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기체, 액체, 고체의 분자적 비교
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
분자 간 힘 vs 분자 내 힘
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
분자 간 힘
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
분자 간 힘의 비교: 녹는점(융점), 끓는점(비등점), 혼화성
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
표면장력, 모세관 작용, 점성
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
상전이
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
상전이: 기화와 응축
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
증기압력
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
클라우지우스-클라페롱 식
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
상전이: 녹음과 끓음
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
상전이: 승화와 탈승화
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
가열곡선과 냉각곡선
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
상평형 그림
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
고체의 구조
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
격자 중심잡기와 배위수
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
분자성 고체와 이온성 고체
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
이온 결정 구조
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
금속성 고체
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
띠이론
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
그물구조 공유결합 고체
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
엑스선 결정학
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
방법은 표면 산화와 환원을 통해 액체 금속의 표면 장력을 조작
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
X 선 결정학 및 생물 기술에 의해 면역 글로불린 겹와 Glycoproteins의 특성
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
위상 반전 공동 흐름 구조와 미세 모 세관 장치를 사용 하 여 조작 높은 점도 방울
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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