In JoVE (1)
Articles by Charles J. Arayata in JoVE
Taste Exam: A Brief and Validated Test Jennifer E. Douglas1,2, Corrine J. Mansfield2, Charles J. Arayata2, Beverly J. Cowart2, Lauren R. Colquitt2, Ivy W. Maina1,2, Mariel T. Blasetti3, Noam A. Cohen3, Danielle R. Reed2 1Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 2Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Division of Rhinology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania This protocol measures human taste responses and includes a brief anatomical assessment, a short taste test, and a validation method using the subject's reported sensation and taste receptor genotype.
Other articles by Charles J. Arayata on PubMed
Body Composition QTLs Identified in Intercross Populations Are Reproducible in Consomic Mouse Strains PloS One. 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26551037 Genetic variation contributes to individual differences in obesity, but defining the exact relationships between naturally occurring genotypes and their effects on fatness remains elusive. As a step toward positional cloning of previously identified body composition quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from F2 crosses of mice from the C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J inbred strains, we sought to recapture them on a homogenous genetic background of consomic (chromosome substitution) strains. Male and female mice from reciprocal consomic strains originating from the C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J strains were bred and measured for body weight, length, and adiposity. Chromosomes 2, 7, and 9 were selected for substitution because previous F2 intercross studies revealed body composition QTLs on these chromosomes. We considered a QTL confirmed if one or both sexes of one or both reciprocal consomic strains differed significantly from the host strain in the expected direction after correction for multiple testing. Using these criteria, we confirmed two of two QTLs for body weight (Bwq5-6), three of three QTLs for body length (Bdln3-5), and three of three QTLs for adiposity (Adip20, Adip26 and Adip27). Overall, this study shows that despite the biological complexity of body size and composition, most QTLs for these traits are preserved when transferred to consomic strains; in addition, studying reciprocal consomic strains of both sexes is useful in assessing the robustness of a particular QTL.
Adiposity QTL Adip20 Decomposes into at Least Four Loci when Dissected Using Congenic Strains PloS One. 2017 | Pubmed ID: 29194435 An average mouse in midlife weighs between 25 and 30 g, with about a gram of tissue in the largest adipose depot (gonadal), and the weight of this depot differs between inbred strains. Specifically, C57BL/6ByJ mice have heavier gonadal depots on average than do 129P3/J mice. To understand the genetic contributions to this trait, we mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for gonadal depot weight in an F2 intercross population. Our goal here was to fine-map one of these QTLs, Adip20 (formerly Adip5), on mouse chromosome 9. To that end, we analyzed the weight of the gonadal adipose depot from newly created congenic strains. Results from the sequential comparison method indicated at least four rather than one QTL; two of the QTLs were less than 0.5 Mb apart, with opposing directions of allelic effect. Different types of evidence (missense and regulatory genetic variation, human adiposity/body mass index orthologues, and differential gene expression) implicated numerous candidate genes from the four QTL regions. These results highlight the value of mouse congenic strains and the value of this sequential method to dissect challenging genetic architecture.
Burly1 is a Mouse QTL for Lean Body Mass That Maps to a 0.8-Mb Region of Chromosome 2 Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society. Jun, 2018 | Pubmed ID: 29737391 To fine map a mouse QTL for lean body mass (Burly1), we used information from intercross, backcross, consomic, and congenic mice derived from the C57BL/6ByJ (host) and 129P3/J (donor) strains. The results from these mapping populations were concordant and showed that Burly1 is located between 151.9 and 152.7 Mb (rs33197365 to rs3700604) on mouse chromosome 2. The congenic region harboring Burly1 contains 26 protein-coding genes, 11 noncoding RNA elements (e.g., lncRNA), and 4 pseudogenes, with 1949 predicted functional variants. Of the protein-coding genes, 7 have missense variants, including genes that may contribute to lean body weight, such as Angpt41, Slc52c3, and Rem1. Lean body mass was increased by the B6-derived variant relative to the 129-derived allele. Burly1 influenced lean body weight at all ages but not food intake or locomotor activity. However, congenic mice with the B6 allele produced more heat per kilogram of lean body weight than did controls, pointing to a genotype effect on lean mass metabolism. These results show the value of integrating information from several mapping populations to refine the map location of body composition QTLs and to identify a short list of candidate genes.