In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Arianna Psichas in JoVE

Other articles by Arianna Psichas on PubMed

Weight Gain and Insulin Sensitivity: a Role for the Glycaemic Index and Dietary Fibre?

The British Journal of Nutrition. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23181986

Impacts of Plant-based Foods in Ancestral Hominin Diets on the Metabolism and Function of Gut Microbiota in Vitro

MBio. May, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24846385

Ancestral human populations had diets containing more indigestible plant material than present-day diets in industrialized countries. One hypothesis for the rise in prevalence of obesity is that physiological mechanisms for controlling appetite evolved to match a diet with plant fiber content higher than that of present-day diets. We investigated how diet affects gut microbiota and colon cells by comparing human microbial communities with those from a primate that has an extreme plant-based diet, namely, the gelada baboon, which is a grazer. The effects of potato (high starch) versus grass (high lignin and cellulose) diets on human-derived versus gelada-derived fecal communities were compared in vitro. We especially focused on the production of short-chain fatty acids, which are hypothesized to be key metabolites influencing appetite regulation pathways. The results confirmed that diet has a major effect on bacterial numbers, short-chain fatty acid production, and the release of hormones involved in appetite suppression. The potato diet yielded greater production of short-chain fatty acids and hormone release than the grass diet, even in the gelada cultures, which we had expected should be better adapted to the grass diet. The strong effects of diet on hormone release could not be explained, however, solely by short-chain fatty acid concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy found changes in additional metabolites, including betaine and isoleucine, that might play key roles in inhibiting and stimulating appetite suppression pathways. Our study results indicate that a broader array of metabolites might be involved in triggering gut hormone release in humans than previously thought.

Stimulation of GLP-1 Secretion Downstream of the Ligand-gated Ion Channel TRPA1

Diabetes. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25325736

Stimulus-coupled incretin secretion from enteroendocrine cells plays a fundamental role in glucose homeostasis and could be targeted for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigated the expression and function of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in enteroendocrine L cells producing GLP-1. By microarray and quantitative PCR analysis, we identified trpa1 as an L cell-enriched transcript in the small intestine. Calcium imaging of primary L cells and the model cell line GLUTag revealed responses triggered by the TRPA1 agonists allyl-isothiocyanate (mustard oil), carvacrol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which were blocked by TRPA1 antagonists. Electrophysiology in GLUTag cells showed that carvacrol induced a current with characteristics typical of TRPA1 and triggered the firing of action potentials. TRPA1 activation caused an increase in GLP-1 secretion from primary murine intestinal cultures and GLUTag cells, an effect that was abolished in cultures from trpa1(-/-) mice or by pharmacological TRPA1 inhibition. These findings present TRPA1 as a novel sensory mechanism in enteroendocrine L cells, coupled to the facilitation of GLP-1 release, which may be exploitable as a target for treating diabetes.

Effects of Targeted Delivery of Propionate to the Human Colon on Appetite Regulation, Body Weight Maintenance and Adiposity in Overweight Adults

Gut. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25500202

The colonic microbiota ferment dietary fibres, producing short chain fatty acids. Recent evidence suggests that the short chain fatty acid propionate may play an important role in appetite regulation. We hypothesised that colonic delivery of propionate would increase peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in humans, and reduce energy intake and weight gain in overweight adults.

Gut Chemosensing Mechanisms

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25664852

The enteroendocrine system is the primary sensor of ingested nutrients and is responsible for secreting an array of gut hormones, which modulate multiple physiological responses including gastrointestinal motility and secretion, glucose homeostasis, and appetite. This Review provides an up-to-date synopsis of the molecular mechanisms underlying enteroendocrine nutrient sensing and highlights our current understanding of the neuro-hormonal regulation of gut hormone secretion, including the interaction between the enteroendocrine system and the enteric nervous system. It is hoped that a deeper understanding of how these systems collectively regulate postprandial physiology will further facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro

Nutrients. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26053617

Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

Galanin Inhibits GLP-1 and GIP Secretion Via the GAL1 Receptor in Enteroendocrine L and K Cells

British Journal of Pharmacology. Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26661062

Galanin is a widely expressed neuropeptide, which in the gut is thought to modulate gastrointestinal motility and secretion. We aimed to elucidate the poorly characterised mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of galanin and the potential involvement of G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium, Kir 3, (GIRK) channels in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion.

Fermentable Carbohydrate Stimulates FFAR2-dependent Colonic PYY Cell Expansion to increase Satiety

Molecular Metabolism. Jan, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28123937

Dietary supplementation with fermentable carbohydrate protects against body weight gain. Fermentation by the resident gut microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, which act at free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2). Our aim was to test the hypothesis that FFAR2 is important in regulating the beneficial effects of fermentable carbohydrate on body weight and to understand the role of gut hormones PYY and GLP-1.

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