In JoVE (1)
Articles by Catherine J. Fricano-Kugler in JoVE
Designing, Packaging, and Delivery of High Titer CRISPR Retro and Lentiviruses via Stereotaxic Injection Catherine J. Fricano-Kugler1, Michael R. Williams1, Julia R. Salinaro1, Meijie Li1, Bryan Luikart1 1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College The CRISPR/Cas9 system offers the potential to make targeted genome editing accessible and affordable to the scientific community. This protocol is intended to demonstrate how to create viruses that will knockout a gene of interest using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and then inject them stereotaxically into the adult mouse brain.
Other articles by Catherine J. Fricano-Kugler on PubMed
Analyzing Clustered Data: Why and How to Account for Multiple Observations Nested Within a Study Participant? PloS One. 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26766425 A conventional study design among medical and biological experimentalists involves collecting multiple measurements from a study subject. For example, experiments utilizing mouse models in neuroscience often involve collecting multiple neuron measurements per mouse to increase the number of observations without requiring a large number of mice. This leads to a form of statistical dependence referred to as clustering. Inappropriate analyses of clustered data have resulted in several recent critiques of neuroscience research that suggest the bar for statistical analyses within the field is set too low. We compare naïve analytical approaches to marginal, fixed-effect, and mixed-effect models and provide guidelines for when each of these models is most appropriate based on study design. We demonstrate the influence of clustering on a between-mouse treatment effect, a within-mouse treatment effect, and an interaction effect between the two. Our analyses demonstrate that these statistical approaches can give substantially different results, primarily when the analyses include a between-mouse treatment effect. In a novel analysis from a neuroscience perspective, we also refine the mixed-effect approach through the inclusion of an aggregate mouse-level counterpart to a within-mouse (neuron level) treatment as an additional predictor by adapting an advanced modeling technique that has been used in social science research and show that this yields more informative results. Based on these findings, we emphasize the importance of appropriate analyses of clustered data, and we aim for this work to serve as a resource for when one is deciding which approach will work best for a given study.
A Retroviral CRISPR-Cas9 System for Cellular Autism-Associated Phenotype Discovery in Developing Neurons Scientific Reports. 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27161796 Retroviruses expressing a fluorescent protein, Cas9, and a small guide RNA are used to mimic nonsense PTEN mutations from autism patients in developing mouse neurons. We compare the cellular phenotype elicited by CRISPR-Cas9 to those elicited using shRNA or Cre/Lox technologies and find that knockdown or knockout (KO) produced a corresponding moderate or severe neuronal hypertrophy in all cells. In contrast, the Cas9 approach produced missense and nonsense Pten mutations, resulting in a mix of KO-equivalent hypertrophic and wild type-like phenotypes. Importantly, despite this mixed phenotype, the neuronal hypertrophy resulting from Pten loss was evident on average in the population of manipulated cells. Having reproduced the known Pten KO phenotype using the CRISPR-Cas9 system we design viruses to target a gene that has recently been associated with autism, KATNAL2. Katnal2 deletion in the mouse results in decreased dendritic arborization of developing neurons. We conclude that retroviral implementation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system is an efficient system for cellular phenotype discovery in wild-type animals.