Articles by Xianyin Chen in JoVE
Stress Distribution During Cold Compression of Rocks and Mineral Aggregates Using Synchrotron-based X-Ray Diffraction Cecilia S.N. Cheung1,2, Donald J. Weidner1, Li Li1, Philip G. Meredith3, Haiyan Chen1, Matthew Whitaker1, Xianyin Chen4 1Mineral Physics Institute, Department of Geoscience, Stony Brook University, 2Geological Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, 4Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University We report detailed procedures for compression experiments on rocks and mineral aggregates within a multi-anvil deformation apparatus coupled with synchrotron X-radiation. Such experiments allow quantification of the stress distribution within samples, that ultimately sheds light on compaction processes in geomaterials.
Other articles by Xianyin Chen on PubMed
Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-Selective Microporous Metal-Organic Framework Journal of the American Chemical Society. | Pubmed ID: 26000710 The cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid-state adsorbents, but no experimental insights into the nature of the Xe-network interaction are available to date. Here we report a new microporous MOF (designated SBMOF-2) that is selective toward Xe over Kr under ambient conditions, with a Xe/Kr selectivity of about 10 and a Xe capacity of 27.07 wt % at 298 K. Single-crystal diffraction results show that the Xe selectivity may be attributed to the specific geometry of the pores, forming cages built with phenyl rings and enriched with polar -OH groups, both of which serve as strong adsorption sites for polarizable Xe gas. The Xe/Kr separation in SBMOF-2 was investigated with experimental and computational breakthrough methods. These experiments showed that Kr broke through the column first, followed by Xe, which confirmed that SBMOF-2 has a real practical potential for separating Xe from Kr. Calculations showed that the capacity and adsorption selectivity of SBMOF-2 are comparable to those of the best-performing unmodified MOFs such as NiMOF-74 or Co formate.
Magnetic Hydrogels from Alkyne/Cobalt Carbonyl-Functionalized ABA Triblock Copolymers Journal of the American Chemical Society. | Pubmed ID: 26958699 A series of alkyne-functionalized poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-(phenylethynyl)styrene) (PPES-b-PEO-b-PPES) ABA triblock copolymers was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. PESn[Co2(CO)6]x-EO800-PESn[Co2(CO)6]x ABA triblock copolymer/cobalt adducts (10-67 wt % PEO) were subsequently prepared by reaction of the alkyne-functionalized PPES block with Co2(CO)8 and their phase behavior was studied by TEM. Heating triblock copolymer/cobalt carbonyl adducts at 120 °C led to cross-linking of the PPES/Co domains and the formation of magnetic cobalt nanoparticles within the PPES/Co domains. Magnetic hydrogels could be prepared by swelling the PEO domains of the cross-linked materials with water. Swelling tests, rheological studies and actuation tests demonstrated that the water capacity and modulus of the hydrogels were dependent upon the composition of the block copolymer precursors.
Metal-organic Framework with Optimally Selective Xenon Adsorption and Separation Nature Communications. | Pubmed ID: 27291101 Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. The existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal-organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing.