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الفصل 21
المجموعات الوظيفية
Functional groups are a group of atoms with characteristic properties, which when linked to the carbon skeleton of a molecule, alter the properties…
البوليمرات
The word polymer is derived from the Greek words “poly” which means “many” and “mer” which means…
كيمياء الخلية
The cell is chemically composed of water, organic molecules and inorganic ions. Water The polarity of the water molecule and its resulting hydrogen…
هيكلية الدهون
Lipids include a diverse group of compounds that are largely nonpolar in nature. This is because they are hydrocarbons that include mostly nonpolar…
كيمياء الكربوهيدرات
Carbohydrates are an essential part of the diet in humans and animals. Grains, fruits, and vegetables are natural sources of carbohydrates that…
الأحماض الأمينية
Amino acids are the monomers that comprise proteins. Each amino acid has the same fundamental structure, which consists of a central carbon atom, or…
روابط الببتيد
A peptide bond covalently attaches amino acids through a dehydration reaction. One amino acid's carboxyl group and another amino acid's amino…
البروتين وبنية البروتين
Proteins are one of the most abundant organic molecules in living systems and have the most diverse range of functions of all macromolecules.…
الأحماض النووية
Nucleic acids are the most important macromolecules for the continuity of life. They carry the cell's genetic blueprint and carry instructions…
اقتران قاعدة الحمض النووي DNA
Erwin Chargaff’s rules on DNA equivalence paved the way for the discovery of base pairing in DNA. Chargaff’s rules state that in a…
تكرار الحمض النووي DNA
DNA replication involves the separation of the two strands of the double helix, with each strand serving as a template from which the new…
من الحمض النووي إلى البروتين
The flow of genetic information in cells from DNA to mRNA to protein is described by the central dogma, which states that genes specify the sequence…
بروتوكول بسيطة وفعالة لالتحفيزي الإدراج بلمرة Norbornenes وظيفية
Norbornene can be polymerized by a variety of mechanisms, including insertion polymerization whereby the double bond is polymerized and the bicyclic…
عزل وتوصيف المواد الكيميائية من الدهن من البكتيريا سالبة الجرام
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major cell surface molecule of gram-negative bacteria, deposited on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane bilayer.…
كتلة الطيفية المداخل لدراسة بنية البروتين والتفاعلات في مساحيق المجففة بالتبريد
Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (ssHDX-MS) and side-chain photolytic labeling (ssPL-MS) followed by mass spectrometric analysis can be valuable for…

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