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Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)

Two-way Valorization of Blast Furnace Slag: Synthesis of Precipitated Calcium Carbonate and Zeolitic Heavy Metal Adsorbent

1Department of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering, Cranfield University, 2School of Applied Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, 3School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 4Carbon Systems Engineering, Centre for Combustion, Carbon Capture and Storage, Cranfield University

JoVE 55062


 Engineering

Detecting Estrogenic Ligands in Personal Care Products using a Yeast Estrogen Screen Optimized for the Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory

1Department of Biology, University of the South, 2School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, 3School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 4Department of Biology, Furman University, 5Department of Computer Science, Louisiana Tech University, 6Clemson University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 55754


 JoVE In-Press

Bacterial Growth Curve Analysis and its Environmental Applications

JoVE 10100

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Luisa Ikner

Bacteria are among the most abundant life forms on Earth. They are found in every ecosystem and are vital for everyday life. For example, bacteria affect what people eat, drink, and breathe, and there are actually more bacterial cells within a person’s body than mammalian cells. Because of the importance of bacteria, it is preferable to study particular species of bacteria in the laboratory. To do this, bacteria are grown under controlled conditions in pure culture, meaning that only one type of bacterium is under consideration. Bacteria grow quickly in pure culture, and cell numbers increase dramatically in a short period of time. By measuring the rate of cell population increase over time, a “growth curve” to be developed. This is important when aiming to utilize or inoculate known numbers of the bacterial isolate, for example to enhance plant growth, increase biodegradation of toxic organics, or produce antibiotics or other natural products at an industrial scale.


 Environmental Microbiology

Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol

1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University

JoVE 54227


 Bioengineering

Cleaning Glassware

JoVE 10342

Source: Vy M. Dong and Daniel Kim, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA

Organic synthesis is about transforming a readily available reagent into a more valuable product. Having clean glassware is crucial for the efficiency of this process. Dirty glassware can potentially affect the reaction and make isolation of the final product more challenging. Thus, a synthetic chemist must keep the glassware spotless. The methods described here will detail different glass cleaning techniques that are regularly used to remove organics, metals, grease, and salts.


 Organic Chemistry II

Anesthesia Induction and Maintenance

JoVE 10263

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ("The Guide") states that pain assessment and alleviation are integral components of the veterinary care of laboratory animals.1 The definition of anesthesia is the loss of feeling or sensation. It is a dynamic event involving changes in anesthetic depth with respect to an animal's metabolism, surgical stimulation, or variations in the external environment.


 Lab Animal Research

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

JoVE 10156

Source: Dr. Paul Bower - Purdue University

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an important analytical method commonly used to separate and quantify components of liquid samples. In this technique, a solution (first phase) is pumped through a column that contains a packing of small porous particles with a second phase bound to the surface. The different solubilities of the sample components in the two phases cause the components to move through the column with different average velocities, thus creating a separation of these components. The pumped solution is called the mobile phase, while the phase in the column is called the stationary phase. There are several modes of liquid chromatography, depending upon the type of stationary and/or mobile phase employed. This experiment uses reversed-phase chromatography, where the stationary phase is non-polar, and the mobile phase is polar. The stationary phase to be employed is C18 hydrocarbon groups bonded to 3-µm silica particles, while the mobile phase is an aqueous buffer with a polar organic modifier (acetonitrile) added to vary its eluting strength. In this form, the silica can be used for samples that are water-soluble, providing a broad range of applications. In this experiment, the mixtures of three components frequently found


 Analytical Chemistry

Methods for Analyzing the Impacts of Natural Uranium on in vitro Osteoclastogenesis

1UMR E-4320 TIRO-MATOs CEA/DRF/BIAM, Université Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 2UMR 7272 Institut de Chimie de Nice CNRS, Université Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 3CEA, Direction de la Recherche Fondamentale (DRF), Biosciences and Biotechnologies Institute (BIAM)

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 56499


 JoVE In-Press

Determining the Solubility Rules of Ionic Compounds

JoVE 10197

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

An ionic compound's solubility can be determined via qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that uses chemical properties and reactions to identify the cation or anion present in a chemical compound. While the chemical reactions rely on known solubility rules, those same rules can be determined by identifying the products that form. Qualitative analysis is not typically done in modern industrial chemistry labs, but it can be used easily in the field without the need of sophisticated instrumentation. Qualitative analysis also focuses on understanding ionic and net ionic reactions as well as organizing data into a flow chart to explain observations and make definitive conclusions. Many cations have similar chemical properties, as do the anion counterparts. Correct identification requires careful separation and analysis to systematically identify the ions present in a solution. It is important to understand acid/base properties, ionic equilibria, redox reactions, and pH properties to identify ions successfully. While there is a qualitative test for virtually every elemental and polyatomic ion, the identification process typically begi


 General Chemistry

Le Châtelier's Principle

JoVE 10138

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Lynne O'Connell — Boston College

When the conditions of a system at equilibrium are altered, the system responds in such a way as to maintain the equilibrium. In 1888, Henri-Lewis Le Châtelier described this phenomenon in a principle that states, "When a change in temperature, pressure, or concentration disturbs a system in chemical equilibrium, the change will be counteracted by an alteration in the equilibrium composition." This experiment demonstrates Le Châtelier's principle at work in a reversible reaction between iron(III) ion and thiocyanate ion, which produces iron(III) thiocyante ion: Fe3+(aq) + SCN- (aq) FeSCN2+ (aq) The concentration of one of the ions is altered either by directly adding a quantity of one ion to the solution or by selectively removing an ion from the solution through formation of an insoluble salt. Observations of color changes indicate whether the equilibrium has shifted to favor formation of the products or the reactants. In addition, the effect of a temperature change on the solution at equilibrium can be obs


 General Chemistry

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