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Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X Chromosome.

An Overview of Epigenetics

JoVE 5549

Since the early days of genetics research, scientists have noted certain heritable phenotypic differences that are not due to differences in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Current evidence suggests that these “epigenetic” phenomena might be controlled by a number of mechanisms, including the modification of DNA cytosine bases with methyl groups, the addition of various chemical groups to histone proteins, and the recruitment of protein factors to specific DNA sites via interactions with non-protein-coding RNAs.In this video, JoVE presents the history of important discoveries in epigenetics, such as X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), the phenomenon where an entire X-chromosome is silenced in the cells of female mammals. Key questions and methods in the field are reviewed, including techniques to identify DNA sequences associated with different epigenetic modifications. Finally, we discuss how researchers are currently using these techniques to better understand the epigenetic regulation of gene function.


 Genetics

Protein Crystallization

JoVE 5689

Protein crystallization, obtaining a solid lattice of biomolecules, elucidates protein structure and enables the study of protein function. Crystallization involves drying purified protein under a combination of many factors, including pH, temperature, ionic strength, and protein concentration. Once crystals are obtained, the protein structure can be elucidated by x-ray diffraction and computation of an electron density model. This video introduces protein crystallization and shows a general procedure. Protein expression and purification, crystallization, and x-ray diffraction are covered in the procedure. Applications of protein crystallization include in silico drug design, binding site determination, and membrane protein structure analysis. Protein crystallization is the process of obtaining a latticed solid form of a protein. These crystals are especially valuable to structural biologists, assisting in the study of protein function. Other techniques, such as mass spec or SDS-PAGE, can only provide information on the one-dimensional structure of proteins. Protein crystallization is complemented by the techniques of recombinant protein expression and x-ray diffraction. This video will show the principles of protein crystallization, a general laboratory procedure, and several of its applications in the


 Biochemistry

Whole Genome Sequencing of Candida glabrata for Detection of Markers of Antifungal Drug Resistance

1Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology-Public Health, Westmead Hospital, 2Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, 3Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, 4Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canberra Hospital and Health Services, Australian National University Medical School, 5Infection Management Services, Australian National University Medical School, 6Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, St. Vincent's Hospital, 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre

JoVE 56714


 Medicine

A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assay to Identify Novel NFAT2 Target Genes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

1Dept. of Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, University of Tübingen, 2Dept. of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Clinical Pathology and Metabolism, University of Tübingen

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58270


 JoVE In-Press

A Novel Strategy Combining Array-CGH, Whole-exome Sequencing and In Utero Electroporation in Rodents to Identify Causative Genes for Brain Malformations

1University of Florence, 2INSERM INMED, 3Aix-Marseille University, 4Plateforme Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire INMED, 5Royal Children's Hospital, 6Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 7University of Melbourne, 8Plateforme postgenomique INMED, 9University of Pavia, 10Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, 11Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, 12IRCCS Casimiro Mondino Foundation, 13Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, 14IRCCS Stella Maris, 15Columbia University

JoVE 53570


 Neuroscience

Laser Capture Microdissection of Highly Pure Trabecular Meshwork from Mouse Eyes for Gene Expression Analysis

1Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease Laboratory, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 2Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, Division of the National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, 3Integrated Laboratory Systems Inc., 4Experimental Pathology Laboratories Inc.

JoVE 57576


 Biology

Flow Cytometric Detection of Newly-Formed Breast Cancer Stem Cell-like Cells After Apoptosis Reversal

1School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 4Centre for Novel Biomaterials, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58642


 JoVE In-Press

Detection of a Circulating MicroRNA Custom Panel in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

1Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, 3Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58615


 JoVE In-Press

Visualization of Amyloid β Deposits in the Human Brain with Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

1Department of Life and Medical Systems, Doshisha University, 2Bruker Daltonics K.K., 3The Brain Bank for Aging Research, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital and Institute of Gerontology, 4Graduate School of Brain Science, Doshisha University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 57645


 JoVE In-Press

Polyethyleneimine-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles As a Vehicle for the Delivery of Small Interfering RNA to Macrophages In Vitro and In Vivo

1Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Developmental Genes & Human Diseases, Institute of Life Sciences, Southeast University, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials & Devices, School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, 3Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Developmental Genes & Human Diseases, Medical School, Southeast University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58660


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles from Murine Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Using an Ultrafiltration Centrifugation Technique

1Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Women's Guild Lung Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58310


 JoVE In-Press

Estimation of Nephron Number in Whole Kidney Using the Acid Maceration Method

1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Rush University Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center, 4Department of Neurology, The University of Mississippi Medical Center

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58599


 JoVE In-Press

Unicellular Selection of Living Cells in Liquid Medium Using Laser Microdissection and a Pressure Catapulting System

1U1165, Université Paris-Diderot, INSERM, 2Pôle de Recherches Sino-Français en Science du Vivant et Génomique, Shanghai Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 3Laboratoire de Pathologie, AP-HP-Hôpital Saint-Louis, 4Service d’Oncologie Médicale, AP-HP-Hôpital Avicenne, 5Université Paris 13

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 58234


 JoVE In-Press

Isolation of Adult Spinal Cord Nuclei for Massively Parallel Single-nucleus RNA Sequencing

1Spinal Circuits and Plasticity Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2Bioinformatics Section, Information Technology Program, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 3Laboratory of Cochlear Development, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 4Single Cell Analysis Facility, Frederick National Laboratory

JoVE 58413


 Neuroscience

Repressing Gene Transcription by Redirecting Cellular Machinery with Chemical Epigenetic Modifiers

1Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of North Carolina, 2College of Arts and Sciences, Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, University of North Carolina, 3Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Pharmacological Sciences and Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 4Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery, Curriculum in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina

JoVE 58222


 Bioengineering

Analysis of Epididymal Protein Synthesis and Secretion

1Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, 2Hunter Medical Research Institute, 3Department of Physiology, Turku Center for Disease Modeling, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, 4School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle

JoVE 58308


 Developmental Biology

Quantitative Analysis of Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Mouse Brain Sections Using RNA In Situ Hybridization Assay

1Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 2Department of Endocrinology, Dongfang Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 3Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, 4Center for RNA Science and Therapeutics, Case Western Reserve University

JoVE 57889


 Genetics

Long-term In Vivo Tracking of Inflammatory Cell Dynamics Within Drosophila Pupae

1School of Biochemistry, Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol, 2School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol, 3MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Queens Medical Research Institute, 4School of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol

JoVE 57871


 Immunology and Infection

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