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第6章
原核生物的复制
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
真核生物的复制
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
脱氧核糖核酸(DNA) 碱基配对
Erwin Chargaff’s rules on DNA equivalence paved the way for the discovery of base pairing in DNA. Chargaff’s rules state that in a…
DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)复制叉
An organism’s genome needs to be duplicated in an efficient and error-free manner for its growth and survival. The replication fork is a…
校对
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
滞后链合成
During replication, the complementary strands in double-stranded DNA are synthesized at different rates. Replication first begins on the leading…
DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)解旋酶和单链DNA结合蛋白
DNA unwinding helicase enzymes are a type of motor protein. Motor proteins can translocate along filaments or polymers using energy generated from…
Single-Strand DNA Binding Proteins
For successful DNA replication, the unwinding of double-stranded DNA must be accompanied by stabilization and protection of the separated single…
复制体
DNA replication is carried out by a large complex of proteins that act in a coordinated matter to achieve high-fidelity DNA replication. Together…
错配修复
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)拓扑异构酶
Topoisomerases are enzymes that relax overwound DNA molecules during various cell processes, including DNA replication and transcription. These…
端粒和端粒酶
In eukaryotic DNA replication, a single-stranded DNA fragment remains at the end of a chromosome after the removal of the final primer. This section…
无核继承
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
动物线粒体遗传学
Among all the organelles in an animal cell, only mitochondria have their own independent genomes. Animal mitochondrial DNA is a double-stranded,…
比较线粒体,叶绿体和原核基因组
The present-day mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes have retained some of the characteristics of their ancestral prokaryotes and also have acquired…
线粒体和叶绿体基因的输出
A eukaryotic cell can have up to three different types of genetic systems: nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast. During evolution, organelles have…
端粒长度和端粒酶活性;阴阳细胞衰老
Telomeres are repeating DNA sequences at the tip ends of the chromosomes that are diverse in length and in humans can reach a length of 15,000 base…
单核苷酸延长和 MALDI 质谱分析校对及 DNA 修复方法
The maintenance of the genome and its faithful replication is paramount for conserving genetic information. To assess high fidelity replication, we…

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