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In JoVE (1)

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Articles by James M. Brindle in JoVE

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Gynecologic Cancer

1Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine


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Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) involves image-guided, ablative radiation delivered to cancer targets refractory to chemotherapy or to conventional radiation treatment. The robotic-armed Cyberknife SBRT system, using sophisticated target localization, delivers hypofractionated radiation doses capable of sterilizing cancer targets. This article will consider new therapeutic roles of SBRT for gynecological cancers.

Other articles by James M. Brindle on PubMed

Correlations of Total Pelvic Spongiosa Volume with Both Anthropometric Parameters and Computed Tomography-based Skeletal Size Measurements

Patient-specific dosimetry within the field of molecular radiotherapy continues to pose a challenge owing to the difficulty in predicting marrow toxicity. This study examined the correlation between total pelvic spongiosa volume (TPSV) and independent variables, which include both readily measured or calculated anthropometric parameters (AP), and image-based skeletal measurements requiring computed tomography (CT) images or skeletal radiographs. Fourteen (14) patients (5 male and 9 female) undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) were subjected to modified pelvic CT scans. These scans were utilized to estimate TPSV, which was comprised of the volumes of spongiosa within the L5 vertebra, os coxae, sacrum, and both proximal femurs. The APs investigated included total body height (TBH), total body mass (TBM), body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), maximum effective mass (MEM), lean body mass (LBM), and fat-free mass (FFM). Skeletal measurements were also obtained from the CT images of the pelvic region. Correlation coefficients (r) were obtained for TPSV and each set of APs as well as each set of skeletal measurements. Total body height (r = 0. 80) and os coxae height (r = 0.83) had the highest correlation coefficients of all the APS and skeletal measurements, respectively. FFM (r = 0.50), LBM (r = 0.42), TBM (r = 0.11), and BSA (r = 0.11) did not correlate well with TPSV, which accounts for approximately 45% of total spongiosa seen throughout the skeleton at sites associated with active bone marrow. Skeletal height measurements appear to have a much higher correlation with TPSV than either their corresponding skeletal width measurements or parameters that are a function of an individual's TBM.

Linear Regression Model for Predicting Patient-specific Total Skeletal Spongiosa Volume for Use in Molecular Radiotherapy Dosimetry

The toxicity of red bone marrow is widely considered to be a key factor in restricting the activity administered in molecular radiotherapy to suboptimal levels. The assessment of marrow toxicity requires an assessment of the dose absorbed by red bone marrow which, in many cases, requires knowledge of the total red bone marrow mass in a given patient. Previous studies demonstrated, however, that a close surrogate-spongiosa volume (combined tissues of trabecular bone and marrow)-can be used to accurately scale reference patient red marrow dose estimates and that these dose estimates are predictive of marrow toxicity. Consequently, a predictive model of the total skeletal spongiosa volume (TSSV) would be a clinically useful tool for improving patient specificity in skeletal dosimetry.

CT Volumetry of the Skeletal Tissues

Computed tomography (CT) is an important and widely used modality in the diagnosis and treatment of various cancers. In the field of molecular radiotherapy, the use of spongiosa volume (combined tissues of the bone marrow and bone trabeculae) has been suggested as a means to improve the patient-specificity of bone marrow dose estimates. The noninvasive estimation of an organ volume comes with some degree of error or variation from the true organ volume. The present study explores the ability to obtain estimates of spongiosa volume or its surrogate via manual image segmentation. The variation among different segmentation raters was explored and found not to be statistically significant (p value >0.05). Accuracy was assessed by having several raters manually segment a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe with known volumes. Segmentation of the outer region of the PVC pipe resulted in mean percent errors as great as 15% while segmentation of the pipe's inner region resulted in mean percent errors within approximately 5%. Differences between volumes estimated with the high-resolution CT data set (typical of ex vivo skeletal scans) and the low-resolution CT data set (typical of in vivo skeletal scans) were also explored using both patient CT images and a PVC pipe phantom. While a statistically significant difference (p value <0.002) between the high-resolution and low-resolution data sets was observed with excised femoral heads obtained following total hip arthroplasty, the mean difference between high-resolution and low-resolution data sets was found to be only 1.24 and 2.18 cm3 for spongiosa and cortical bone, respectively. With respect to differences observed with the PVC pipe, the variation between the high-resolution and low-resolution mean percent errors was a high as approximately 20% for the outer region volume estimates and only as high as approximately 6% for the inner region volume estimates. The findings from this study suggest that manual segmentation is a reasonably accurate and reliable means for the in vivo estimation of spongiosa volume. This work also provides a foundation for future studies where spongiosa volumes are estimated by various raters in more comprehensive CT data

Method for Estimating Skeletal Spongiosa Volume and Active Marrow Mass in the Adult Male and Adult Female

Active bone marrow is one of the more radiosensitive tissues in the human body and, hence, it is important to predict and possibly avoid myelotoxicity in radionuclide therapies. The MIRD schema currently used to calculate marrow dose generally requires knowledge of the patient's total skeletal active marrow mass -- a value that, at present, cannot be directly measured. Conceptually, the active marrow mass in a given skeletal region may be obtained given knowledge of the trabecular spongiosa volume (SV) of the bone site. A recent study has established a multiple regression model to easily calculate total skeletal SV (or TSSV) based on simple skeletal measurements obtained from a pelvic CT scan or radiograph. This model, based on data from only 20 cadavers, did not account for sex differences in TSSV. This study thus extends this work toward sex-specific models.

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