Articles by Nicole E. Heshka in JoVE
Laboratory Production of Biofuels and Biochemicals from a Rapeseed Oil through Catalytic Cracking Conversion Siauw H. Ng1, Yu Shi1, Nicole E. Heshka1, Yi Zhang1, Edward Little1 1CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada This paper presents an experimental method to produce biofuels and biochemicals from canola oil mixed with a fossil-based feed in the presence of a catalyst at mild temperatures. Gaseous, liquid, and solid products from a reaction unit are quantified and characterized. Conversion and individual product yields are calculated and reported.
Other articles by Nicole E. Heshka on PubMed
A Multidimensional Gas Chromatography Method for the Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Crude Oil and Crude Oil Headspace Journal of Separation Science. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25311312 Two-dimensional heart-cutting gas chromatography is used to analyze dissolved hydrogen sulfide in crude samples. Liquid samples are separated first on an HP-PONA column, and the light sulfur gases are heart-cut to a GasPro column, where hydrogen sulfide is separated from other light sulfur gases and detected with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector. Heart-cutting is accomplished with the use of a Deans switch. Backflushing the columns after hydrogen sulfide detection eliminates any problems caused by high-boiling hydrocarbons in the samples. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide is quantified in 14 crude oil samples, and the results are shown in this work. The method is also applicable to the analysis of headspace hydrogen sulfide over crude oil samples. Gas hydrogen sulfide measurements are compared to liquid hydrogen sulfide measurements for the same sample set. The chromatographic system design is discussed, and chromatograms of representative gas and liquid measurements are shown.
Application of a Quantitative Structure Retention Relationship Approach for the Prediction of the Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography Retention Times of Polycyclic Aromatic Sulfur Heterocycle Compounds Journal of Chromatography. A. Mar, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26879453 Information on the sulfur classes present in petroleum is a key factor in determining the value of refined products and processing behavior in the refinery. A large part of the sulfur present is included in polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), which in turn are difficult to desulfurize. Furthermore, some PASHs are potentially more mutagenic and carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. All of this calls for improved methods for the identification and quantification of individual sulfur species. Recent advances in analytical techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) have enabled the identification of many individual sulfur species. However, full identification of individual components, particularly in virgin oil fractions, is still out of reach as standards for numerous compounds are unavailable. In this work, a method for accurately predicting retention times in GC×GC using a QSRR (quantitative structure retention relationship) method was very helpful for the identification of individual sulfur compounds. Retention times for 89 saturated, aromatic, and polyaromatic sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds were determined using two-dimensional gas chromatography. These retention data were correlated with molecular descriptors generated with CODESSA software. Two independent QSRR relationships were derived for the primary as well as the secondary retention characteristics. The predictive ability of the relationships was tested by using both independent sets of compounds and a cross-validation technique. When the corresponding chemical standards are unavailable, the equations developed for predicting retention times can be used to identify unknown chromatographic peaks by matching their retention times with those of sulfur compounds of known molecular structure.