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Ауторепликация в прокариотах
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
Ауторепликация в эукариотах
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
Спаривание оснований ДНК
Erwin Chargaff’s rules on DNA equivalence paved the way for the discovery of base pairing in DNA. Chargaff’s rules state that in a…
Вилка репликации ДНК
An organism’s genome needs to be duplicated in an efficient and error-free manner for its growth and survival. The replication fork is a…
Редактирование
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
Синтез отстающих нитей
During replication, the complementary strands in double-stranded DNA are synthesized at different rates. Replication first begins on the leading…
ДНК-геликазы и одноцепочечные ДНК-связывающие белки
DNA unwinding helicase enzymes are a type of motor protein. Motor proteins can translocate along filaments or polymers using energy generated from…
Single-Strand DNA Binding Proteins
For successful DNA replication, the unwinding of double-stranded DNA must be accompanied by stabilization and protection of the separated single…
Реплисома
DNA replication is carried out by a large complex of proteins that act in a coordinated matter to achieve high-fidelity DNA replication. Together…
Репарация неспаренных оснований
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
ДНК-топоизомеразы
Topoisomerases are enzymes that relax overwound DNA molecules during various cell processes, including DNA replication and transcription. These…
Теломеры и теломераза
In eukaryotic DNA replication, a single-stranded DNA fragment remains at the end of a chromosome after the removal of the final primer. This section…
Неядерные наследственность
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
Митохондриальная генетика животных
Among all the organelles in an animal cell, only mitochondria have their own independent genomes. Animal mitochondrial DNA is a double-stranded,…
Сравнение геномов митохондрий, хлоропластов и прокариот
The present-day mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes have retained some of the characteristics of their ancestral prokaryotes and also have acquired…
Экспорт митохондриальных и хлоропластных генов
A eukaryotic cell can have up to three different types of genetic systems: nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast. During evolution, organelles have…

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