In JoVE (1)
Articles by Joachim Nickel in JoVE
Site-Directed Immobilization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 to Solid Surfaces by Click Chemistry Claudia Siverino1, Barbara Tabisz2, Tessa Lühmann3, Lorenz Meinel3, Thomas Müller4, Heike Walles1,2, Joachim Nickel1,2 1Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Translationszentrum Würzburg 'Regenerative Therapien für Krebs- und Muskuloskelettale Erkrankung', Institutsteil Würzburg, 2Lehrstuhl für Tissue Engineering und Regenerative Medizin, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, 3Lehrstuhl für Pharmazeutische Technologie und Biopharmazie, Universität Würzburg, 4Lehrstuhl für molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie und Biophysik, Julius-von-Sachs Institut für Biowissenschaften, Universität Würzburg Biomaterials doped with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) have been used as a new therapeutic strategy to heal non-union bone fractures. To overcome side effects resulting from an uncontrollable release of the factor, we propose a new strategy to site-directly immobilize the factor, thus creating materials with improved osteogenic capabilities.
Other articles by Joachim Nickel on PubMed
GDF-5 Can Act As a Context-dependent BMP-2 Antagonist BMC Biology. | Pubmed ID: 26385096 Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-5 are two related transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family members with important functions in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. BMP-2 is best known for its osteoinductive properties whereas GDF-5-as evident from its alternative name, cartilage derived morphogenetic protein 1-plays an important role in the formation of cartilage. In spite of these differences both factors signal by binding to the same subset of BMP receptors, raising the question how these different functionalities are generated. The largest difference in receptor binding is observed in the interaction with the type I receptor BMPR-IA. GDF-5, in contrast to BMP-2, shows preferential binding to the isoform BMPR-IB, which is abrogated by a single amino acid (A57R) substitution. The resulting variant, GDF-5 R57A, represents a "BMP-2 mimic" with respect to BMP receptor binding. In this study we thus wanted to analyze whether the two growth factors can induce distinct signals via an identically composed receptor.
Site-Directed Immobilization of BMP-2: Two Approaches for the Production of Innovative Osteoinductive Scaffolds Biomacromolecules. | Pubmed ID: 28211679 The regenerative potential of bone is strongly impaired in pathological conditions, such as nonunion fractures. To support bone regeneration various scaffolds have been developed in the past, which have been functionalized with osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, most of them required supra-physiological levels of these proteins leading to burst releases, thereby causing severe side effects. Site-specific, covalent coupling of BMP2 to implant materials might be an optimal strategy in order to overcome these problems. Therefore, we created a BMP-2 variant (BMP2-K3Plk) containing a noncanonical amino acid (propargyl-l-lysine) substitution introduced by genetic code expansion that allows for site-specific and covalent immobilization onto polymeric scaffold materials. To directly compare different coupling strategies, we also produced a BMP2 variant containing an additional cysteine residue (BMP2-A2C) allowing covalent coupling by thioether formation. The BMP2-K3Plk mutant was coupled to functionalized beads by a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) either directly or via a short biotin-PEG linker both with high specificity. After exposing the BMP-coated beads to C2C12 cells, ALP expression appeared locally restricted in close proximity to these beads, showing that both coupled BMP2 variants trigger cell differentiation. The advantage of our approach over non-site-directed immobilization techniques is the ability to produce fully defined osteogenic surfaces, allowing for lower BMP2 loads and concomitant higher bioactivities, for example, due to controlled orientation toward BMP2 receptors. Such products might provide superior bone healing capabilities with potential safety advantages as of homogeneous product outcome.
Evaluation of a Miniaturized Biologically Vascularized Scaffold in Vitro and in Vivo Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 29549334 In tissue engineering, the generation and functional maintenance of dense voluminous tissues is mainly restricted due to insufficient nutrient supply. Larger three-dimensional constructs, which exceed the nutrient diffusion limit become necrotic and/or apoptotic in long-term culture if not provided with an appropriate vascularization. Here, we established protocols for the generation of a pre-vascularized biological scaffold with intact arterio-venous capillary loops from rat intestine, which is decellularized under preservation of the feeding and draining vascular tree. Vessel integrity was proven by marker expression, media/blood reflow and endothelial LDL uptake. In vitro maintenance persisted up to 7 weeks in a bioreactor system allowing a stepwise reconstruction of fully vascularized human tissues and successful in vivo implantation for up to 4 weeks, although with time-dependent decrease of cell viability. The vascularization of the construct lead to a 1.5× increase in cellular drug release compared to a conventional static culture in vitro. For the first time, we performed proof-of-concept studies demonstrating that 3D tissues can be maintained within a miniaturized vascularized scaffold in vitro and successfully implanted after re-anastomosis to the intrinsic blood circulation in vivo. We hypothesize that this technology could serve as a powerful platform technology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.