Articles by Charlene Miller in JoVE
Laparoscopic Technique for Serial Collection of Liver and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Macaques Alexander S. Zevin1, Cassie Moats2, Drew May2, Solomon Wangari2, Charlene Miller1, Joel Ahrens2, Naoto Iwayama2, Megan Brown2, Debbie Bratt2, Nichole R. Klatt1, Jeremy Smedley2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, 2Division of Primate Resources, Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington Here, we describe a minimally invasive laparoscopic technique for serial sampling of liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in macaques that allows for increased sampling frequency, and reduces the potential for surgical complications when compared to performing a laparotomy.
Other articles by Charlene Miller on PubMed
Photosynthetic Costs and Benefits of Abaxial Versus Adaxial Anthocyanins in Colocasia Esculenta 'Mojito' Planta. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24903360 Anthocyanins in upper (adaxial) leaf tissues provide greater photoprotection than in lower (abaxial) tissues, but also predispose tissues to increased shade acclimation and, consequently, reduced photosynthetic capacity. Abaxial anthocyanins may be a compromise between these costs/benefits. Plants adapted to shaded understory environments often exhibit red/purple anthocyanin pigmentation in lower (abaxial) leaf surfaces, but rarely in upper (adaxial) surfaces. The functional significance of this color pattern in leaves is poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that abaxial anthocyanins protect leaves of understory plants from photo-oxidative stress via light attenuation during periodic exposure to high incident sunlight in the forest understory, without interfering with sunlight capture and photosynthesis during shade conditions. We utilize a cultivar of Colocasia esculenta exhibiting adaxial and abaxial anthocyanin variegation within individual leaves to compare tissues with the following color patterns: green adaxial, green abaxial (GG), green adaxial, red abaxial (GR), red adaxial, green abaxial (RG), and red adaxial, red abaxial (RR). Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanins, tissues exhibited symptoms of increasing photoinhibition in the order (from least to greatest): RR, RG, GR, GG. Anthocyanic tissues also showed symptoms of shade acclimation (higher total chl, lower chl a/b) in the same relative order. Inconsistent with our hypothesis, we did not observe any differences in photosynthetic CO2 uptake under shade conditions between the tissue types. However, GG and GR had significantly (39 %) higher photosynthesis at saturating irradiance (A sat) than RG and RR. Because tissue types did not differ in nitrogen content, these patterns likely reflect differences in resource allocation at the tissue level, with greater nitrogen allocated toward energy processing in GG and GR, and energy capture in RG and RR (consistent with relative sun/shade acclimation). We conclude that abaxial anthocyanins are likely advantageous in understory environments because they provide some photoprotection during high-light exposure, but without the cost of decreased A sat associated with adaxial anthocyanin-induced shade syndrome.
Enhancement of Microbiota in Healthy Macaques Results in Beneficial Modulation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Function Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Mar, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26826246 Given the critical role of mucosal surfaces in susceptibility to infection, it is imperative that effective mucosal responses are induced when developing efficacious vaccines and prevention strategies for infection. Modulating the microbiota in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract through the use of probiotics (PBio) is a safe and well-tolerated approach to enhance mucosal and overall health. We assessed the longitudinal impact of daily treatment with the VSL#3 probiotic on cellular and humoral immunity and inflammation in healthy macaques. PBio therapy resulted in significantly increased frequencies of B cells expressing IgA in the colon and lymph node (LN), likely because of significantly increased LN T follicular helper cell frequencies and LN follicles. Increased frequencies of IL-23(+) APCs in the colon were found post-PBio treatment, which correlated with LN T follicular helper cells. Finally, VSL#3 significantly downmodulated the response of TLR2-, TLR3-, TLR4-, and TLR9-expressing HEK293 cells to stimulation with Pam3CSK4, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, LPS, and ODN2006, respectively. These data provide a mechanism for the beneficial impact of PBio on mucosal health and implicates the use of PBio therapy in the context of vaccination or preventative approaches to enhance protection from mucosal infection by improving immune defenses at the mucosal portal of entry.
Effects of Fecal Microbial Transplantation on Microbiome and Immunity in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques Journal of Virology. May, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26937040 An altered intestinal microbiome during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with mucosal dysfunction, inflammation, and disease progression. We performed a preclinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential therapeutic in HIV-infected individuals. Antiretroviral-treated, chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques received antibiotics followed by FMT. The greatest microbiota shift was observed after antibiotic treatment. The bacterial community composition at 2 weeks post-FMT resembled the pre-FMT community structure, although differences in the abundances of minor bacterial populations remained. Immunologically, we observed significant increases in the number of peripheral Th17 and Th22 cells and reduced CD4(+) T cell activation in gastrointestinal tissues post-FMT. Importantly, the transplant was well tolerated with no negative clinical side effects. Although this pilot study did not control for the differential contributions of antibiotic treatment and FMT to the observed results, the data suggest that FMT may have beneficial effects that should be further evaluated in larger studies.