolution of Acute Inflammation in Ulcerative Colitis is Associated with Elevated Cytokine Release Downstream of TLR4

PloS One. 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20360984

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is widely viewed as a leukocyte-mediated disorder. Although strong evidence implicates an exuberant response to microbial components in its pathogenesis, no intrinsic immune defect has been identified and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure.

Crohn's Disease As an Immunodeficiency

Expert Review of Clinical Immunology. Jul, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20594132

The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) has widely been regarded as the consequence of a dysregulated T-cell-mediated response to intestinal microbes, and the majority of the worldwide research effort has focused on characterizing and treating the chronic inflammatory phase of the disease. However, recent molecular biological and clinical investigations indicate that CD is actually a primary immunodeficiency. At first counter-intuitive, the apparent paradox of a pathogenic innate immune defect can be linked mechanistically to the granulomatous chronic inflammation characteristic of the disease. Genome-wide association studies have corroborated the involvement of innate immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CD, but less than 20% of the heritable risk is accounted for. By contrast, in vitro and in vivo stimulation of the immune system has highlighted novel areas of interest that may lead to the development of targeted therapeutic and diagnostic tools.

Subcellular Localisation of the P40phox Component of NADPH Oxidase Involves Direct Interactions Between the Phox Homology Domain and F-actin

The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20637895

Cytosolic components of the NADPH oxidase interact with the actin cytoskeleton. These interactions are thought to be important for the activation of this enzyme system but they are poorly characterised at the molecular level. Here we have explored the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and p40(phox), one of the cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase. Full length p40(phox) expressed in COS cells co-localised with F-actin in a peripheral lamellar compartment. The co-localisation was lost after deletion of the Phox homology (PX) domain and the PX domain in isolation (p40PX) showed the same F-actin co-localisation as the full length protein. PX domains are known lipid-binding modules however, a mutant p40PX which did not bind lipids still co-localised with F-actin suggesting that lipid-independent interactions underlie the localisation. Affinity chromatography identified actin as a binding partner for p40PX in neutrophil extracts. Pure actin interacted with both p40(phox) and with p40PX suggesting it is a direct interaction. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D resulted in actin rearrangement and concomitantly the localisation of full length p40(phox) proteins and that of p40PX changed. Thus p40PX is a dual F-actin/lipid-binding module and F-actin interactions with the PX domain dictate at least in part the intracellular localisation of the cytosolic p40(phox) subunit of the NADPH oxidase.

The Neutrophil Respiratory Burst and Bacterial Digestion in Crohn's Disease

Digestive Diseases and Sciences. May, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20936355

Neutrophils are a key part of the innate immune defence against microbes, using the respiratory burst (RB) to optimise killing and digestion. Previous studies of the neutrophil RB in Crohn's disease (CD) have yielded conflicting results.

A Phagocyte Dilemma

Nature Immunology. Mar, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21321592

G6PC3 Mutations Are Associated with a Major Defect of Glycosylation: a Novel Mechanism for Neutrophil Dysfunction

Glycobiology. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21385794

Glucose-6-phosphatase, an enzyme localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to glucose and inorganic phosphate. In humans, there are three differentially expressed glucose-6-phosphatase catabolic genes (G6PC1-3). Recently, it has been shown that mutations in the G6PC3 gene result in a syndrome associating congenital neutropenia and various organ malformations. The enzymatic function of G6PC3 is dependent on G6P transport into the ER, mediated by G6P translocase (G6PT). Mutations in the gene encoding G6PT result in glycogen storage disease type-1b (GSD-1b). Interestingly, GSD-1b patients exhibit a similar neutrophil dysfunction to that observed in G6PC3-deficient patients. To better understand the causes of neutrophil dysfunction in both diseases, we have studied the neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase of patients with G6PC3 and G6PT syndromes. Unexpectedly, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments indicated hypo-glycosylation of gp91(phox), the electron-transporting component of the NADPH oxidase, in all of these patients. Rigorous mass spectrometric glycomic profiling showed that most of the complex-type antennae which characterize the neutrophil N-glycome of healthy individuals were severely truncated in the patients' neutrophils. A comparable truncation of the core 2 antenna of the O-glycans was also observed. This aberrant neutrophil glycosylation is predicted to have profound effects on the neutrophil function and merit designation of both syndromes as a new class of congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Defective Tumor Necrosis Factor Release from Crohn's Disease Macrophages in Response to Toll-like Receptor Activation: Relationship to Phenotype and Genome-wide Association Susceptibility Loci

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22434667

BACKGROUND: Recent work provides evidence of a failure of acute inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD), and suggests that the primary defect operates at the level of the macrophage and cytokine release. Here we extend the characterization of the innate immune defect in CD by investigating the macrophage response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists and assess potential links between genome-wide association study (GWAS) susceptibility loci, disease phenotype, and therapeutic regimens on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) release. METHODS: Peripheral blood-derived macrophages were cultured from control subjects and patients with CD, stimulated with TLR ligands, and the release of TNF measured. Genomic DNA was purified from blood and genotyped for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified as being associated with CD by GWAS. RESULTS: All stimuli resulted in a reduction (32%-48%) in TNF release from macrophages derived from CD patients (n = 28-101) compared to those from healthy control (HC) subjects. All phenotypes demonstrated impaired TNF release, with the greatest defect in patients with colonic disease. There was no detectable relationship between the level of TNF released and the presence of GWAS susceptibility loci in CD patients. Reduced TNF levels were not influenced by age, gender, or use of aminosalicylate (5-ASA) medication. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis of defective proinflammatory cytokine secretion and an innate immunodeficiency in CD. Abnormal TNF secretion is evident downstream of multiple TLRs, affects all disease phenotypes, and is unrelated to 34 polymorphisms associated with CD by GWAS. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012;).

Phenotypic Heterogeneity and Evidence of a Founder Effect Associated with G6PC3 Mutations in Patients with Severe Congenital Neutropenia

British Journal of Haematology. Jul, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22469094

Lipidomic Profiling in Crohn's Disease: Abnormalities in Phosphatidylinositols, with Preservation of Ceramide, Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylserine Composition

The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22728312

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition largely affecting the terminal ileum and large bowel. A contributing cause is the failure of an adequate acute inflammatory response as a result of impaired secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. This defective secretion arises from aberrant vesicle trafficking, misdirecting the cytokines to lysosomal degradation. Aberrant intestinal permeability is also well-established in Crohn's disease. Both the disordered vesicle trafficking and increased bowel permeability could result from abnormal lipid composition. We thus measured the sphingo- and phospholipid composition of macrophages, using mass spectrometry and stable isotope labelling approaches. Stimulation of macrophages with heat-killed Escherichia coli resulted in three main changes; a significant reduction in the amount of individual ceramide species, an altered composition of phosphatidylcholine, and an increased rate of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in macrophages. These changes were observed in macrophages from both healthy control individuals and patients with Crohn's disease. The only difference detected between control and Crohn's disease macrophages was a reduced proportion of newly-synthesised phosphatidylinositol 16:0/18:1 over a defined time period. Shotgun lipidomics analysis of macroscopically non-inflamed ileal biopsies showed a significant decrease in this same lipid species with overall preservation of sphingolipid, phospholipid and cholesterol composition.

Shotgun Cholanomics of Ileal Fluid

Biochimie. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 22986022

In this study we have developed a rapid method for the shotgun analysis of bile acids in intestinal fluid. The method is semi-quantitative, and requires little sample preparation. Bile salts might contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. In a pilot study we demonstrate the method by analysing the bile acid content of ileal fluid from seven Crohn's disease patients and three healthy controls. The dominant bile acids observed were di and/or trihydroxycholanoates, di- and/or trihydroxycholanoylglycines, di- and/or tri-hydroxycholanoyltaurines, monosulphated dihydroxycholanoates and monosulphated dihydroxycholanoylglycine. The method can be similarly applied to samples derived from other parts of the intestine.

What is Wrong with Granulocytes in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

Digestive Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24246982

The neutrophil plays a central role in the acute inflammatory response, a crucial mechanism required for the efficient clearance of invading microorganisms and antigenic material. Patients with primary immunodeficiencies of neutrophil function, particularly chronic granulomatous disease, are predisposed to develop bowel inflammation that is indistinguishable from Crohn's disease (CD) on the basis of clinical, endoscopic and histopathological features. The intrinsic function of the neutrophil is normal in the vast majority of patients with CD; however, there is clear evidence of an impairment of neutrophil recruitment to sites of trauma and bacterial infection. This is associated with an inability to adequately clear bacteria that have penetrated the tissues, resulting in the formation of granulomata, the histological hallmark of the disease, and the subsequent initiation of a chronic adaptive immune response. The reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages, most notably TNF-α, may account for the attenuated neutrophil recruitment observed in CD. Stimulation of the innate immune system in CD, particularly in patients in remission, may be an alternative therapeutic strategy that could reduce the risk of future disease relapses.

ZODET: Software for the Identification, Analysis and Visualisation of Outlier Genes in Microarray Expression Data

PloS One. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24416128

Complex human diseases can show significant heterogeneity between patients with the same phenotypic disorder. An outlier detection strategy was developed to identify variants at the level of gene transcription that are of potential biological and phenotypic importance. Here we describe a graphical software package (z-score outlier detection (ZODET)) that enables identification and visualisation of gross abnormalities in gene expression (outliers) in individuals, using whole genome microarray data. Mean and standard deviation of expression in a healthy control cohort is used to detect both over and under-expressed probes in individual test subjects. We compared the potential of ZODET to detect outlier genes in gene expression datasets with a previously described statistical method, gene tissue index (GTI), using a simulated expression dataset and a publicly available monocyte-derived macrophage microarray dataset. Taken together, these results support ZODET as a novel approach to identify outlier genes of potential pathogenic relevance in complex human diseases. The algorithm is implemented using R packages and Java.

Mucosal Transcriptomics Implicates Under Expression of BRINP3 in the Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25171508

Mucosal abnormalities are potentially important in the primary pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the mucosal transcriptomic expression profiles of biopsies from patients with UC and healthy controls, taken from macroscopically noninflamed tissue from the terminal ileum and 3 colonic locations with the objective of identifying abnormal molecules that might be involved in disease development.

Two CGD Families with a Hypomorphic Mutation in the Activation Domain of P67(phox)

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25937994

Chronic granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme generates superoxide, which is needed for the killing of bacteria and fungi by phagocytic leukocytes. Most CGD patients have mutations in CYBB, the X-linked gene that encodes gp91(phox), the catalytic subunit of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. We report here three autosomal recessive CGD patients from two families with a homozygous mutation in NCF2, the gene that encodes p67(phox), the activator subunit of the NADPH oxidase.

Disruption of Macrophage Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Release in Crohn's Disease is Associated with Reduced Optineurin Expression in a Subset of Patients

Immunology. Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 24943399

Crohn's disease (CD) is a complex and highly heterogeneous chronic inflammatory disorder, primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic and functional studies have highlighted a key role for innate immunity in its pathogenesis. Profound systemic defects in innate immunity and acute inflammation are understood to result in markedly delayed clearance of bacteria from the tissues, leading to local chronic granulomatous inflammation and compensatory adaptive immunological changes. Macrophages, key orchestrators of acute inflammation, are likely to play an important role in the initial impaired innate immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages from CD patients stimulated with Escherichia coli were shown to release attenuated levels of tumour necrosis factor and interferon-γ with normal secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-10 and IL-6. In controls, the secretion of these cytokines was strongly positively correlated, which was not seen with CD macrophages. The transcriptomes of CD and control macrophages were examined in an attempt to understand the molecular basis of this defect. There were no differentially expressed genes identified between the two groups, consistent with genetic heterogeneity; however, a number of molecules were found to be under-expressed in subgroups of CD patients. The most common of these was optineurin (OPTN) which was under-expressed in approximately 10% of the CD patients. Reduced OPTN expression coincided with lower intracellular protein levels and diminished cytokine secretion after bacterial stimulation both in the patients and with small interfering RNA knockdown in THP-1 cells. Identifying and studying subgroups of patients with shared defective gene expression could aid our understanding of the mechanisms underlying highly heterogeneous diseases such as CD.

Characterization of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in the Human Colon

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25569741

Many genetic risk loci have been identified for inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer; however, identifying the causal genes for each association signal remains a challenge. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have identified common variants that induce differential gene expression and eQTLs can be cross-referenced with disease association signals for gene prioritization. However, the genetics of gene expression are highly tissue-specific, and further eQTL datasets from primary tissues are needed.

Alkalinity of Neutrophil Phagocytic Vacuoles is Modulated by HVCN1 and Has Consequences for Myeloperoxidase Activity

PloS One. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25885273

The NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, essential for innate immunity, passes electrons across the phagocytic membrane to form superoxide in the phagocytic vacuole. Activity of the oxidase requires that charge movements across the vacuolar membrane are balanced. Using the pH indicator SNARF, we measured changes in pH in the phagocytic vacuole and cytosol of neutrophils. In human cells, the vacuolar pH rose to ~9, and the cytosol acidified slightly. By contrast, in Hvcn1 knock out mouse neutrophils, the vacuolar pH rose above 11, vacuoles swelled, and the cytosol acidified excessively, demonstrating that ordinarily this channel plays an important role in charge compensation. Proton extrusion was not diminished in Hvcn1-/- mouse neutrophils arguing against its role in maintaining pH homeostasis across the plasma membrane. Conditions in the vacuole are optimal for bacterial killing by the neutral proteases, cathepsin G and elastase, and not by myeloperoxidase, activity of which was unphysiologically low at alkaline pH.

Combinatorial Conflicting Homozygosity (CCH) Analysis Enables the Rapid Identification of Shared Genomic Regions in the Presence of Multiple Phenocopies

BMC Genomics. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25888400

The ability to identify regions of the genome inherited with a dominant trait in one or more families has become increasingly valuable with the wide availability of high throughput sequencing technology. While a number of methods exist for mapping of homozygous variants segregating with recessive traits in consanguineous families, dominant conditions are conventionally analysed by linkage analysis, which requires computationally demanding haplotype reconstruction from marker genotypes and, even using advanced parallel approximation implementations, can take substantial time, particularly for large pedigrees. In addition, linkage analysis lacks sensitivity in the presence of phenocopies (individuals sharing the trait but not the genetic variant responsible). Combinatorial Conflicting Homozygosity (CCH) analysis uses high density biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker genotypes to identify genetic loci within which consecutive markers are not homozygous for different alleles. This allows inference of identical by descent (IBD) inheritance of a haplotype among a set or subsets of related or unrelated individuals.

Optineurin Deficiency in Mice Contributes to Impaired Cytokine Secretion and Neutrophil Recruitment in Bacteria-driven Colitis

Disease Models & Mechanisms. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26044960

Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with delayed neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance at sites of acute inflammation as a result of impaired secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. To investigate the impaired cytokine secretion and confirm our previous findings, we performed transcriptomic analysis in macrophages and identified a subgroup of individuals with CD who had low expression of the autophagy receptor optineurin (OPTN). We then clarified the role of OPTN deficiency in: macrophage cytokine secretion; mouse models of bacteria-driven colitis and peritonitis; and zebrafish Salmonella infection. OPTN-deficient bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with heat-killed Escherichia coli secreted less proinflammatory TNFα and IL6 cytokines despite similar gene transcription, which normalised with lysosomal and autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that TNFα is mis-trafficked to lysosomes via bafilomycin-A-dependent pathways in the absence of OPTN. OPTN-deficient mice were more susceptible to Citrobacter colitis and E. coli peritonitis, and showed reduced levels of proinflammatory TNFα in serum, diminished neutrophil recruitment to sites of acute inflammation and greater mortality, compared with wild-type mice. Optn-knockdown zebrafish infected with Salmonella also had higher mortality. OPTN plays a role in acute inflammation and neutrophil recruitment, potentially via defective macrophage proinflammatory cytokine secretion, which suggests that diminished OPTN expression in humans might increase the risk of developing CD.

Critical Role of the Disintegrin Metalloprotease ADAM-like Decysin-1 [ADAMDEC1] for Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation

Journal of Crohn's & Colitis. Dec, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27226416

ADAM [A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase] is a family of peptidase proteins which have diverse roles in tissue homeostasis and immunity. Here, we study ADAM-like DECysin-1 [ADAMDEC1] a unique member of the ADAM family. ADAMDEC1 expression is restricted to the macrophage/dendritic cell populations of the gastrointestinal tract and secondary lymphoid tissue. The biological function of ADAMDEC1 is unknown but it has been hypothesised to play a role in immunity. The identification of reduced ADAMDEC1 expression in Crohn's disease patients has provided evidence of a potential role in bowel inflammation.

NADPH Oxidases As Electrochemical Generators to Produce Ion Fluxes and Turgor in Fungi, Plants and Humans

Open Biology. May, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27249799

The NOXs are a family of flavocytochromes whose basic structure has been largely conserved from algae to man. This is a very simple system. NADPH is generally available, in plants it is a direct product of photosynthesis, and oxygen is a largely ubiquitous electron acceptor, and the electron-transporting core of an FAD and two haems is the minimal required to pass electrons across the plasma membrane. These NOXs have been shown to be essential for diverse functions throughout the biological world and, lacking a clear mechanism of action, their effects have generally been attributed to free radical reactions. Investigation into the function of neutrophil leucocytes has demonstrated that electron transport through the prototype NOX2 is accompanied by the generation of a charge across the membrane that provides the driving force propelling protons and other ions across the plasma membrane. The contention is that the primary function of the NOXs is to supply the driving force to transport ions, the nature of which will depend upon the composition and characteristics of the local ion channels, to undertake a host of diverse functions. These include the generation of turgor in fungi and plants for the growth of filaments and invasion by appressoria in the former, and extension of pollen tubes and root hairs, and stomatal closure, in the latter. In neutrophils, they elevate the pH in the phagocytic vacuole coupled to other ion fluxes. In endothelial cells of blood vessels, they could alter luminal volume to regulate blood pressure and tissue perfusion.

Genetic Complexity of Crohn's Disease in Two Large Ashkenazi Jewish Families

Gastroenterology. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27373512

Crohn's disease (CD) is a highly heritable disease that is particularly common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. We studied 2 large Ashkenazi Jewish families with a high prevalence of CD in an attempt to identify novel genetic risk variants.

A Frameshift in CSF2RB Predominant Among Ashkenazi Jews Increases Risk for Crohn's Disease and Reduces Monocyte Signaling Via GM-CSF

Gastroenterology. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27377463

Crohn's disease (CD) has the highest prevalence in Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We sought to identify rare, CD-associated frameshift variants of high functional and statistical effects.

The NADPH Oxidase and Microbial Killing by Neutrophils, With a Particular Emphasis on the Proposed Antimicrobial Role of Myeloperoxidase Within the Phagocytic Vacuole

Microbiology Spectrum. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27726789

This review is devoted to a consideration of the way in which the NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, NOX2, functions to enable the efficient killing of bacteria and fungi. It includes a critical examination of the current dogma that its primary purpose is the generation of hydrogen peroxide as substrate for myeloperoxidase-catalyzed generation of hypochlorite. Instead, it is demonstrated that NADPH oxidase functions to optimize the ionic and pH conditions within the vacuole for the solubilization and optimal activity of the proteins released into this compartment from the cytoplasmic granules, which kill and digest the microbes. The general role of other NOX systems as electrochemical generators to alter the pH and ionic composition in compartments on either side of a membrane in plants and animals will also be examined.

Making Sense of the Cause of Crohn's - a New Look at an Old Disease

F1000Research. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 28105308

The cause of Crohn's disease (CD) has posed a conundrum for at least a century. A large body of work coupled with recent technological advances in genome research have at last started to provide some of the answers. Initially this review seeks to explain and to differentiate between bowel inflammation in the primary immunodeficiencies that generally lead to very early onset diffuse bowel inflammation in humans and in animal models, and the real syndrome of CD. In the latter, a trigger, almost certainly enteric infection by one of a multitude of organisms, allows the faeces access to the tissues, at which stage the response of individuals predisposed to CD is abnormal. Direct investigation of patients' inflammatory response together with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and DNA sequencing indicate that in CD the failure of acute inflammation and the clearance of bacteria from the tissues, and from within cells, is defective. The retained faecal products result in the characteristic chronic granulomatous inflammation and adaptive immune response. In this review I will examine the contemporary evidence that has led to this understanding, and look for explanations for the recent dramatic increase in the incidence of this disease.

An Exploration of Charge Compensating Ion Channels Across the Phagocytic Vacuole of Neutrophils

Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28293191

Neutrophils phagocytosing bacteria and fungi exhibit a burst of non-mitochondrial respiration that is required to kill and digest the engulfed microbes. This respiration is accomplished by the movement of electrons across the wall of the phagocytic vacuole by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, NOX2. In this study, we have attempted to identify the non-proton ion channels or transporters involved in charge compensation by examining the effect of inhibitors on vacuolar pH and cross-sectional area, and on oxygen consumption. The chloride channel inhibitors 4-[(2-Butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-inden-5-yl)oxy]butanoic acid (DCPIB) and flufenamic acid (FFA) were the most effective inhibitors of alkalinisation in human neutrophil vacuoles, suggesting an efflux of chloride from the vacuole. The proton channel inhibitor, zinc (Zn(2+)), combined with DCPIB caused more vacuolar swelling than either compound alone, suggesting the conductance of osmotically active cations into the vacuole. Support for cation influx was provided by the broad-spectrum cation transport inhibitors anandamide and quinidine which inhibited vacuolar alkalinisation and swelling when applied with zinc. Oxygen consumption was generally unaffected by these anion or cation inhibitors alone, but when combined with Zn(2+) it was dramatically reduced, suggesting that multiple channels in combination can compensate the charge. In an attempt to identify specific channels, we tested neutrophils from knock-out mouse models including CLIC1, ClC3, ClC4, ClC7, KCC3, KCNQ1, KCNE3, KCNJ15, TRPC1/3/5/6, TRPA1/TRPV1, TRPM2, and TRPV2, and double knockouts of CLIC1, ClC3, KCC3, TRPM2, and KCNQ1 with HVCN1, and humans with channelopathies involving BEST1, ClC7, CFTR, and MCOLN1. No gross abnormalities in vacuolar pH or area were found in any of these cells suggesting that we had not tested the correct channel, or that there is redundancy in the system. The respiratory burst was suppressed in the KCC3(-/-) and enhanced in the CLIC1(-/-) cells, but was normal in all others, including ClC3(-/-). These results suggest charge compensation by a chloride conductance out of the vacuole and by cation/s into it. The identity of these channels remains to be established.

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