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Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (Pituitary gland, Anterior). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.

Nature and Nurture

JoVE 10781

Many human characteristics, like height, are shaped by both nature—in other words, by our genes—and by nurture, or our environment. For example, chronic stress during childhood inhibits the production of growth hormones and consequently reduces bone growth and height. Scientists estimate that 70-90% of variation in height is due to genetic differences among individuals, and 10-30% of variation in height is due to differences in the environments that individuals experience, such as differences in diet. Many other phenotypes are similarly influenced by both genes and environments. Some of these phenotypes arise later in life, like cancer and other diseases. Hundreds of genes that influence height in humans have been identified. One study found that the most important factor explaining current differences in stature among men in different nations was the ratio between the intake of high-quality animal protein and low-quality proteins from grain and vegetables during childhood. The tallest early men are believed to be Upper Paleolithic hunters from the Gravettian culture, which thrived in Europe 34,000 to 26,000 years ago. Their stature (ranging from 5’10” to 6’2”) was due in part to a low population density and a diet abundant in high-quality animal protein. In modern times, increased stature is attributed

 Core: Classical and Modern Genetics

Recombinant DNA

JoVE 10808

Scientists create recombinant DNA by combining DNA from different sources—often, other species—in the laboratory. DNA cloning allows researchers to study specific genes by inserting them into easily manipulated cells, such as bacteria. Organisms that contain recombinant DNA are known as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Recombinant DNA technology produces organisms with new genes that can benefit science, medicine, and agriculture. Creation of recombinant DNA involves inserting a gene of interest into a vector—a vehicle that carries foreign DNA into host cells for DNA replication and protein expression. The most commonly used cloning vectors are plasmids, small circular pieces of DNA that replicate independently from the host’s chromosomal DNA. To create recombinant DNA, both the donor DNA, including the gene of interest, and the vector are cut at specific nucleotide sequences—called restriction sites—using restriction enzymes. The enzyme DNA ligase seals the sugar-phosphate backbone where the gene of interest and plasmid connect. The result is a recombinant DNA molecule consisting of a vector with an integrated piece of donor DNA—called an insert. A scientist may then introduce this hybrid DNA molecule into a host organism—typically bacteria or yeast—where it easily and rapidly replicat

 Core: Biotechnology

Microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 Protein into Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Embryos for Gene Editing

1School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, 2Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, 3Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 4Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 5Life Science Institute, University of Michigan

JoVE 56275

 Genetics

Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry Methods for an Analysis of Human Pituitary Adenoma Tissue Proteome

1Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 2Hunan Engineering Laboratory for Structural Biology and Drug Design, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 3State Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Anticancer Drugs, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 4The State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Central South University

JoVE 56739

 Cancer Research

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine

JoVE 3188

 Medicine

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research

JoVE 4285

 Neuroscience

A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood

1Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Division General Internal and Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Martin-Luther Hospital, Academic Teaching Institution of Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 3Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Molecular Cancer Research Center (MKFZ), Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin

JoVE 53959

 Immunology and Infection

Cell Sorting of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells from the Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone and Live-imaging of their Cell Cycle Dynamics

1CEA DSV iRCM SCSR, Laboratoire de Radiopathologie, UMR 967, 2INSERM, UMR 967, 3Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR 967, 4Université Paris Sud, UMR 967, 5CNRS, Université Paris Sud, UMR 9197, Neuroscience Paris-Saclay Institute, Molecules Circuits Department

JoVE 53247

 Neuroscience

Polymeric Microneedle Array Fabrication by Photolithography

1Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 2Singapore University of Technology and Design, 3Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), 4Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 5Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore

JoVE 52914

 Bioengineering
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