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Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (Hno3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Application of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Nitric Oxide (NO•) Probes, the geNOps, for Real-time Imaging of NO• Signals in Single Cells

1Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz

JoVE 55486


 Biology

Evaluation of Vascular Control Mechanisms Utilizing Video Microscopy of Isolated Resistance Arteries of Rats

1Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, 2Medical College of Wisconsin, 3Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 4Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia, Texas Wesleyan University, 5Office of Research, MCW, Medical College of Wisconsin

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56133


 JoVE In-Press

Safe Handling of Mineral Acids

JoVE 10370

Source: Robert M. Rioux & Taslima A. Zaman, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is defined as a water-soluble acid derived from inorganic minerals by chemical reaction as opposed to organic acids (e.g. acetic acid, formic acid). Examples of mineral acids include: • Boric acid (CAS No.10043-35-3) • Chromic acid (CAS No.1333-82-0) • Hydrochloric acid (CAS No.7647-01-0) • Hydrofluoric acid (CAS No. 7664-39-3) • Nitric acid (CAS No. 7697-37-2) • Perchloric acid (CAS No. 7601-90-3) • Phosphoric acid (CAS No.7664-38-2) • Sulfuric acid (CAS No.7664-93-9) Mineral acids are commonly found in research laboratories and their corrosive nature makes them a significant safety risk. Since they are important reagents in the research laboratory and often do not have substitutes, it is important that they are handled properly and with care. Some acids are even shock sensitive and under certain conditions may cause explosions (i.e., salts of perchloric acid).


 Lab Safety

Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress

1Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 3School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center

JoVE 3349


 Bioengineering

Determination Of NOx in Automobile Exhaust Using UV-VIS Spectroscopy

JoVE 10076

Source: Laboratories of Margaret Workman and Kimberly Frye - Depaul University

In the troposphere, ozone is naturally formed when sunlight splits nitrogen dioxide (NO2):

NO2 + sunlight → NO + O

O + O2 O3 Ozone (O3) can go on to react with nitric oxide (NO) to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen: NO + O3 → NO2 + O2 This results in no net gain of ozone (O3). However, with the anthropogenic production of ozone forming precursors (NO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds) through the combustion of fossil fuels, elevated levels of ozone in the troposphere have been found. Motor vehicle exhaust is a significant source of these ozone forming precursors: NO, NO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For example, mobile sources make up nearly 60% of NO + NO2 emissions. At the high temperatures found in a car’s combustion chamber, nitrogen and oxygen from the air react to form nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2):


 Environmental Science

Imaging Metals in Brain Tissue by Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

1Elemental Bio-imaging Facility, University of Technology Sydney, 2Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, 3Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, 4School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, 5Research School, Ruhr University, 6Department of Physiology, Monash University, 7ESI Ltd., Bozeman, 8Agilent Technologies, Mulgrave

JoVE 55042


 Medicine

Two-way Valorization of Blast Furnace Slag: Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate and Zeolitic Heavy Metal Adsorbent

1Department of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering, Cranfield University, 2School of Applied Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, 3School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 4Carbon Systems Engineering, Centre for Combustion, Carbon Capture and Storage, Cranfield University

JoVE 55062


 Engineering

Determining the Solubility Rules of Ionic Compounds

JoVE 10197

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

An ionic compound's solubility can be determined via qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that uses chemical properties and reactions to identify the cation or anion present in a chemical compound. While the chemical reactions rely on known solubility rules, those same rules can be determined by identifying the products that form. Qualitative analysis is not typically done in modern industrial chemistry labs, but it can be used easily in the field without the need of sophisticated instrumentation. Qualitative analysis also focuses on understanding ionic and net ionic reactions as well as organizing data into a flow chart to explain observations and make definitive conclusions. Many cations have similar chemical properties, as do the anion counterparts. Correct identification requires careful separation and analysis to systematically identify the ions present in a solution. It is important to understand acid/base properties, ionic equilibria, redox reactions, and pH properties to identify ions successfully. While there is a qualitative test for virtually every elemental and polyatomic ion, the identification process typically begi


 General Chemistry

Introduction to Mass Spectrometry

JoVE 5634

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Khuloud Al-Jamal - King's College London

Mass spectrometry is an analytical chemistry technique that enables the identification of unknown compounds within a sample, the quantification of known materials, the determination of the structure, and chemical properties of different molecules.

A mass spectrometer is composed of an ionization source, an analyzer, and a detector. The process involves the ionization of chemical compounds to generate ions. When using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), samples containing elements of interest are introduced into argon plasma as aerosol droplets. The plasma dries the aerosol, dissociates the molecules, and then removes an electron from the components to be detected by the mass spectrometer. Other ionization methods such as electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) are used to analyze biological samples. Following the ionization procedure, ions are separated in the mass spectrometer according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and the relative abundance of each ion type is measured. Finally, the detector commonly consists in an electron multiplier where the collision of ions with a charged anode leads to a cascade of increasing number of electrons, which can b


 Analytical Chemistry

Extraction and Purification of Polyphenols from Freeze-dried Berry Powder for the Treatment of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro

1Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 2Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, 3Center for Advancing Exercise and Nutrition Research on Aging (CAENRA), Florida State University

JoVE 55605


 Chemistry

Cleaning Glassware

JoVE 10342

Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

Organic synthesis is about transforming a readily available reagent into a more valuable product. Having clean glassware is crucial for the efficiency of this process. Dirty glassware can potentially affect the reaction and make isolation of the final product more challenging. Thus, a synthetic chemist must keep the glassware spotless. The methods described here will detail different glass cleaning techniques that are regularly used to remove organics, metals, grease, and salts.


 Organic Chemistry II

Synthesis of Cationized Magnetoferritin for Ultra-fast Magnetization of Cells

1Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Bristol, 2Department of Materials, Imperial College London, 3Self Assembly Group, CIC nanoGUNE, 4Ikebasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 5School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, 6H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol

JoVE 54785


 Bioengineering

Fabrication of a Dipole-assisted Solid Phase Extraction Microchip for Trace Metal Analysis in Water Samples

1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 2Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 3National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 4Department of Chemistry, National Changhua University of Education

JoVE 53500


 Bioengineering

Removal of Trace Elements by Cupric Oxide Nanoparticles from Uranium In Situ Recovery Bleed Water and Its Effect on Cell Viability

1Division of Physical Therapy, Department of Orthopedics & Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico, 2Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Wyoming, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, 4Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 5Center for Environmental Medicine, Colorado State University, 6College of Pharmacy, California Northstate University

JoVE 52715


 Environment

Imaging Dendritic Spines of Rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons using Structured Illumination Microscopy

1Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, 2Van Leeuwenhoek Centre for Advanced Microscopy, Section Molecular Cytology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam

JoVE 51276


 Neuroscience

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