Articles by Timothy J. McCord in JoVE
Methods for Acute and Subacute Murine Hindlimb Ischemia Michael E. Padgett1, Timothy J. McCord1, Joseph M. McClung1, Christopher D. Kontos1 1Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center Surgical induction of hindlimb ischemia in the mouse is useful to examine angiogenesis, however this is compromised in certain inbred mouse strains that display marked ischemia-induced tissue necrosis. Methods are described to induce subacute limb ischemia using ameroid constrictors to circumvent this problem through the induction of gradual arterial occlusion.
Other articles by Timothy J. McCord on PubMed
Skeletal Muscle-specific Genetic Determinants Contribute to the Differential Strain-dependent Effects of Hindlimb Ischemia in Mice The American Journal of Pathology. May, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22445571 Genetics plays an important role in determining peripheral arterial disease (PAD) pathology, which causes a spectrum of clinical disorders that range from clinically silent reductions in blood flow to limb-threatening ischemia. The cell-type specificity of PAD pathology, however, has received little attention. To determine whether strain-dependent differences in skeletal muscle cells might account for the differential responses to ischemia observed in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, endothelial and skeletal muscle cells were subjected to hypoxia and nutrient deprivation (HND) in vitro, to mimic ischemia. Muscle cells were more susceptible to HND than were endothelial cells. In vivo, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice displayed strain-specific differences in myofiber responses after hindlimb ischemia, with significantly greater myofiber atrophy, greater apoptosis, and attenuated myogenic regulatory gene expression and stress-responsive signaling in BALB/c mice. Strain-specific deficits were recapitulated in vitro in primary muscle cells from both strains after HND. Muscle cells from BALB/c mice congenic for the C57BL/6 Lsq-1 quantitative trait locus were protected from HND-induced atrophy, and gene expression of vascular growth factors and their receptors was significantly greater in C57BL/6 primary muscle cells. Our results indicate that the previously identified specific genetic locus regulating strain-dependent collateral vessel density has a nonvascular or muscle cell-autonomous role involving both the myogenic program and traditional vascular growth factor receptor expression.
Muscle Cell Derived Angiopoietin-1 Contributes to Both Myogenesis and Angiogenesis in the Ischemic Environment Frontiers in Physiology. 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26042050 Recent strategies to treat peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have focused on stem cell based therapies, which are believed to result in local secretion of vascular growth factors. Little is known, however, about the role of ischemic endogenous cells in this context. We hypothesized that ischemic muscle cells (MC) are capable of secreting growth factors that act as potent effectors of the local cellular regenerative environment. Both muscle and endothelial cells (ECs) were subjected to experimental ischemia, and conditioned medium (CM) from each was collected and analyzed to assess myogenic and/or angiogenic potential. In muscle progenitors, mRNA expression of VEGF and its cognate receptors (Nrp1, Flt, Flk) was present and decreased during myotube formation in vitro, and EC CM or VEGF increased myoblast proliferation. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Tie1, and Tie2 mRNA increased during MC differentiation in vitro. Exogenous Ang-1 enhanced myogenic (MyoD and Myogenin) mRNA in differentiating myoblasts and increased myosin heavy chain protein. Myotube formation was enhanced by MC CM and inhibited by EC CM. Ang-1 protein was present in CM from MCs isolated from both the genetically ischemia-susceptible BALB/c and ischemia-resistant C57BL/6 mouse strains, and chimeric Tie2 receptor trapping in situ ablated Ang-1's myogenic effects in vitro. Ang-1 or MC CM enhanced myotube formation in a mixed isolate of muscle progenitors as well as a myoblast co-culture with pluripotent mesenchymal cells (10T1/2) and this effect was abrogated by viral expression of the extracellular domain of Tie2 (AdsTie2). Furthermore, mesh/tube formation by HUVECs was enhanced by Ang-1 or MC CM and abrogated by Tie2 chimeric receptor trapping. Our results demonstrate the ability of muscle and endothelial cell-derived vascular growth factors, particularly Ang-1, to serve as multi-functional stimuli regulating crosstalk between blood vessels and muscle cells during regeneration from ischemic myopathy.
Subacute Limb Ischemia Induces Skeletal Muscle Injury in Genetically Susceptible Mice Independent of Vascular Density Journal of Vascular Surgery. Aug, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26254821 The primary preclinical model of peripheral artery disease, which involves acute limb ischemia (ALI), can result in appreciable muscle injury that is attributed to the acuity of the ischemic injury. A less acute model of murine limb ischemia using ameroid constrictors (ACs) has been developed in an attempt to mimic the chronic nature of human disease. However, there is currently little understanding of how genetics influence muscle injury following subacute arterial occlusion in the mouse.