In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (6)

Articles by Janice J. Kim in JoVE

Other articles by Janice J. Kim on PubMed

Ambient Air Pollution: Health Hazards to Children

Pediatrics. Dec, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15574638

Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is now recognized as an important problem, both nationally and worldwide. Our scientific understanding of the spectrum of health effects of air pollution has increased, and numerous studies are finding important health effects from air pollution at levels once considered safe. Children and infants are among the most susceptible to many of the air pollutants. In addition to associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms, asthma exacerbations, and asthma hospitalizations, recent studies have found links between air pollution and preterm birth, infant mortality, deficits in lung growth, and possibly, development of asthma. This policy statement summarizes the recent literature linking ambient air pollution to adverse health outcomes in children and includes a perspective on the current regulatory process. The statement provides advice to pediatricians on how to integrate issues regarding air quality and health into patient education and children's environmental health advocacy and concludes with recommendations to the government on promotion of effective air-pollution policies to ensure protection of children's health.

Traffic-related Air Pollution Near Busy Roads: the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Sep, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15184208

Recent studies, primarily in Europe, have reported associations between respiratory symptoms and residential proximity to traffic; however, few have measured traffic pollutants or provided information about local air quality. We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2001. Information on current bronchitis symptoms and asthma, home environment, and demographics was obtained by parental questionnaire (n = 1,109). Concentrations of traffic pollutants (particulate matter, black carbon, total nitrogen oxides [NO(X)], and nitrogen dioxide [NO(2)]) were measured at 10 school sites during several seasons. Although pollutant concentrations were relatively low, we observed differences in concentrations between schools nearby versus those more distant (or upwind) from major roads. Using a two-stage multiple-logistic regression model, we found associations between respiratory symptoms and traffic-related pollutants. Among those living at their current residence for at least 1 year, the adjusted odds ratio for asthma in relationship to an interquartile difference in NO(X) was 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.14). Thus, we found spatial variability in traffic pollutants and associated differences in respiratory symptoms in a region with good air quality. Our findings support the hypothesis that traffic-related pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms in children.

Proximity of California Public Schools to Busy Roads

Environmental Health Perspectives. Jan, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14698932

Residential proximity to busy roads has been associated with adverse health outcomes, and school location may also be an important determinant of children's exposure to traffic-related pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine the characteristics of public schools (grades K-12) in California (n = 7,460) by proximity to major roads. We determined maximum daily traffic counts for all roads within 150 m of the school using a statewide road network and a geographic information system. Statewide, 173 schools (2.3%) with a total enrollment of 150,323 students were located within 150 m of high-traffic roads (greater than or equal to 50,000 vehicles/day); 536 schools (7.2%) were within 150 m of medium-traffic roads (25,000-49,999 vehicles/day). Traffic exposure was related to race/ethnicity. For example, the overall percentage of nonwhite students was 78% at the schools located near high-traffic roads versus 60% at the schools with very low exposure (no streets with counted traffic data within 150 m). As the traffic exposure of schools increased, the percentage of both non-Hispanic black and Hispanic students attending the schools increased substantially. Traffic exposure was also related to school-based and census-tract-based socioeconomic indicators, including English language learners. The median percentage of children enrolled in free or reduced-price meal programs increased from 40.7% in the group with very low exposure to 60.5% in the highest exposure group. In summary, a substantial number of children in California attend schools close to major roads with very high traffic counts, and a disproportionate number of those students are economically disadvantaged and nonwhite.

Spectrum of Noninfectious Health Effects from Molds

Pediatrics. Dec, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17142549

Molds are eukaryotic (possessing a true nucleus) nonphotosynthetic organisms that flourish both indoors and outdoors. For humans, the link between mold exposure and asthma exacerbations, allergic rhinitis, infections, and toxicities from ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated foods are well known. However, the cause-and-effect relationship between inhalational exposure to mold and other untoward health effects (eg, acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in infants and other illnesses and health complaints) requires additional investigation. Pediatricians play an important role in the education of families about mold, its adverse health effects, exposure prevention, and remediation procedures.

Residential Traffic and Children's Respiratory Health

Environmental Health Perspectives. Sep, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18795175

Living near traffic has been associated with asthma and other respiratory symptoms. Most studies, however, have been conducted in areas with high background levels of ambient air pollution, making it challenging to isolate an independent effect of traffic. Additionally, most investigations have used surrogates of exposure, and few have measured traffic pollutants directly as part of the study.

The Effect of Temperature on Hospital Admissions in Nine California Counties

International Journal of Public Health. Apr, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19771392

This study examined the association between mean daily apparent temperature and hospital admissions for several diseases in nine California counties from May to September, 1999 to 2005.

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