Articles by Jaya Shankar Tumuluru in JoVE
Method to Produce Durable Pellets at Lower Energy Consumption Using High Moisture Corn Stover and a Corn Starch Binder in a Flat Die Pellet Mill Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Craig C. Conner1, Amber N. Hoover1 1Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory In this study, a protocol was developed to produce good quality pellets using a flat die pellet mill at reduced specific energy consumption testing high-moisture corn stover and a starch based binder. The results indicated that adding a corn starch binder improved the pellet durability, reduced percent fines and decreased specific energy consumption.
Other articles by Jaya Shankar Tumuluru on PubMed
Simple and Inexpensive Method of Wood Pellets Macro-porosity Measurement Bioresource Technology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20371174 A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0+/-2.5% and 35.5+/-2.7%, mean bulk density as 670+/-29 kg m(-3) and 731+/-31 kg m(-3), and classified as "Class-3:Medium" and "Class-3&4:Medium to Low" for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr's compressibility index classify wood pellets as "freely flowing." The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.
Effect of Pelleting Process Variables on Physical Properties and Sugar Yields of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Pretreated Corn Stover Bioresource Technology. Jul, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24844167 Pelletization process variables, including grind size (4, 6mm), die speed (40, 50, 60 Hz), and preheating (none, 70°C), were evaluated to understand their effect on pellet quality attributes and sugar yields of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreated biomass. The bulk density of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was three to six times greater compared to untreated and AFEX-treated corn stover. Also, the durability of the pelletized AFEX corn stover was>97.5% for all pelletization conditions studied except for preheated pellets. Die speed had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yields of pellets. Pellets produced with preheating or a larger grind size (6mm) had similar or lower sugar yields. Pellets generated with 4mm AFEX-treated corn stover, a 60Hz die speed, and no preheating resulted in pellets with similar or greater density, durability, and sugar yields compared to other pelletization conditions.
Effects of Torrefaction and Densification on Switchgrass Pyrolysis Products Bioresource Technology. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25463807 The pyrolysis behaviors of four types of pretreated switchgrass (torrefied at 230 and 270°C, densification, and torrefaction at 270°C followed by densification) were studied at three temperatures (500, 600, 700°C) using a pyroprobe attached to a gas chromatogram mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The torrefaction of switchgrass improved its oxygen to carbon ratio and energy content. Contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products of torrefied switchgrass were higher than those in pyrolysis products of raw switchgrass. As the torrefaction temperature increased from 230 to 270°C, the contents of anhydrous sugars and phenols in pyrolysis products increased whereas content of guaiacols decreased. High pyrolysis temperature (600 and 700°C as compared to 500°C) enhanced decomposition of lignin and anhydrous sugars, leading to increase in phenols, aromatics and furans. Densification enhanced depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose during pyrolysis.