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Основы энергетики
Основы энергетики
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Chemical reactions, such as those that occur when you light a match, involve changes in energy as well as matter. Chemical changes and their…
Первый закон термодинамики
Первый закон термодинамики
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Energy can be converted from one form into another, but all of the energy present before a change occurs always exists in some form after the…
Внутренняя энергия
Внутренняя энергия
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The total of all possible kinds of energy present in a substance is called the internal energy (U), sometimes symbolized as E. Suppose a system with…
Количественная оценка тепла
Количественная оценка тепла
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Microscopically, thermal energy is the kinetic energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules. Temperature is a quantitative…
Количественная оценка работы
As a system undergoes a change, its internal energy can change, and energy can be transferred from the system to the surroundings, or from the…
Энтальпия
Энтальпия
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Chemists ordinarily use a property known as enthalpy (H) to describe the thermodynamics of chemical and physical processes. Enthalpy is defined as…
Термохимические уравнения
Термохимические уравнения
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For a chemical reaction (the system) carried out at constant pressure – with the only work done caused by expansion or contraction – the…
Калориметрия постоянного давления
Calorimetry is a technique used to measure the amount of heat involved in a chemical or physical process or to measure the heat transferred to or…
Калориметрия постоянного объема
Calorimeters are useful to determine the heat released or absorbed by a chemical reaction. Coffee cup calorimeters are designed to operate at…
Закон Гесса
Закон Гесса
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There are two ways to determine the amount of heat involved in a chemical change: measure it experimentally, or calculate it from other…
Стандартная энтальпия образования
Enthalpy changes are typically tabulated for reactions in which both the reactants and products are at the same conditions. A standard state is a…
Энтальпии реакции
Энтальпии реакции
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Hess’s law can be used to determine the enthalpy change of any reaction if the corresponding enthalpies of formation of the reactants and…
Горячая биологического катализа: изотермический титрования калориметрия для характеристики ферментативных реакций
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a well-described technique that measures the heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction, using it…
Определение термодинамических свойств металлических сплавов алкалической земли жидкости с использованием метода электродвижущей силы
A novel electrochemical cell based on a CaF2 solid-state electrolyte has been developed to measure the electromotive force (emf) of binary alkaline…
Вычисление атмосферных концентраций молекулярных кластеров из <em>термохимии ab initio</em>
The computational study of the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols requires an accurate Gibbs free energy surface, which can be obtained…

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