Articles by Ofir Klein in JoVE
Imaging FITC-dextran as a Reporter for Regulated Exocytosis Ofir Klein1, Amit Roded1, Koret Hirschberg2, Mitsunori Fukuda3, Stephen J. Galli4, Ronit Sagi-Eisenberg1 1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 2Department of Pathology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 3Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, 4Departments of Pathology and of Microbiology and Immunology and Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, School of Medicine, Stanford University Here we detail a method for live cell imaging of regulated exocytosis. This method utilizes FITC-dextran, which accumulates in lysosome-related organelles, as a reporter. This simple method also allows distinguishing between different modes of regulated exocytosis in cells that are difficult to manipulate genetically.
Other articles by Ofir Klein on PubMed
Rab12 Regulates Retrograde Transport of Mast Cell Secretory Granules by Interacting with the RILP-Dynein Complex Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). | Pubmed ID: 26740112 Secretory granule (SG) transport is a critical step in regulated exocytosis including degranulation of activated mast cells. The latter process results in the release of multiple inflammatory mediators that play key roles in innate immunity, as well as in allergic responses. In this study, we identified the small GTPase Rab12 as a novel regulator of mast cell SG transport, and we provide mechanistic insights into its mode of action. We show that Rab12 is activated in a stimulus-dependent fashion and promotes microtubule-dependent retrograde transport of the SGs in the activated cells. We also show that this minus end transport of the SGs is mediated by the RILP-dynein complex and identify RILP as a novel effector of Rab12. Finally, we show that Rab12 negatively regulates mast cell degranulation. Taken together, our results identify Rab12 as a novel regulator of mast cell responses and disclose for the first time, to our knowledge, the mechanism of retrograde transport of the mast cell SGs.
Mast Cells Are Directly Activated by Contact with Cancer Cells by a Mechanism Involving Autocrine Formation of Adenosine and Autocrine/paracrine Signaling of the Adenosine A3 Receptor Cancer Letters. | Pubmed ID: 28342985 Mast cells (MCs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, their underlying mechanisms of activation within the TME remain poorly understood. Here we show that recapitulating cell-to-cell contact interactions by exposing MCs to membranes derived from a number of cancer cell types, results in MC activation, evident by the increased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases and Akt, in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent fashion. Activation is unidirectional since MC derived membranes do not activate cancer cells. Stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation is strictly dependent on the ecto enzyme CD73 that mediates autocrine formation of adenosine, and is inhibited by knockdown of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R) as well as by an A3R antagonist or by agonist-stimulated down-regulation of the A3R. We also show that cancer cell mediated triggering upregulates expression and stimulates secretion of interleukin 8 from the activated MCs. These findings provide evidence for a novel mode of unidirectional crosstalk between MCs and cancer cells implicating direct activation by cancer cells in MC reprogramming into a pro tumorigenic profile.
Rab5 is Critical for SNAP23 Regulated Granule-granule Fusion During Compound Exocytosis Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 29127297 Compound exocytosis is considered the most massive mode of exocytosis, during which the membranes of secretory granules (SGs) fuse with each other to form a channel through which the entire contents of their granules is released. The underlying mechanisms of compound exocytosis remain largely unresolved. Here we show that the small GTPase Rab5, a known regulator of endocytosis, is pivotal for compound exocytosis in mast cells. Silencing of Rab5 shifts receptor-triggered secretion from a compound to a full exocytosis mode, in which SGs individually fuse with the plasma membrane. Moreover, we show that Rab5 is essential for FcεRI-triggered association of the SNARE protein SNAP23 with the SGs. Direct evidence is provided for SNAP23 involvement in homotypic SG fusion that occurs in the activated cells. Finally, we show that this fusion event is prevented by inhibition of the IKKβ2 kinase, however, neither a phosphorylation-deficient nor a phosphomimetic mutant of SNAP23 can mediate homotypic SG fusion in triggered cells. Taken together our findings identify Rab5 as a heretofore-unrecognized regulator of compound exocytosis that is essential for SNAP23-mediated granule-granule fusion. Our results also implicate phosphorylation cycles in controlling SNAP23 SNARE function in homotypic SG fusion.