Other Publications (15)
- Molecular Biology Reports
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
- The Journal of Physiology
- Experimental Physiology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
- Applied Spectroscopy
- Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
- Cell Metabolism
- Methods (San Diego, Calif.)
- Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
- Aging Cell
- Circulation Research
- PloS One
Articles by David Marcinek in JoVE
Other articles by David Marcinek on PubMed
Basal Glycogenolysis in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: in Vitro Model Predicts in Vivo Fluxes Molecular Biology Reports. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12241044 A previously published mammalian kinetic model of skeletal muscle glycogenolysis, consisting of literature in vitro parameters, was modified by substituting mouse specific Vmax values. The model demonstrates that glycogen breakdown to lactate is under ATPase control. Our criteria to test whether in vitro parameters could reproduce in vivo dynamics was the ability of the model to fit phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) dynamic NMR data from ischemic basal mouse hindlimbs and predict biochemically-assayed lactate concentrations. Fitting was accomplished by optimizing four parameters--the ATPase rate coefficient, fraction of activated glycogen phosphorylase, and the equilibrium constants of creatine kinase and adenylate kinase (due to the absence of pH in the model). The optimized parameter values were physiologically reasonable, the resultant model fit the [PCr] and [Pi] timecourses well, and the model predicted the final measured lactate concentration. This result demonstrates that additional features of in vivo enzyme binding are not necessary for quantitative description of glycogenolytic dynamics.
Oxygen Regulation and Limitation to Cellular Respiration in Mouse Skeletal Muscle in Vivo American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12775561 In skeletal muscle, intracellular Po2 can fall to as low as 2-3 mmHg. This study tested whether oxygen regulates cellular respiration in this range of oxygen tensions through direct coupling between phosphorylation potential and intracellular Po2. Oxygen may also behave as a simple substrate in cellular respiration that is near saturating levels over most of the physiological range. A novel optical spectroscopic method was used to measure tissue oxygen consumption (Mo2) and intracellular Po2 using the decline in hemoglobin and myoglobin saturation in the ischemic hindlimb muscle of Swiss-Webster mice. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopic determinations yielded phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) and pH in the same muscle volume. Intracellular Po2 fell to
Mitochondrial Coupling in Vivo in Mouse Skeletal Muscle American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14522819 The coupling of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption (ratio of ATP and oxygen fluxes, P/O) plays a central role in cellular bioenergetics. Reduced P/O values are associated with mitochondrial pathologies that can lead to reduced capacity for ATP synthesis and tissue degeneration. Previous work found a wide range of values for P/O in normal mitochondria. To measure mitochondrial coupling under physiological conditions, we have developed a procedure for determining the P/O of skeletal muscle in vivo. This technique measures ATPase and oxygen consumption rates during ischemia with 31P magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy, respectively. This novel approach allows the independent quantitative measurement of ATPase and oxygen flux rates in intact tissue. The quantitative measurement of oxygen consumption is made possible by our ability to independently measure the saturations of hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) from optical spectra. Our results indicate that the P/O in skeletal muscle of the mouse hindlimb measured in vivo is 2.16 +/- 0.24. The theoretical P/O for resting muscle is 2.33. Systemic treatment with 2,4-dinitrophenol to partially uncouple mitochondria does not affect the ATPase rate in the mouse hindlimb but nearly doubles the rate of oxygen consumption, reducing in vivo P/O to 1.37 +/- 0.22. These results indicate that only a small fraction of the oxygen consumption in resting mouse skeletal muscle is nonphosphorylating under physiological conditions, suggesting that mitochondria are more tightly coupled than previously thought.
Reduced Mitochondrial Coupling in Vivo Alters Cellular Energetics in Aged Mouse Skeletal Muscle The Journal of Physiology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16254011 The mitochondrial theory of ageing proposes that the accumulation of oxidative damage to mitochondria leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue degeneration with age. However, no consensus has emerged regarding the effects of ageing on mitochondrial function, particularly for mitochondrial coupling (P/O). One of the main barriers to a better understanding of the effects of ageing on coupling has been the lack of in vivo approaches to measure P/O. We use optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to independently quantify mitochondrial ATP synthesis and O2 uptake to determine in vivo P/O. Resting ATP demand (equal to ATP synthesis) was lower in the skeletal muscle of 30-month-old C57Bl/6 mice compared to 7-month-old controls (21.9 +/- 1.5 versus 13.6 +/- 1.7 nmol ATP (g tissue)(-1) s(-1), P = 0.01). In contrast, there was no difference in the resting rates of O2 uptake between the groups (5.4 +/- 0.6 versus 8.4 +/- 1.6 nmol O2 (g tissue)(-1) s(-1)). These results indicate a nearly 50% reduction in the mitochondrial P/O in the aged animals (2.05 +/- 0.07 versus 1.05 +/- 0.36, P = 0.02). The higher resting ADP (30.8 +/- 6.8 versus 58.0 +/- 9.5 micromol g(-1), P = 0.05) and decreased energy charge (ATP/ADP) (274 +/- 70 versus 84 +/- 16, P = 0.03) in the aged mice is consistent with an impairment of oxidative ATP synthesis. Despite the reduced P/O, uncoupling protein 3 protein levels were not different in the muscles of the two groups. These results demonstrate reduced mitochondrial coupling in aged skeletal muscle that alters cellular metabolism and energetics.
Mitochondrial Function, Fibre Types and Ageing: New Insights from Human Muscle in Vivo Experimental Physiology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17170059 Mitochondrial changes are at the centre of a wide range of maladies, including diabetes, neurodegeneration and ageing-related dysfunctions. Here we describe innovative optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods that non-invasively measure key mitochondrial fluxes, ATP synthesis and O(2) uptake, to permit the determination of mitochondrial coupling efficiency in vivo (P/O: half the ratio of ATP flux to O(2) uptake). Three new insights result. First, mitochondrial coupling can be measured in vivo with the rigor of a biochemical determination and provides a gold standard to define well-coupled mitochondria (P/O approximately 2.5). Second, mitochondrial coupling differs substantially among muscles in healthy adults, from values reflective of well-coupled oxidative phosphorylation in a hand muscle (P/O = 2.7) to mild uncoupling in a leg muscle (P/O = 2.0). Third, these coupling differences have an important impact on cell ageing. We found substantial uncoupling and loss of cellular [ATP] in a hand muscle indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction with age. In contrast, stable mitochondrial function was found in a leg muscle, which supports the notion that mild uncoupling is protective against mitochondrial damage with age. Thus, greater mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in muscles with higher type II muscle fibre content, which may be at the root of the preferential loss of type II fibres found in the elderly. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial function and the tempo of ageing varies among human muscles in the same individual. These technical advances, in combination with the range of mitochondrial properties available in human muscles, provide an ideal system for studying mitochondrial function in normal tissue and the link between mitochondrial defects and cell pathology in disease.
Mild Mitochondrial Uncoupling Impacts Cellular Aging in Human Muscles in Vivo Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17215370 Faster aging is predicted in more active tissues and animals because of greater reactive oxygen species generation. Yet age-related cell loss is greater in less active cell types, such as type II muscle fibers. Mitochondrial uncoupling has been proposed as a mechanism that reduces reactive oxygen species production and could account for this paradox between longevity and activity. We distinguished these hypotheses by using innovative optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods applied to noninvasively measured ATP synthesis and O(2) uptake in vivo in human muscle. Here we show that mitochondrial function is unchanged with age in mildly uncoupled tibialis anterior muscle (75% type I) despite a high respiratory rate in adults. In contrast, substantial uncoupling and loss of cellular [ATP] indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction with age was found in the lower respiring and well coupled first dorsal interosseus (43-50% type II) of the same subjects. These results reject respiration rate as the sole factor impacting the tempo of cellular aging. Instead, they support mild uncoupling as a mechanism protecting mitochondrial function and contributing to the paradoxical longevity of the most active muscle fibers.
Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Impact on Exercise Performance and Cellular Aging Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17417049 Innovative noninvasive methods open a new window on the cell in vivo. This window reveals that the tempo of mitochondrial dysfunction with age varies among muscles and in proportion to Type II muscle fiber content. Exercise training can reverse age-related dysfunction, thereby providing an intervention to slow the pace of aging and disability in the elderly.
Wavelength Shift Analysis: a Simple Method to Determine the Contribution of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin to in Vivo Optical Spectra Applied Spectroscopy. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17650380 The ability to quantify the contributions of hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) to in vivo optical spectra has many applications for clinical and research use such as noninvasive measurement of local tissue O(2) uptake rates and regional blood content. Recent work has demonstrated an approach to independently measure oxygen saturations of Hb and Mb in optical spectra collected in vivo. However, the utility of this approach is limited without information on tissue concentrations of these species. Here we describe a strategy to quantify the contributions of Hb and Mb to in vivo optical spectra. We have found that the peak position of the deoxy-heme peak around 760 nm in the optical spectra of the deoxygenated tissue is a linear function of the relative contributions of Hb and Mb to the optical spectra. Therefore, analysis of this peak position, hereafter referred to as wavelength shift analysis, reveals the relative concentration of Hb to Mb in solutions and intact tissue. Biochemical analysis of muscle homogenates confirmed that the wavelength shift of the combined Hb/Mb peak in in vivo spectra reflects the ratio of concentrations (Hb/Mb) in muscle. The importance of quantifying the Hb contribution is illustrated by our data demonstrating that Hb accounts for approximately 80% of the optical signal in mouse skeletal muscle but only approximately 20% in human skeletal muscle. This advance will facilitate comparison of the metabolic properties between individual muscles and provides a fully noninvasive approach to measuring local respiration that can be adapted for clinical use.
Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Age Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18089948 Mitochondrial dysfunction is commonly thought to result from oxidative damage that leads to defects in the electron transport chain (ETC). In this review, we highlight new research indicating that there are early changes in mitochondrial function that precede ETC defects and are reversible thereby providing the possibility of slowing the tempo of mitochondrial aging and cell death.
Mice with Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency Develop a Fatal Encephalomyopathy Cell Metabolism. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18396137 To study effects of mitochondrial complex I (CI, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) deficiency, we inactivated the Ndufs4 gene, which encodes an 18 kDa subunit of the 45-protein CI complex. Although small, Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice appeared healthy until approximately 5 weeks of age, when ataxic signs began, progressing to death at approximately 7 weeks. KO mice manifested encephalomyopathy including a retarded growth rate, lethargy, loss of motor skill, blindness, and elevated serum lactate. CI activity in submitochondrial particles from KO mice was undetectable by spectrophotometric assays. However, CI-driven oxygen consumption by intact tissue was about half that of controls. Native gel electrophoresis revealed reduced levels of intact CI. These data suggest that CI fails to assemble properly or is unstable without NDUFS4. KO muscle has normal morphology but low NADH dehydrogenase activity and subsarcolemmal aggregates of mitochondria. Nonetheless, total oxygen consumption and muscle ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations measured in vivo were within normal parameters.
Mitochondrial Function in Vivo: Spectroscopy Provides Window on Cellular Energetics Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18930151 Mitochondria integrate the key metabolic fluxes in the cell. This role places this organelle at the center of cellular energetics and, hence, mitochondrial dysfunction underlies a growing number of human disorders and age-related degenerative diseases. Here we present novel analytical and technical methods for evaluating mitochondrial metabolism and (dys)function in human muscle in vivo. Three innovations involving advances in optical spectroscopy (OS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) permit quantifying key compounds in energy metabolism to yield mitochondrial oxidation and phosphorylation fluxes. The first of these uses analytical methods applied to optical spectra to measure hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) oxygenation states and relative contents ([Hb]/[Mb]) to determine mitochondrial respiration (O2 uptake) in vivo. The second uses MRS methods to quantify key high-energy compounds (creatine phosphate, PCr, and adenosine triphosphate, ATP) to determine mitochondrial phosphorylation (ATP flux) in vivo. The third involves a functional test that combines these spectroscopic approaches to determine mitochondrial energy coupling (ATP/O2), phosphorylation capacity (ATP(max)) and oxidative capacity (O2max) of muscle. These new developments in optical and MR tools allow us to determine the function and capacity of mitochondria noninvasively in order to identify specific defects in vivo that are associated with disease in human and animal muscle. The clinical implication of this unique diagnostic probe is the insight into the nature and extent of dysfunction in metabolic and degenerative disorders, as well as the ability to follow the impact of interventions designed to reverse these disorders.
Lactic Acidosis in Vivo: Testing the Link Between Lactate Generation and H+ Accumulation in Ischemic Mouse Muscle Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20133437 The link between lactate generation and cellular acidosis has been questioned based on the possibility of H+ generation, independent of lactate production during glycolysis under physiological conditions. Here we test whether glycolytic H+ generation matches lactate production over a physiological pH and lactate range using ischemia applied to the hindlimb of a mouse. We measured the H+ generation and ATP level in vivo using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemically determined intracellular lactate level in the hindlimb muscles. No significant change was found in ATP content by chemical analysis (P>0.1), in agreement with the stoichiometric decline in phosphocreatine (20.2+/-1.2 mM) vs. rise in Pi (18.7+/-2.0 mM), as measured by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A substantial drop in pH from 7.0 to 6.7 and lactate accumulation to 25 mM were found during 25 min of ischemia. The rise in H+ generation closely agreed with the accumulation of lactate, as shown by a close correlation with a slope near identity (0.98; r2=0.86). This agreement between glycolytic H+ production and elevation of lactate is confirmed by an analysis of the underlying reactions involved in glycolysis in vivo and supports the concept of lactic acidosis under conditions that substantially elevate lactate and drop pH. However, this link is expected to fail with conditions that deplete phosphocreatine, leading to net ATP hydrolysis and nonglycolytic H+ generation. Thus both direct measurements and an analysis of the stoichiometry of glycolysis in vivo support lactate acidosis as a robust concept for physiological conditions of the muscle cell.
Age-dependent Cardiomyopathy in Mitochondrial Mutator Mice is Attenuated by Overexpression of Catalase Targeted to Mitochondria Aging Cell. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20456298 Mitochondrial defects have been found in aging and several age-related diseases. Mice with a homozygous mutation in the exonuclease encoding domain of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (Polg(m/m)) are prone to age-dependent accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations and have shown a broad spectrum of aging-like phenotypes. However, the mechanism of cardiac phenotypes in relation to the role of mitochondrial DNA mutations and oxidative stress in this mouse model has not been fully addressed. We demonstrate age-dependent cardiomyopathy in Polg(m/m) mice, which by 13-14 months of age displays marked cardiac hypertrophy and dilatation, impairment of systolic and diastolic function, and increased cardiac fibrosis. This age-dependent cardiomyopathy is associated with increases in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and protein oxidative damage, increased expression of apoptotic and senescence markers, as well as a decline in signaling for mitochondrial biogenesis. The relationship of these changes to mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested by crossing Polg(m/m) mice with mice that overexpress mitochondrial targeted catalase (mCAT). All of the above phenotypes were partially rescued in Polg(m/m)/mCAT mice. These data indicate that accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage with age can lead to cardiomyopathy and that this phenotype is partly mediated by mitochondrial oxidative stress.
Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Mediates Angiotensin II-induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Galphaq Overexpression-induced Heart Failure Circulation Research. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21311045 Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in several cardiovascular diseases; however, the roles of mitochondrial oxidative stress and DNA damage in hypertensive cardiomyopathy are not well understood.
Reduced Coupling of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Vivo Precedes Electron Transport Chain Defects Due to Mild Oxidative Stress in Mice PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22132085 Oxidative stress and mitochondrial function are at the core of many degenerative conditions. However, the interaction between oxidative stress and in vivo mitochondrial function is unclear. We used both pharmacological (2 week paraquat (PQ) treatment of wild type mice) and transgenic (mice lacking Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1(-/-))) models to test the effect of oxidative stress on in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy were used to measure mitochondrial ATP and oxygen fluxes and cell energetic state. In both models of oxidative stress, coupling of oxidative phosphorylation was significantly lower (lower P/O) at rest in vivo in skeletal muscle and was dose-dependent in the PQ model. Despite this reduction in efficiency, in vivo mitochondrial phosphorylation capacity (ATPmax) was maintained in both models, and ex vivo mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged following PQ treatment. In association with the reduced P/O, PQ treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in PCr/ATP ratio and increased phosphorylation of AMPK. These results indicate that oxidative stress uncouples oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and results in energetic stress in the absence of defects in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.