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Princípios Básicos de Energia
Chemical reactions, such as those that occur when you light a match, involve changes in energy as well as matter. Chemical changes and their…
Primeira Lei da Termodinâmica
Energy can be converted from one form into another, but all of the energy present before a change occurs always exists in some form after the…
Energia Interna
The total of all possible kinds of energy present in a substance is called the internal energy (U), sometimes symbolized as E. Suppose a system with…
Quantificação do Calor
Microscopically, thermal energy is the kinetic energy associated with the random motion of atoms and molecules. Temperature is a quantitative…
Quantificação do Trabalho
As a system undergoes a change, its internal energy can change, and energy can be transferred from the system to the surroundings, or from the…
Entalpia
Chemists ordinarily use a property known as enthalpy (H) to describe the thermodynamics of chemical and physical processes. Enthalpy is defined as…
Equações Termoquímicas
For a chemical reaction (the system) carried out at constant pressure – with the only work done caused by expansion or contraction – the…
Calorimetria de Pressão Constante
Calorimetry is a technique used to measure the amount of heat involved in a chemical or physical process or to measure the heat transferred to or…
Calorimetria de Volume Constante
Calorimeters are useful to determine the heat released or absorbed by a chemical reaction. Coffee cup calorimeters are designed to operate at…
Lei de Hess
There are two ways to determine the amount of heat involved in a chemical change: measure it experimentally, or calculate it from other…
Entalpia de Formação Padrão
Enthalpy changes are typically tabulated for reactions in which both the reactants and products are at the same conditions. A standard state is a…
Entalpias de Reações
Hess’s law can be used to determine the enthalpy change of any reaction if the corresponding enthalpies of formation of the reactants and…
Hot Catálise Biológica: Calorimetria isotérmica de titulação para caracterizar reações enzimáticas
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a well-described technique that measures the heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction, using it…
Determinação de propriedades termodinâmicas de líquidos alcalinos terrosos de ligas metálicas utilizando a técnica de força eletromotriz
A novel electrochemical cell based on a CaF2 solid-state electrolyte has been developed to measure the electromotive force (emf) of binary alkaline…
Computação de Concentrações Atmosféricas de Aglomerados Moleculares a partir <em>de ab initio</em> Termoquímica
The computational study of the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols requires an accurate Gibbs free energy surface, which can be obtained…

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