Articles by Claudia Janssen in JoVE
Minimally Invasive Establishment of Murine Orthotopic Bladder Xenografts Wolfgang Jäger1, Igor Moskalev1, Claudia Janssen1, Tetsutaro Hayashi1, Killian M. Gust1, Shannon Awrey1, Peter C. Black1 1Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia The established technique to inoculate primary invasive orthotopic bladder cancer xenografts requires laparotomy and mobilization of the bladder. This procedure inflicts significant morbidity on the mice, is technically challenging and time-consuming. We therefore developed a high-precision, percutaneous approach utilizing ultrasound guidance.
Other articles by Claudia Janssen on PubMed
A Novel Transmembrane Domain Mediating Retention of a Highly Motile Herpesvirus Glycoprotein in the Endoplasmic Reticulum The Journal of General Virology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20147515 Gene m164 of murine cytomegalovirus belongs to the large group of 'private' genes that show no homology to those of other cytomegalovirus species and are thought to represent 'host adaptation' genes involved in virus-host interaction. Previous interest in the m164 gene product was based on the presence of an immunodominant CD8 T-cell epitope presented at the surface of infected cells, despite interference by viral immune-evasion proteins. Here, we provide data to reveal that the m164 gene product shows unusual features in its cell biology. A novel strategy of mass-spectrometric analysis was employed to map the N terminus of the mature protein, 107 aa downstream of the start site of the predicted open reading frame. The resulting 36.5 kDa m164 gene product is identified here as an integral type-I membrane glycoprotein with exceptional intracellular trafficking dynamics, moving within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and outer nuclear membrane with an outstandingly high lateral membrane motility, actually 100 times higher than those published for cellular ER-resident proteins. Notably, gp36.5/m164 does not contain any typical ER-retention/retrieval signals, such as the C-terminal motifs KKXX or KXKXX, and does not pass the Golgi apparatus. Instead, it belongs to the rare group of viral glycoproteins in which the transmembrane domain (TMD) itself mediates direct ER retention. This is the first report relating TMD usage of an ER-resident transmembrane protein to its lateral membrane motility as a paradigm in cell biology. We propose that TMD usage for ER retention facilitates free and fast floating in ER-related membranes and between ER subdomains.
Biomechanical Effect of Graded Minimal-invasive Decompression Procedures on Lumbar Spinal Stability Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. Sep, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22592915 Decompression surgery represents the standard operative treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis, but this procedure is often combined with fusion surgery. It is still discussed whether minimal-invasive decompression procedures are sufficient and if they compromise spinal stability as well. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of different minimal-invasive decompression procedures on the range of motion (ROM) of the decompressed and adjacent segments under preload conditions.
Ultrasound-guided Intramural Inoculation of Orthotopic Bladder Cancer Xenografts: a Novel High-precision Approach PloS One. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23555699 Orthotopic bladder cancer xenografts are essential for testing novel therapies and molecular manipulations of cell lines in vivo. Current xenografts rely on tumor cell inoculation by intravesical instillation or direct injection into the bladder wall. Instillation is limited by the lack of cell lines that are tumorigenic when delivered in this manner. The invasive model inflicts morbidity on the mice by the need for laparotomy and mobilization of the bladder. Furthermore this procedure is complex and time-consuming. Three bladder cancer cell lines (UM-UC1, UM-UC3, UM-UC13) were inoculated into 50 athymic nude mice by percutaneous injection under ultrasound guidance. PBS was first injected between the muscle wall and the mucosa to separate these layers, and tumor cells were subsequently injected into this space. Bioluminescence and ultrasound were used to monitor tumor growth. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was used to study changes in tumor perfusion after systemic gemcitabine/cisplatin treatment. To demonstrate proof of principle that therapeutic agents can be injected into established xenografts under ultrasound guidance, oncolytic virus (VSV) was injected into UM-UC3 tumors. Xenograft tissue was harvested for immunohistochemistry after 23-37 days. Percutaneous injection of tumor cells into the bladder wall was performed efficiently (mean time: 5.7 min) and without complications in all 50 animals. Ultrasound and bioluminescence confirmed presence of tumor in the anterior bladder wall in all animals 3 days later. The average tumor volumes increased steadily over the study period. UM-UC13 tumors showed a marked decrease in volume and perfusion after chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for VSV-G demonstrated virus uptake in all UM-UC3 tumors after intratumoral injection. We have developed a novel method for creating orthotopic bladder cancer xenograft in a minimally invasive fashion. In our hands this has replaced the traditional model requiring laparotomy, because this model is more time efficient, more precise and associated with less morbidity for the mice.