Articles by Catherine Villard in JoVE
High-resolution Volume Imaging of Neurons by the Use of Fluorescence eXclusion Method and Dedicated Microfluidic Devices Céline Braïni1, Angelo Mottolese1, Ivan Ferrante1, Sylvain Monnier2, Catherine Villard1 1Laboratoire Physico-Chimie Curie, Institut Curie, Institut Pierre-Gilles de Gennes pour la microfluidique, Université PSL, CNRS, 2UMR 144 Institut Curie, Université PSL, CNRS Volume is an important parameter regarding physiological and pathological characteristics of cells. We describe a fluorescent exclusion method allowing full-field measurement of in vitro neuronal volume with sub-micrometric axial resolution required for the analysis of neurites and dynamic structures implied in neuronal growth.
Other articles by Catherine Villard on PubMed
In-mold Patterning and Actionable Axo-somatic Compartmentalization for On-chip Neuron Culture Lab on a Chip. | Pubmed ID: 27170212 Oriented neuronal networks with controlled connectivity are required for many applications ranging from studies of neurodegeneration to neuronal computation. To build such networks in vitro, an efficient, directed and long lasting guidance of axons toward their target is a pre-requisite. The best guidance achieved so far, however, relies on confining axons in enclosed microchannels, making them poorly accessible for further investigation. Here we describe a method providing accessible and highly regular arrays of axons, emanating from somas positioned in distinct compartments. This method combines the use of a novel removable partition, allowing soma positioning outside of the axon guidance patterns, and in-mold patterning (iMP), a hybrid method combining chemical and mechanical cell positioning clues applied here for the first time to neurons. The axon guidance efficiency of iMP is compared to that of conventional patterning methods, e.g. micro-contact printing (chemical constraints by a poly-l-lysine motif) and micro-grooves (physical constraints by homogeneously coated microstructures), using guiding tracks of different widths and spacing. We show that iMP provides a gain of 10 to 100 in axon confinement efficiency on the tracks, yielding mm-long, highly regular, and fully accessible on-chip axon arrays. iMP also allows well-defined axon guidance from small populations of several neurons confined at predefined positions in μm-sized wells. iMP will thus open new routes for the construction of complex and accurately controlled neuronal networks.
Asymmetric Axonal Edge Guidance: a New Paradigm for Building Oriented Neuronal Networks Lab on a Chip. | Pubmed ID: 27225661 We present a novel kind of directional axon guides for brain-on-a-chip applications. Contrarily to previous works, the directionality in our design is created by rerouting axons growing in the unwanted direction back to their original compartment while leaving the other growth direction unaffected. This design yields state-of-the-art levels of directionality without the disadvantages of previously reported technologies.
Geometrical Determinants of Neuronal Actin Waves Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. | Pubmed ID: 28424590 Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical cues are used to control actin wave dynamics by constraining neurons on adhesive stripes of various widths. A key observable, the average time between the production of consecutive actin waves, or mean inter-wave interval (IWI), was identified. It scales with the neurite width, and more precisely with the width of the proximal segment close to the soma. In addition, the IWI is independent of the total number of neurites. These two results suggest a mechanistic model of actin wave production, by which the material conveyed by actin waves is assembled in the soma until it reaches the threshold leading to the initiation and propagation of a new actin wave. Based on these observations, we formulate a predictive theoretical description of actin wave-driven neuronal growth and polarization, which consistently accounts for different sets of experiments.