In JoVE (1)
Articles by Kelly M. Richardson in JoVE
Other articles by Kelly M. Richardson on PubMed
Determinants of Vaccine Immunogenicity in HIV-infected Pregnant Women: Analysis of B and T Cell Responses to Pandemic H1N1 Monovalent Vaccine PloS One. 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25874544 Influenza infections have high frequency and morbidity in HIV-infected pregnant women, underscoring the importance of vaccine-conferred protection. To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1) antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. pH1N1-IgG and IgA B-cell FluoroSpot, pH1N1- and sH1N1-interferon γ (IFNγ) and granzyme B (GrB) T-cell FluoroSpot, and flow cytometric characterization of B- and T-cell subsets were performed in 57 subjects. pH1N1-antibodies increased after vaccination, but less than previously described in healthy adults. pH1N1-IgG memory B cells (Bmem) increased, IFNγ-effector T-cells (Teff) decreased, and IgA Bmem and GrB Teff did not change. pH1N1-antibodies and Teff were significantly correlated with each other and with sH1N1-HAI and Teff, respectively, before and after vaccination. pH1N1-antibody responses to the vaccine significantly increased with high proportions of CD4+, low CD8+ and low CD8+HLADR+CD38+ activated (Tact) cells. pH1N1-IgG Bmem responses increased with high proportions of CD19+CD27+CD21- activated B cells (Bact), high CD8+CD39+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and low CD19+CD27-CD21- exhausted B cells (Bexhaust). IFNγ-Teff responses increased with low HIV plasma RNA, CD8+HLADR+CD38+ Tact, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg and CD19+IL10+ Breg. In conclusion, pre-existing antibody and Teff responses to sH1N1 were associated with increased responses to pH1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women suggesting an important role for heterosubtypic immunologic memory. High CD4+% T cells were associated with increased, whereas high HIV replication, Tact and Bexhaust were associated with decreased vaccine immunogenicity. High Treg increased antibody responses but decreased Teff responses to the vaccine. The proportions of immature and transitional B cells did not affect the responses to vaccine. Increased Bact were associated with high Bmem responses to the vaccine.
Tropical Drosophila Pandora Carry Wolbachia Infections Causing Cytoplasmic Incompatibility or Male Killing Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. Aug, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27282489 Wolbachia infections have been described in several Drosophila species, but relatively few have been assessed for phenotypic effects. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotypic effect that has been detected, while some infections cause male killing or feminization, and many Wolbachia infections have few host effects. Here, we describe two new infections in a recently described species, Drosophila pandora, one of which causes near-complete CI and near-perfect maternal transmission (the "CI" strain). The other infection is a male killer (the "MK" strain), which we confirm by observing reinitiation of male production following tetracycline treatment. No incompatibility was detected in crosses between CI strain males and MK strain females, and rare MK males do not cause CI. Molecular analyses indicate that the CI and MK infections are distantly related and the CI infection is closely related to the wRi infection of Drosophila simulans. Two population surveys indicate that all individuals are infected with Wolbachia, but the MK infection is uncommon. Given patterns of incompatibility among the strains, the infection dynamics is expected to be governed by the relative fitness of the females, suggesting that the CI infection should have a higher fitness. This was evidenced by changes in infection frequencies and sex ratios in population cages initiated at different starting frequencies of the infections.
H1N1 Influenza Vaccination in HIV-infected Women on Effective Antiretroviral Treatment Did Not Induce Measurable Antigen-driven Proliferation of the HIV-1 Proviral Reservoir AIDS Research and Therapy. Feb, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28193244 Antigen-induced activation and proliferation of HIV-1-infected cells is hypothesized to be a mechanism of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to determine if proliferation of H1N1-specific HIV-infected cells could be detected following H1N1 vaccination.