In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (8)

Articles by Rosa L. Moreno in JoVE

Other articles by Rosa L. Moreno on PubMed

Competitive and Synergistic Interactions of G Protein Beta(2) and Ca(2+) Channel Beta(1b) Subunits with Ca(v)2.1 Channels, Revealed by Mammalian Two-hybrid and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Measurements

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14507926

Presynaptic Ca2+ channels are inhibited by metabotropic receptors. A possible mechanism for this inhibition is that G protein betagamma subunits modulate the binding of the Ca2+ channel beta subunit on the Ca2+ channel complex and induce a conformational state from which channel opening is more reluctant. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the binding of Ca2+ channel beta and G protein beta subunits on the two separate binding sites, i.e. the loopI-II and the C terminus, and on the full-length P/Q-type alpha12.1 subunit by using a modified mammalian two-hybrid system and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Analysis of the interactions on the isolated bindings sites revealed that the Ca2+ channel beta1b subunit induces a strong fluorescent signal when interacting with the loopI-II but not with the C terminus. In contrast, the G protein beta subunit induces FRET signals on both the C terminus and loopI-II. Analysis of the interactions on the full-length channel indicates that Ca2+ channel beta1b and G protein beta subunits bind to the alpha1 subunit at the same time. Coexpression of the G protein increases the FRET signal between alpha1/beta1b FRET pairs but not for alpha1/beta1b FRET pairs where the C terminus was deleted from the alpha1 subunit. The results suggest that the G protein alters the orientation and/or association between the Ca2+ channel beta and alpha12.1 subunits, which involves the C terminus of the alpha1 subunit and may corresponds to a new conformational state of the channel.

Targeting Mechanisms of High Voltage-activated Ca2+ Channels

Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes. Dec, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 15000523

Functional voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel complexes are assembled by three to four subunits: alpha1, beta, alpha2delta subunits (C. Leveque et al., 1994, J. Biol Chem. 269, 6306-6312; M. W. McEnery et al., 1991, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 11095-11099) and at least in muscle cells also y subunits (B. M. Curtis and W. A. Catterall, 1984, Biochemistry 23, 2113-2118). Ca2+ channels mediate the voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx in subcellular compartments, triggering such diverse processes as neurotransmitter release, dendritic action potentials, excitation-contraction, and excitation-transcription coupling. The targeting of biophysically defined Ca2+ channel complexes to the correct subcellular structures is, thus, critical to proper cell and physiological functioning. Despite their importance, surprisingly little is known about the targeting mechanisms by which Ca2+ channel complexes are transported to their site of function. Here we summarize what we know about the targeting of Ca2+ channel complexes through the cell to the plasma membrane and subcellular structures.

G Protein Beta2 Subunit-derived Peptides for Inhibition and Induction of G Protein Pathways. Examination of Voltage-gated Ca2+ and G Protein Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15824105

Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels of the N-, P/Q-, and R-type and G protein inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK) are modulated via direct binding of G proteins. The modulation is mediated by G protein betagamma subunits. By using electrophysiological recordings and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we characterized the modulatory domains of the G protein beta subunit on the recombinant P/Q-type channel and GIRK channel expressed in HEK293 cells and on native non-L-type Ca2+ currents of cultured hippocampal neurons. We found that Gbeta2 subunit-derived deletion constructs and synthesized peptides can either induce or inhibit G protein modulation of the examined ion channels. In particular, the 25-amino acid peptide derived from the Gbeta2 N terminus inhibits G protein modulation, whereas a 35-amino acid peptide derived from the Gbeta2 C terminus induced modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and GIRK channels. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis of the live action of these peptides revealed that the 25-amino acid peptide diminished the FRET signal between G protein beta2gamma3 subunits, indicating a reorientation between G protein beta2gamma3 subunits in the presence of the peptide. In contrast, the 35-amino acid peptide increased the FRET signal between GIRK1,2 channel subunits, similarly to the Gbetagamma-mediated FRET increase observed for this GIRK subunit combination. Circular dichroism spectra of the synthesized peptides suggest that the 25-amino acid peptide is structured. These results indicate that individual G protein beta subunit domains can act as independent, separate modulatory domains to either induce or inhibit G protein modulation for several effector proteins.

Zebrafish Motor Neuron Subtypes Differ Electrically Prior to Axonal Outgrowth

Journal of Neurophysiology. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19692510

Different muscle targets and transcription factor expression patterns reveal the presence of motor neuron subtypes. However, it is not known whether these subtypes also differ with respect to electrical membrane properties. To address this question, we studied primary motor neurons (PMNs) in the spinal cord of zebrafish embryos. PMN genesis occurs during gastrulation and gives rise to a heterogeneous set of motor neurons that differ with respect to transcription factor expression, muscle targets, and soma location within each spinal cord segment. The unique subtype-specific soma locations and axonal trajectories of two PMNs-MiP (middle) and CaP (caudal)-allowed their identification in situ as early as 17 h postfertilization (hpf), prior to axon genesis. Between 17 and 48 hpf, CaPs and MiPs displayed subtype-specific electrical membrane properties. Voltage-dependent inward and outward currents differed significantly between MiPs and CaPs. Moreover, by 48 hpf, CaPs and MiPs displayed subtype-specific firing behaviors. Our results demonstrate that motor neurons that differ with respect to muscle targets and transcription factor expression acquire subtype-specific electrical membrane properties. Moreover, the differences are evident prior to axon genesis and persist to the latest stage studied, 2 days postfertilization.

Developmental Regulation of Subtype-specific Motor Neuron Excitability

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20536935

At early embryonic stages, zebrafish spinal neuron subtypes can be distinguished and accessed for physiological studies. This provides the opportunity to determine electrophysiological properties of different spinal motor neuron subtypes. Such differences have the potential to then regulate, in a subtype-specific manner, activity-dependent developmental events such as axonal outgrowth and pathfinding. The zebrafish spinal cord contains a population of early born neurons. Our recent work has revealed that primary motor neuron (PMN) subtypes in the zebrafish spinal cord differ with respect to electrical properties during early important periods when PMNs extend axons to their specific targets. Here, we review recent findings regarding the development of electrical properties in PMN subtypes. Moreover, we consider the possibility that electrical activity in PMNs may play a cell nonautonomous role and thus influence the development of later developing motor neurons. Further, we discuss findings that support a role for a specific sodium channel isoform, Nav1.6, expressed by specific subtypes of spinal neurons in activity-dependent processes that impact axonal outgrowth and pathfinding.

Delayed Postnatal Loss of P/Q-type Calcium Channels Recapitulates the Absence Epilepsy, Dyskinesia, and Ataxia Phenotypes of Genomic Cacna1a Mutations

The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Mar, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21411672

Inherited loss of P/Q-type calcium channel function causes human absence epilepsy, episodic dyskinesia, and ataxia, but the molecular "birthdate" of the neurological syndrome and its dependence on prenatal pathophysiology is unknown. Since these channels mediate transmitter release at synapses throughout the brain and are expressed early in embryonic development, delineating the critical circuitry and onset underlying each of the emergent phenotypes requires targeted control of gene expression. To visualize P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels and dissect their role in neuronal networks at distinct developmental stages, we created a novel conditional Cacna1a knock-in mouse by inserting the floxed green fluorescent protein derivative Citrine into the first exon of Cacna1a and then crossed it with a postnatally expressing PCP2-Cre line for delayed Purkinje cell (PC) gene deletion within the cerebellum and sparsely in forebrain (purky). PCs in purky mice lacked P/Q-type calcium channel protein and currents within the first month after birth, displayed altered spontaneous firing, and showed impaired neurotransmission. Unexpectedly, adult purky mice exhibited the full spectrum of neurological deficits seen in mice with genomic Cacna1a ablation. Our results show that the ataxia, dyskinesia, and absence epilepsy caused by inherited disorders of the P/Q-type channel arise from signaling defects beginning in late infancy, revealing an early window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention.

Spinal Neurons Require Islet1 for Subtype-specific Differentiation of Electrical Excitability

Neural Development. Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25149090

In the spinal cord, stereotypic patterns of transcription factor expression uniquely identify neuronal subtypes. These transcription factors function combinatorially to regulate gene expression. Consequently, a single transcription factor may regulate divergent development programs by participation in different combinatorial codes. One such factor, the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1, is expressed in the vertebrate spinal cord. In mouse, chick and zebrafish, motor and sensory neurons require Islet1 for specification of biochemical and morphological signatures. Little is known, however, about the role that Islet1 might play for development of electrical membrane properties in vertebrates. Here we test for a role of Islet1 in differentiation of excitable membrane properties of zebrafish spinal neurons.

Potassium Dependent Rescue of a Myopathy with Core-like Structures in Mouse

ELife. Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25564733

Myopathies decrease muscle functionality. Mutations in ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) are often associated with myopathies with microscopic core-like structures in the muscle fiber. In this study, we identify a mouse RyR1 model in which heterozygous animals display clinical and pathological hallmarks of myopathy with core-like structures. The RyR1 mutation decreases sensitivity to activated calcium release and myoplasmic calcium levels, subsequently affecting mitochondrial calcium and ATP production. Mutant muscle shows a persistent potassium leak and disrupted expression of regulators of potassium homeostasis. Inhibition of KATP channels or increasing interstitial potassium by diet or FDA-approved drugs can reverse the muscle weakness, fatigue-like physiology and pathology. We identify regulators of potassium homeostasis as biomarkers of disease that may reveal therapeutic targets in human patients with myopathy of central core disease (CCD). Altogether, our results suggest that amelioration of potassium leaks through potassium homeostasis mechanisms may minimize muscle damage of myopathies due to certain RyR1 mutations.

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