In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Chew-Li Soh in JoVE

Other articles by Chew-Li Soh on PubMed

A Targeted NKX2.1 Human Embryonic Stem Cell Reporter Line Enables Identification of Human Basal Forebrain Derivatives

Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Mar, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21425409

We have used homologous recombination in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to insert sequences encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the NKX2.1 locus, a gene required for normal development of the basal forebrain. Generation of NKX2.1-GFP(+) cells was dependent on the concentration, timing, and duration of retinoic acid treatment during differentiation. NKX2.1-GFP(+) progenitors expressed genes characteristic of the basal forebrain, including SHH, DLX1, LHX6, and OLIG2. Time course analysis revealed that NKX2.1-GFP(+) cells could upregulate FOXG1 expression, implying the existence of a novel pathway for the generation of telencephalic neural derivatives. Further maturation of NKX2.1-GFP(+) cells gave rise to γ-aminobutyric acid-, tyrosine hydroxylase-, and somatostatin-expressing neurons as well as to platelet-derived growth factor receptor α-positive oligodendrocyte precursors. These studies highlight the diversity of cell types that can be generated from human NKX2.1(+) progenitors and demonstrate the utility of NKX2.1(GFP/w) hESCs for investigating human forebrain development and neuronal differentiation.

Rewiring Immunity: Generating a Functional Thymus from HESCs… Are We There Yet?

Cell Stem Cell. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23910077

Two papers in this issue of Cell Stem Cell have made a significant advance in solving one of the great challenges of modern immunology-resurrecting thymus function through the induction of thymus epithelial cells (TECs) by directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).

FOXN1 (GFP/w) Reporter HESCs Enable Identification of Integrin-β4, HLA-DR, and EpCAM As Markers of Human PSC-derived FOXN1(+) Thymic Epithelial Progenitors

Stem Cell Reports. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24936476

Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a critical role in T cell maturation and tolerance induction. The generation of TECs from in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provides a platform on which to study the mechanisms of this interaction and has implications for immune reconstitution. To facilitate analysis of PSC-derived TECs, we generated hESC reporter lines in which sequences encoding GFP were targeted to FOXN1, a gene required for TEC development. Using this FOXN1 (GFP/w) line as a readout, we developed a reproducible protocol for generating FOXN1-GFP(+) thymic endoderm cells. Transcriptional profiling and flow cytometry identified integrin-β4 (ITGB4, CD104) and HLA-DR as markers that could be used in combination with EpCAM to selectively purify FOXN1(+) TEC progenitors from differentiating cultures of unmanipulated PSCs. Human FOXN1(+) TEC progenitors generated from PSCs facilitate the study of thymus biology and are a valuable resource for future applications in regenerative medicine.

Genome Editing of Lineage Determinants in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Reveals Mechanisms of Pancreatic Development and Diabetes

Cell Stem Cell. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27133796

Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into somatic counterparts is a valuable tool for studying disease. However, examination of developmental mechanisms in hPSCs remains challenging given complex multi-factorial actions at different stages. Here, we used TALEN and CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene editing and hPSC-directed differentiation for a systematic analysis of the roles of eight pancreatic transcription factors (PDX1, RFX6, PTF1A, GLIS3, MNX1, NGN3, HES1, and ARX). Our analysis not only verified conserved gene requirements between mice and humans but also revealed a number of previously unsuspected developmental mechanisms with implications for type 2 diabetes. These include a role of RFX6 in regulating the number of pancreatic progenitors, a haploinsufficient requirement for PDX1 in pancreatic β cell differentiation, and a potentially divergent role of NGN3 in humans and mice. Our findings support use of systematic genome editing in hPSCs as a strategy for understanding mechanisms underlying congenital disorders.

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutagenesis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Defined Xeno-Free E8 Medium

Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27709569

The recent advent of engineered nucleases including the CRISPR/Cas9 system has greatly facilitated genome manipulation in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). In addition to facilitating hPSC-based disease studies, the application of genome engineering in hPSCs has also opened up new avenues for cell replacement therapy. To improve consistency and reproducibility of hPSC-based studies, and to meet the safety and regulatory requirements for clinical translation, it is necessary to use a defined, xeno-free cell culture system. This chapter describes protocols for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in an inducible Cas9 hPSC-based system, using cells cultured in chemically defined, xeno-free E8 Medium on a recombinant human vitronectin substrate. We detail procedures for the design and transfection of CRISPR guide RNAs, colony selection, and the expansion and validation of clonal mutant lines, all within this fully defined culture condition. These methods may be applied to a wide range of genome-engineering applications in hPSCs, including those that utilize different types of site-specific nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TALENs, and form a closer step towards clinical utility of these cells.

The P53 Family Coordinates Wnt and Nodal Inputs in Mesendodermal Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

Cell Stem Cell. Jan, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 27889317

In this study, we outline a regulatory network that involves the p53 tumor suppressor family and the Wnt pathway acting together with the TGF-β pathway in mesendodermal differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Knockout of all three members, p53, p63, and p73, shows that the p53 family is essential for mesendoderm specification during exit from pluripotency in embryos and in culture. Wnt3 and its receptor Fzd1 are direct p53 family target genes in this context, and induction of Wnt signaling by p53 is critical for activation of mesendodermal differentiation genes. Globally, Wnt3-activated Tcf3 and nodal-activated Smad2/3 transcription factors depend on each other for co-occupancy of target enhancers associated with key differentiation loci. Our results therefore highlight an unanticipated role for p53 family proteins in a regulatory network that integrates essential Wnt-Tcf and nodal-Smad inputs in a selective and interdependent way to drive mesendodermal differentiation of pluripotent cells.

Genome Editing in HPSCs Reveals GATA6 Haploinsufficiency and a Genetic Interaction with GATA4 in Human Pancreatic Development

Cell Stem Cell. Feb, 2017  |  Pubmed ID: 28196600

Human disease phenotypes associated with haploinsufficient gene requirements are often not recapitulated well in animal models. Here, we have investigated the association between human GATA6 haploinsufficiency and a wide range of clinical phenotypes that include neonatal and adult-onset diabetes using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas9-mediated genome editing coupled with human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) directed differentiation. We found that loss of one GATA6 allele specifically affects the differentiation of human pancreatic progenitors from the early PDX1+ stage to the more mature PDX1+NKX6.1+ stage, leading to impaired formation of glucose-responsive β-like cells. In addition to this GATA6 haploinsufficiency, we also identified dosage-sensitive requirements for GATA6 and GATA4 in the formation of both definitive endoderm and pancreatic progenitor cells. Our work expands the application of hPSCs from studying the impact of individual gene loci to investigation of multigenic human traits, and it establishes an approach for identifying genetic modifiers of human disease.

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