Articles by Sharon M. Talley in JoVE
A PCR-based Genotyping Method to Distinguish Between Wild-type and Ornamental Varieties of Imperata cylindrica Leland J. Cseke1, Sharon M. Talley2 1Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Huntsville, 2USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology We provide a cost-effective and rapid molecular genotyping protocol that employs variety-specific PCR primers that target DNA sequence differences within the chloroplast trnL-F spacer region to differentiate between varieties of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) that cannot be distinguished by morphology alone. These varieties include the federally listed noxious weed, cogongrass and closely-related, wide-spread ornamental variety, I. cylindrica var. koenigii (Japanese blood grass).
Other articles by Sharon M. Talley on PubMed
Antifungal Leaf-surface Metabolites Correlate with Fungal Abundance in Sagebrush Populations Journal of Chemical Ecology. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12523559 A central component in understanding plant-enemy interactions is to determine whether plant enemies, such as herbivores and pathogens, mediate the evolution of plant secondary metabolites. Using 26 populations of a broadly distributed plant species, sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), we examined whether sagebrush populations in habitats with a greater prevalence of fungi contained antifungal secondary metabolites on leaf surfaces that were more active and diverse than sagebrush populations in habitats less favorable to fungi. Because moisture and temperature play a key role in the epidemiology of most plant-pathogen interactions, we also examined the relationship between the antifungal activity of secondary metabolites and the climate of a site. We evaluated the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites against two fungi, a wild Penicillium sp. and a laboratory yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a filter-paper disk assay and bioautography. Comparing the 26 sagebrush populations, we found that fungal abundance was a good predictor of both the activity (r2 = 0.36 for Saccharomyces, r2 = 0.37 for Penicillium) and number (r2 = 0.34 for Saccharomyces) of antifungal secondary metabolites. This suggests that selection imposed by fungal pathogens has led to more effective antifungal secondary metabolites. We found that the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites was negatively related to average vapor pressure deficit of the habitat (r2 = 0.60 for Saccharomyces, r2 = 0.61 for Penicillium). Differences in antifungal activity among populations were not due to the amount of secondary metabolites, but rather to qualitative differences in the composition of antifungal compounds. Although all populations in habitats with high fungal prevalence had secondary metabolites with high antifungal activity, different suites of compounds were responsible for this activity, suggesting independent outcomes of selection on plants by fungal pathogens. The location of antifungal secondary metabolites on the leaf surface is consistent with their putative defense role, and we found no evidence supporting other functions, such as protection from ultraviolet light or oxidation. That the antifungal activity of sagebrush secondary metabolites was similar for two different fungi provides support for broad antifungal defenses. The incidence and severity of fungal disease in the field (caused by Puccinia tanaceti) were similar in moist and dry habitats, possibly reflecting an equilibrium between plant defense and fungal attack, as sites with greater fungal abundance compensated with more effective secondary metabolites. The geographic correlation between fungal abundance and antifungal secondary metabolites of sagebrush, coupled with our other data showing heritable variation in these metabolites, suggests that pathogenic fungi have selected for antifungal secondary metabolites in sagebrush.
The Effects of Weather on Fungal Abundance and Richness Among 25 Communities in the Intermountain West BMC Ecology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12079496 Because moisture and temperature influence the growth of fungi, characterizing weather conditions favorable for fungi may be used to predict the abundance and richness of fungi in habitats with different climate conditions. To estimate habitat favorability to fungi, we examined the relationship of fungal abundance and species richness to various weather and environmental parameters in the Intermountain West. We cultured fungi from air and leaf surfaces, and collected continuous temperature and relative humidity measures over the growing season at 25 sites.