In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (5)

Articles by Clarisse Aichelburg in JoVE

 JoVE Behavior

Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Malet Place Engineering Building, University College London, 2Infrared Imaging Lab, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technology (ITAB), Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 3Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Alexandra House, University College London


JoVE 53336

Other articles by Clarisse Aichelburg on PubMed

When Time and Numerosity Interfere: the Longer the More, and the More the Longer

PloS One. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22911801

There is strong evidence that magnitudes in different dimensions can interfere. A majority of previous studies on the interaction of temporal magnitudes on numerosity showed no interfering effect, while many studies have reported the interference of numerosity on judgement of temporal magnitudes. We speculated that this one-way interference is confounded by the magnitudes used in the studies. We used a methodology that allowed us to study this interaction reciprocally. Moreover, we selected magnitudes for two dimensions that enabled us to detect their interfering effects. Participants had to either judge which of two successive sets of items was more numerous (numerosity judgement task), or which set of items was presented longer (duration judgement task). We hypothesised that a longer presentation of a set will be judged as being more numerous, and vice versa, a more numerous set will be judged as being presented longer. Results confirmed our hypothesis. A positive correlation between duration of presentation and judged numerosity as well as a positive correlation between the number of items and judged duration of presentation was found. This observation supports the idea that duration and numerosity judgements are not completely independent and implies the existence of (partly) generalised and abstract components in the magnitude representations.

Training Enhances the Interference of Numerosity on Duration Judgement

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23326579

The interference of magnitudes in different dimensions has been demonstrated previously, but the effect of training in one dimension on judgment of another has yet to be examined. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of training in numerosity judgment on judgment of duration. 32 participants took part in two sessions, 12 days apart, and had to judge which of two successive sets of items was presented longer. Half of the participants (training group) were additionally trained in 11 sessions to judge which one of the two successive sets of items was more numerous. It was found that the participants in the training group became more prone to the interference of numerosity on judging duration after training, when compared to the control group. Thus, being trained to more easily perceive the difference in number of items in the two sets affected the perception of duration. On the 3-month follow up session, no effect was found with 20 participants (nā€Š=ā€Š10 for each group). These findings indicate that the interference of magnitudes in different dimensions can be modulated by training. We discuss that this modulatory effect might be due to neural changes in shared brain regions between interfering magnitudes and/or is mediated by higher levels of perception.

Motor Contributions to the Perception of Relative Phase

Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance. Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24999611

The extent to which different stimulus elements move together, namely their relative phase, is a central visual feature of many social and physical systems; characterizing everything from the oscillations of a walker's limbs to the alternating lights at pedestrian crossings. The experiments described here provide the first evidence of a motor contribution to the representation of relative phase. Using an interference paradigm, we demonstrate that a motor load dramatically impairs discrimination of relative phase. Comparable interference effects were observed for biological and mechanical stimuli, indicative of a domain-general mechanism. In addition, we show that the same motor load has little effect on a similar static-angle matching task, and that an auditory rhythmic load did not interfere with phase discriminations in the same way as the motor load. These results suggest that the motor system contributes to the perception of relative phase; information crucial for interpreting our social and physical environments.

Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities

Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). Oct, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25331605

Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning.

Illusory Feature Slowing: Evidence for Perceptual Models of Global Facial Change

Psychological Science. Apr, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25711281

Upright static faces are widely thought to recruit holistic representations, whereby individual features are integrated into nondecomposable wholes for recognition and interpretation. In contrast, little is known about the perceptual integration of dynamic features when viewing moving faces. People are frequently exposed to correlated eye and mouth movements, such as the characteristic changes that accompany facial emotion, yawning, sneezing, and laughter. However, it is unclear whether the visual system is sensitive to these dynamic regularities, encoding facial behavior relative to a set of dynamic global prototypes, or whether it simply forms piecemeal descriptions of feature states over time. To address this question, we sought evidence of perceptual interactions between dynamic facial features. Crucially, we found illusory slowing of feature motion in the presence of another moving feature, but it was limited to upright faces and particular relative-phase relationships. Perceptual interactions between dynamic features suggest that local changes are integrated into models of global facial change.

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