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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- FEMS Microbiology Letters
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Journal of Food Protection
- Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
- Current Opinion in Virology
- PloS One
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
- Gut Microbes
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- PloS One
Articles by Geun Woo Park in JoVE
Swab Sampling Method for the Detection of Human Norovirus on Surfaces
Geun Woo Park1, Preeti Chhabra1, Jan Vinjé1
1Division of Viral Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Other articles by Geun Woo Park on PubMed
A Novel Glutamate-dependent Acid Resistance Among Strains Belonging to the Proteeae Tribe of Enterobacteriaceae
FEMS Microbiology Letters. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15321677
Morganella, Providencia and Proteus strains were capable of surviving pH 2.0 for 1 h if glutamate was present. These strains did not have glutamic acid decarboxylase activity and the gadAB genes were not detected in any of these bacteria. When exposed to pH 2.0 acid shocks, the survival rate of these bacteria was significantly increased with glutamate concentrations as low as 0.3 mM in the acid media. Escherichia coli cells incubated at pH 3.4 consumed four times more glutamate and produced at least 7-fold more gamma-amino butyric acid than Morganella, Providencia and Proteus strains. These results indicate that strains belonging to the Proteeae tribe might have novel glutamate dependent acid-resistance mechanisms.
Evaluation of Liquid- and Fog-based Application of Sterilox Hypochlorous Acid Solution for Surface Inactivation of Human Norovirus
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17483283
Noroviruses (NVs) are the most frequent cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in common settings, with surface-mediated transfer via contact with fecally contaminated surfaces implicated in exposure. NVs are environmentally stable and persistent and have a low infectious dose. Several disinfectants have been evaluated for efficacy to control viruses on surfaces, but the toxicity and potential damage to treated materials limits their applicability. Sterilox hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solution (HAS) has shown broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity while being suitable for general use. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of HAS to reduce NV both in aqueous suspensions and on inanimate carriers. HOCl was further tested as a fog to decontaminate large spaces. HOCl effectiveness was evaluated using nonculturable human NV measured by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and two surrogate viruses, coliphage MS2 and murine NV, that were detected by both infectivity and RT-PCR. Exposing virus-contaminated carriers of ceramic tile (porous) and stainless steel (nonporous) to 20 to 200 ppm of HOCl solution resulted in > or = 99.9% (> or = 3 log10) reductions of both infectivity and RNA titers of tested viruses within 10 min of exposure time. HOCl fogged in a confined space reduced the infectivity and RNA titers of NV, murine NV, and MS2 on these carriers by at least 99.9% (3 log10), regardless of carrier location and orientation. We conclude that HOCl solution as a liquid or fog is likely to be effective in disinfecting common settings to reduce NV exposures and thereby control virus spread via fomites.
Comparative Efficacy of Seven Hand Sanitizers Against Murine Norovirus, Feline Calicivirus, and GII.4 Norovirus
Journal of Food Protection. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21219741
Contaminated hands or inanimate surfaces can act as a source of infection during outbreaks of human norovirus infection. We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of seven hand sanitizers containing various active ingredients, such as ethanol, triclosan, and chlorhexidine, and compared their effectiveness against feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and a GII.4 norovirus fecal extract. We also tested the efficacy of 50, 70, and 90% of ethanol and isopropanol. Reduction of viral infectivity was measured by plaque assay, and the number of genomic copies was determined with a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription PCR assay. Based on the results of a quantitative suspension test, only one ethanol-based product (72% ethanol, pH 2.9) and one triclosan-based product (0.1% triclosan, pH 3.0) reduced the infectivity of both MNV and FCV (by >2.6 and ≥3.4 log units, respectively). Four of the seven products were effective against either MNV or FCV, whereas chlorhexidine was ineffective against both viruses. For these hand sanitizers, no correlation was found between reduced infectivity and decline of viral RNA. Ethanol and isopropanol concentrations ≥70% reduced the infectivity of MNV by ≥2.6 log units, whereas 50 and 70% ethanol reduced the infectivity of FCV by ≥2.2 log units after exposure for 5 min. The susceptibility of FCV to low pH and the relative high susceptibility of MNV to alcohols suggest that both surrogate viruses should be considered for in vitro testing of hand sanitizers.
Simultaneous Comparison of Murine Norovirus, Feline Calicivirus, Coliphage MS2, and GII.4 Norovirus to Evaluate the Efficacy of Sodium Hypochlorite Against Human Norovirus on a Fecally Soiled Stainless Steel Surface
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21457050
Free chlorine as hypochlorite is recommended to decontaminate fecally contaminated surfaces to control human norovirus (NoV). We evaluated the efficacy of sodium hypochlorite to decontaminate GII.4 NoV and three surrogates of human NoVs, feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), and coliphage MS2, on a fecally soiled stainless steel surface. Reduction of infectivity of FCV, MNV, and MS2 was measured by plaque assay and the decline of genomic copy numbers of GII.4 NoV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sodium hypochlorite solution at 5000 ppm could inactivate FCV by 3 log(10) plaque forming units after approximately 1.9 minutes of contact time, but required longer exposure times of 3.2 and 4.5 minutes to reduce MNV and MS2 by 3 log(10), respectively. However, detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay may not be reliable to estimate the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite against human NoV. Of three NoV surrogates, FCV is not the most resistant of the virus tested for inactivation by hypochlorite and thus is not the worst-case model for estimating NoV inactivation. Although the use of 5000 ppm of hypochlorite for fecally soiled surfaces is effective, it may require longer exposure times of ≥3 minutes to control NoVs. Surface precleaning before hypochlorite disinfection is recommended to initially reduce the fecal organic load for better virus inactivation and should be a part of the environmental hygiene response measures during an NoV outbreak or where NoV fecal contamination of environmental surfaces is likely or suspected to be present.
Current Opinion in Virology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22440972
The advent of molecular techniques and their increasingly widespread use in public health laboratories and research studies has transformed the understanding of the burden of norovirus. Norovirus is the most common cause of community-acquired diarrheal disease across all ages, the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, and the most common cause of foodborne disease in the United States. They are a diverse group of single-stranded RNA viruses that are highly infectious and stable in the environment; both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections are common. Through shedding in feces and vomit, norovirus can be transmitted directly through an array of routes: person-to-person, food or the environment. The relative importance of environmental transmission of virus is yet to be fully quantified but is likely to be substantial and is an important feature that complicates control.
Challenges of Culturing Human Norovirus in Three-dimensional Organoid Intestinal Cell Culture Models
PloS One. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 23755105
Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, cell culture systems have been described using either human embryonic intestinal epithelial cells (Int-407) or human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) growing on collagen-I porous micro carrier beads in a rotating bioreactor under conditions of physiological fluid shear. Here, we describe the efforts from two independent laboratories to implement this three dimensional (3D) cell culture system for the replication of norovirus. Int-407 and Caco-2 were grown in a rotating bioreactor for up to 28 days. Prior to infection, cells were screened for the presence of microvilli by electron microscopy and stained for junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and β-catenin). Differentiated 3D cells were transferred to 24-well plates and infected with bacteria-free filtrates of various norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, GI.8, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, and GII.8). At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h post inoculation, viral RNA from both cells and supernatants were collected and analyzed for norovirus RNA by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Despite observations of high expression of junction proteins and microvilli development in stained thin sections, our data suggest no significant increase in viral titer based on norovirus RNA copy number during the first 48 h after inoculation for the different samples and virus culture conditions tested. Our combined efforts demonstrate that 3D cell culture models using Int-407 or Caco-2 cells do not support norovirus replication and highlight the complexity and difficulty of developing a reproducible in vitro cell culture system for human norovirus.
Comprehensive Comparison of Cultivable Norovirus Surrogates in Response to Different Inactivation and Disinfection Treatments
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Sep, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25015883
Human norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. Since no cell culture method for human norovirus exists, cultivable surrogate viruses (CSV), including feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC), and Tulane virus (TuV), have been used to study responses to inactivation and disinfection methods. We compared the levels of reduction in infectivities of CSV and Aichi virus (AiV) after exposure to extreme pHs, 56°C heating, alcohols, chlorine on surfaces, and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), using the same matrix and identical test parameters for all viruses, as well as the reduction of human norovirus RNA levels under these conditions. At pH 2, FCV was inactivated by 6 log10 units, whereas MNV, TuV, and AiV were resistant. All CSV were completely inactivated at 56°C within 20 min. MNV was inactivated 5 log10 units by alcohols, in contrast to 2 and 3 log10 units for FCV and PEC, respectively. TuV and AiV were relatively insensitive to alcohols. FCV was reduced 5 log10 units by 1,000 ppm chlorine, in contrast to 1 log10 unit for the other CSV. All CSV except FCV, when dried on stainless steel surfaces, were insensitive to 200 ppm chlorine. HHP completely inactivated FCV, MNV, and PEC at ≥300 MPa, and TuV at 600 MPa, while AiV was completely resistant to HHP up to 800 MPa. By reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), genogroup I (GI) noroviruses were more sensitive than GII noroviruses to alcohols, chlorine, and HHP. Although inactivation profiles were variable for each treatment, TuV and MNV were the most resistant CSV overall and therefore are the best candidates for studying the public health outcomes of norovirus infections.
Fluorinated TiO₂ As an Ambient Light-activated Virucidal Surface Coating Material for the Control of Human Norovirus
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25222145
We evaluated the virucidal efficacy of light-activated fluorinated TiO₂ surface coatings on human norovirus and several surrogates (bacteriophage MS2, feline calcivirus (FCV), and murine norovirus (MNV)). Inactivation of viruses on surfaces exposed to a common fluorescent lamp was monitored and the effects of UVA intensity, temperature, and fluoride content were assessed. Destruction of RNA and capsid oxidation were evaluated for human norovirus inocula on the F-TiO₂ surfaces, while contact with the F-TiO₂ surface and exposure to residual UVA radiation of 10 μW cm(-2) for 60 min resulted in infectivity reductions for the norovirus surrogates of 2-3 log₁₀. Infectivity reductions on pristine TiO₂ surfaces in identical conditions were over 2 orders of magnitude lower. Under realistic room lighting conditions, MS2 infectivity declined below the lower detection limit after 12h. Reductions in RNA were generally low, with the exception of GII.4, while capsid protein oxidation likely played a larger role in infectivity loss. Inactivation of norovirus surrogates occurred significantly faster on F-TiO₂ compared to pristine TiO₂ surfaces. The material demonstrated antiviral action against human norovirus surrogates and was shown to effectively inhibit MS2 when exposed to residual UVA present in fluorescent room lighting conditions in a laboratory setting.
Antimicrobial Activity of Bismuth Subsalicylate on Clostridium Difficile, Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Norovirus, and Other Common Enteric Pathogens
Gut Microbes. 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25901890
Previous studies have shown bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) has antimicrobial properties, but few studies have addressed the mechanism of action. Furthermore, following BSS ingestion other bismuth salts form throughout the gastrointestinal tract including bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) that also act upon enteric pathogens. To further understand the antimicrobial activity of bismuth in infectious diarrhea, the antimicrobial effect of BSS and BiOCl on Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains and norovirus (NoV) were measured. Bacterial enteric pathogens in pure culture or in human fecal material were exposed to 35mg/ml BSS or BiOCl with or without a vehicle suspension. BSS and BiOCl treated samples were quantified and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. To measure the effect on NoV, reduction of infectious murine NoV (MNV), a surrogate for human NoV, and Norwalk virus RNA levels were measured by viral plaque assay and RT-qPCR, respectively. BSS and BiOCl reduced bacterial growth by 3-9 logs in all strains with majority resulting in populations of <10 cfu/ml within 24 h. Similar results were found when fecal material was included. Microscopy images detected bismuth on bacterial membranes and within the bacterial organisms at 30 min post-treatment. At 8.8mg/ml BSS and BiOCl reduced infectivity of MNV significantly by 2.7 and 2.0 log after 24 h of exposure. In addition, both BSS and BiOCl slightly reduced the level of Norwalk replicon-bearing cells suggesting that bismuth may inhibit NoV in vivo. Collectively, our results confirm and build on existing data that BSS has antimicrobial properties against a wide-range of diarrhea-causing pathogens.
Evaluation of a New Environmental Sampling Protocol for Detection of Human Norovirus on Inanimate Surfaces
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Sep, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26116675
Inanimate surfaces are regarded as key vehicles for the spread of human norovirus during outbreaks. ISO method 15216 involves the use of cotton swabs for environmental sampling from food surfaces and fomites for the detection of norovirus genogroup I (GI) and GII. We evaluated the effects of the virus drying time (1, 8, 24, or 48 h), swab material (cotton, polyester, rayon, macrofoam, or an antistatic wipe), surface (stainless steel or a toilet seat), and area of the swabbed surface (25.8 cm(2) to 645.0 cm(2)) on the recovery of human norovirus. Macrofoam swabs produced the highest rate of recovery of norovirus from surfaces as large as 645 cm(2). The rates of recovery ranged from 2.2 to 36.0% for virus seeded on stainless-steel coupons (645.0 cm(2)) to 1.2 to 33.6% for toilet seat surfaces (700 cm(2)), with detection limits of 3.5 log10 and 4.0 log10 RNA copies. We used macrofoam swabs to collect environmental samples from several case cabins and common areas of a cruise ship where passengers had reported viral gastroenteritis symptoms. Seventeen (18.5%) of 92 samples tested positive for norovirus GII, and 4 samples could be sequenced and had identical GII.1 sequences. The viral loads of the swab samples from the cabins of the sick passengers ranged from 80 to 31,217 RNA copies, compared with 16 to 113 RNA copies for swab samples from public spaces. In conclusion, our swab protocol for norovirus may be a useful tool for outbreak investigations when no clinical samples are available to confirm the etiology.
PloS One. 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27337036
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis). Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains) to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90%) of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%), 14 (100%), 3 (21.4%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were < 0.5 log10. To explain these differences, we sequenced the complete capsid gene of the 9 GII.4 strains and identified 17 amino acid substitutions in the P2 region among the 3 GII.4 variant viruses. When comparing with an additional set of 200 GII.4 VP1 sequences, only S310 and P396 were present in all GII.4 New Orleans viruses but not in the ethanol-sensitive GII.4 Sydney and GII.4 Den Haag viruses Our data demonstrate that alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses.