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Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: Toxins, Biological and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)

Lysogenic Cycle of Bacteriophages

JoVE 10824

In contrast to the lytic cycle, phages infecting bacteria via the lysogenic cycle do not immediately kill their host cell. Instead, they combine their genome with the host genome, allowing the bacteria to replicate the phage DNA along with the bacterial genome. The incorporated copy of the phage genome is called the prophage. Some prophages can re-activate and enter the lytic cycle. This often occurs in response to a perturbation, such as DNA damage, but can also transpire in the absence of external cues. In some cases, the genes encoded by prophages can alter the phenotype of the infected bacterium, a process known as lysogenic conversion. Some phages encode proteins or toxins called virulence factors that can facilitate bacterial infections. Through lysogenic conversion, normally non-pathogenic bacteria can become highly virulent via infection by a phage carrying virulence factors. For example, such phages are largely responsible for the pathogenicity of the bacterial species that cause botulism (Clostridium botulinum), diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and cholera (Vibrio cholerae). Without lysogenic conversion, these bacteria do not usually cause disease. A particularly well-studied example of lysogenic conversion is that of the Escherichia coli strain O157:H7. Several massive food recalls have stemmed

 Core: Viruses

Replication of the Ordered, Nonredundant Library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutants

1Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

JoVE 57298

 Immunology and Infection

High-throughput Parallel Sequencing to Measure Fitness of Leptospira interrogans Transposon Insertion Mutants During Golden Syrian Hamster Infection

1Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 2Departments of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, 3Departments of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, 4Departments of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California Los Angeles

JoVE 56442

 Immunology and Infection

Genetic Manipulation of the Plant Pathogen Ustilago maydis to Study Fungal Biology and Plant Microbe Interactions

1Institute for Microbiology, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, 2Bioeconomy Science Center (BioSC), 3Department of Genetics, Institute of Applied Biosciences, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 4Cluster of Excellence in Plant Sciences (CEPLAS), Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf

JoVE 54522

 Genetics

Using Bioluminescent Imaging to Investigate Synergism Between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza A Virus in Infant Mice

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, 2Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 3The Centre for Dynamic Imaging, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research

JoVE 2357

 Immunology and Infection

Competitive Genomic Screens of Barcoded Yeast Libraries

1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto

JoVE 2864

 Biology

Inducing Meningococcal Meningitis Serogroup C in Mice via Intracisternal Delivery

1Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, 2Department of Science and Technology, Sannio University, 3CEINGE – Advanced Biotechnology

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JoVE 60047

 JoVE In-Press

An In Vitro Model of a Parallel-Plate Perfusion System to Study Bacterial Adherence to Graft Tissues

1Cardiovascular Developmental Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, 2Centre for Molecular and Vascular Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, 3Department of Biohybrid & Medical Textiles, AME - Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 4European Homograft Bank, Saint Jean Clinique, 5Division of Clinical Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven

JoVE 58476

 Developmental Biology

Development of an Electrochemical DNA Biosensor to Detect a Foodborne Pathogen

1Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2Laboratory of Functional Device, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 4La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University

JoVE 56585

 Bioengineering
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