Articles by W. Anthony Frankino in JoVE
Experimental Manipulation of Body Size to Estimate Morphological Scaling Relationships in Drosophila R. Craig Stillwell1, Ian Dworkin2, Alexander W. Shingleton2, W. Anthony Frankino1 1Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Houston, 2Department of Zoology, Michigan State University Morphological scaling relationships capture and describe organismal shape. We present a method to measure morphological scaling relationships across the natural range of body sizes in fully metamorphic insects. Using a simple diet manipulation we increase the distribution of trait sizes, permitting the accurate description of how shape and size co-vary.
Other articles by W. Anthony Frankino on PubMed
Natural Selection and Developmental Constraints in the Evolution of Allometries Science (New York, N.Y.). Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15692049 In animals, scaling relationships between appendages and body size exhibit high interspecific variation but low intraspecific variation. This pattern could result from natural selection for specific allometries or from developmental constraints on patterns of differential growth. We performed artificial selection on the allometry between forewing area and body size in a butterfly to test for developmental constraints, and then used the resultant increased range of phenotypic variation to quantify natural selection on the scaling relationship. Our results show that the short-term evolution of allometries is not limited by developmental constraints. Instead, scaling relationships are shaped by strong natural selection.
Size and Shape: the Developmental Regulation of Static Allometry in Insects BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17508394 Among all organisms, the size of each body part or organ scales with overall body size, a phenomenon called allometry. The study of shape and form has attracted enormous interest from biologists, but the genetic, developmental and physiological mechanisms that control allometry and the proportional growth of parts have remained elusive. Recent progress in our understanding of body-size regulation provides a new synthetic framework for thinking about the mechanisms and the evolution of allometric scaling. In particular, insulin/IGF signaling, which plays major roles in longevity, diabetes and the regulation of cell, organ and body size, might also be centrally involved in regulating organismal shape. Here we review recent advances in the fields of growth regulation and endocrinology and use them to construct a developmental model of static allometry expression in insects. This model serves as the foundation for a research program that will result in a deeper understanding of the relationship between growth and form, a question that has fascinated biologists for centuries.
Internal and External Constraints in the Evolution of Morphological Allometries in a Butterfly Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17976182 Much diversity in animal morphology results from variation in the relative size of morphological traits. The scaling relationships, or allometries, that describe relative trait size can vary greatly in both intercept and slope among species or other animal groups. Yet within such groups, individuals typically exhibit low variation in relative trait size. This pattern of high intra- and low intergroup variation may result from natural selection for particular allometries, from developmental constraints restricting differential growth among traits, or both. Here we explore the relative roles of short-term developmental constraints and natural selection in the evolution of the intercept of the allometry between the forewing and hindwing of a butterfly. First, despite a strong genetic correlation between these two traits, we show that artificial selection perpendicular to the forewing-hindwing scaling relationship results in rapid evolution of the allometry intercept. This demonstrates an absence of developmental constraints limiting intercept evolution for this scaling relationship. Mating experiments in a natural environment revealed strong stabilizing selection favoring males with the wild-type allometry intercept over those with derived intercepts. Our results demonstrate that evolution of this component of the forewing-hindwing allometry is not limited by developmental constraints in the short term and that natural selection on allometry intercepts can be powerful.