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Bone Matrix:

Bone Remodeling

JoVE 10866

Bone remodeling is a continuous and balanced process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. In adults, it helps maintain bone mass and calcium homeostasis. While mechanical stress can stimulate turnover as part of the normal maintenance and reparative process, several hormones also regulate bone remodeling.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) maintains homeostatic control of blood calcium levels by regulating bone resorption. PTH is released from the parathyroid glands in response to low levels of calcium in the blood. It stimulates osteoblasts to produce immune molecules that promote the differentiation of precursor cells into osteoclasts. Activation of osteoclasts promotes bone resorption, causing the mineralized bone matrix to break down and release calcium into the blood. When blood calcium levels are restored, a negative-feedback loop prevents further release of PTH. Osteoporosis is a disease in which bone resorption exceeds bone formation, resulting in reduced bone density. Osteoporosis is more prevalent in women, especially after menopause. This is due to the critical role played by the female sex hormone—estrogen—in bone remodeling. Estrogen limits the formation of osteoclasts and promotes their destruction via apoptosis. This ensures that bone formation is higher than bone resorption. However, estrogen levels decli

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

What is the Skeletal System?

JoVE 10863

The adult human skeleton comprises 206 bones that are connected through cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. The skeleton provides a rigid framework for the human body, protects internal organs, and enables movement and locomotion. The human skeletal system consists of the axial and appendicular skeletons. Bone tissue is continuously built up and chewed away by specialized bone cells which are essential to overall health. Dysregulated bone cells and incorrect levels of chemical compounds in the blood lead to bone diseases. The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones and is divided into three regions: the skull, the vertebral column, and the rib cage. The upper portion of the skull—the cranium—consists of eight bones that enclose the brain, while the lower part consists of 14 bones. The vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae: seven cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five fused sacral vertebrae, and four fused coccygeal vertebrae. The rib cage adds stability to the vertebral column and also protects the lungs and heart. It consists of 12 pairs of ribs, which attach to the thoracic vertebra via the costovertebral joint. The anterior portion of the rib cage attaches to the sternum—the flat bone at the center of the front of the chest—via the costal cartilages. The first seven ribs on each side are known as true ribs, as their cartilages

 Core: Musculoskeletal System

Computed Tomography and Optical Imaging of Osteogenesis-angiogenesis Coupling to Assess Integration of Cranial Bone Autografts and Allografts

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, The Hebrew University–Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 53459

 Bioengineering

Modeling Osteosarcoma Using Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Patient-derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth, 3Department of Musculoskeletal Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 4Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 5Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine for the Prevention of Human Diseases, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6Center for Precision Health, School of Biomedical Informatics and School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

JoVE 57664

 Cancer Research

Calvarial Model of Bone Augmentation in Rabbit for Assessment of Bone Growth and Neovascularization in Bone Substitution Materials

1Division of Fixed Prosthodontics and Biomaterials, Biomaterials Laboratory, University of Geneva, University Clinic of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (HUG), Unity of Oral Surgery and Implantology, University of Geneva, University Clinic of Dental Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery (HUG), Laboratory of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology, University of Geneva, University Clinic of Dental Medicine, 4Division of Fixed Prosthodontics and Biomaterials, University of Geneva, University Clinic of Dental Medicine

JoVE 59976

 Bioengineering

Quantitative [18F]-Naf-PET-MRI Analysis for the Evaluation of Dynamic Bone Turnover in a Patient with Facetogenic Low Back Pain

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 2UCSF/UC Berkeley Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California San Francisco, 3Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital

JoVE 58491

 Medicine

Treatment with Vancomycin Loaded Calcium Sulphate and Autogenous Bone in an Improved Rabbit Model of Bone Infection

1Department of Medicine, Zhejiang Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, 3Institute of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, 4Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province

JoVE 57294

 Medicine

Analysis of Minerals Produced by hFOB 1.19 and Saos-2 Cells Using Transmission Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis

1Laboratory of Lipid Biochemistry, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2Université de Lyon, 3Université Lyon 1, 4L'insitut National des Sciences Appliquées (INSA) de Lyon, 5Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Physique Electronique (CPE) Lyon, 6Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR), L'institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moléculaires et Supramoléculaires (ICBMS)

JoVE 57423

 Chemistry

Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Alveolar Periosteum and Effects of Vitamin D on Osteogenic Activity of Periosteum-derived Cells

1Chang Gung University, 2Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3California Northstate University College of Medicine, 4Department of Nephrology, Clinical Poison Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5Kidney Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 7Department of Periodontics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 8College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University

JoVE 57166

 Bioengineering

Semiautomated Longitudinal Microcomputed Tomography-based Quantitative Structural Analysis of a Nude Rat Osteoporosis-related Vertebral Fracture Model

1Skeletal Biotech Laboratory, Hebrew University-Hadassah Faculty of Dental Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 4Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 5Department of Orthopedics, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

JoVE 55928

 Bioengineering

The Arteriovenous (AV) Loop in a Small Animal Model to Study Angiogenesis and Vascularized Tissue Engineering

1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies, Baghdad University, 3Department of Plastic, Hand and Microsurgery, Sana Klinikum Hof GmbH

JoVE 54676

 Bioengineering

Intra-iliac Artery Injection for Efficient and Selective Modeling of Microscopic Bone Metastasis

1Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 3Graduate Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 4Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, 5McNair Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, 6Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine

JoVE 53982

 Cancer Research

Bone Conditioned Medium: Preparation and Bioassay

1Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 2Laboratory of Oral Cell Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, 4Robert K. Schenk Laboratory of Oral Histology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 5Department of Cranio Maxillofacial Surgery, Inselspital, University of Bern, 6Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

JoVE 52707

 Biology

Isolation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and their Cultivation on the Porous Bone Matrix

1Depto. Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 2Depto. of Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 3Depto. Biología Celular y Tisular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 4Depto de Biología Celular, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 5Depto. Genetica y Biología Molecular, Cinvestav-IPN, 6Subd. de Investigación, Centro Nacional de la Transfusión Sanguínea, Secretaria de Salud

JoVE 51999

 Developmental Biology

A Novel in vivo Gene Transfer Technique and in vitro Cell Based Assays for the Study of Bone Loss in Musculoskeletal Disorders

1Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, 2Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children - Northern California, 3Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis

JoVE 51810

 Medicine

Bioelectric Analyses of an Osseointegrated Intelligent Implant Design System for Amputees

1Department of Veteran Affairs, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 3Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute , University of Utah, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, 5Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah

JoVE 1237

 Biology
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