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# Chapter 5 Newton's Laws of Motion

## Force

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Forces affect every moment of our life. Our bodies are held to the Earth by force, and they are held together by the forces of charged particles.…

## Types of Forces

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In most situations, forces can be grouped into two categories: contact forces and field forces.  Contact forces occur as a result of direct…

## Newton's First Law: Introduction

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Motion draws our attention. Motion itself can be beautiful, causing us to marvel at the forces needed to create spectacular sights, such as that of a…

## Newton's First Law: Application

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Experience suggests that an object at rest remains at rest if left alone, and that an object in motion tends to slow down and stop unless some effort…

## Internal and External Forces

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Newton's first law states that a net external force causes a change in motion. External forces act on an object or system, originating outside of…

## Newton's Second Law

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Newton's second law is closely related to his first law of motion. It mathematically gives the cause-and-effect relationship between force and…

## Mass and Weight

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Mass and weight are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation. For example,  medical records often show our weight in kilograms, but…

## Weightlessness

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When an object is dropped, it accelerates toward the center of the Earth. If the net external force on the object is its weight, it is said to be in…

## Apparent Weight

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True weight is the measure of the gravitational force acting on an object. However, if the object accelerates, its measured weight is different from…

## Newton's Third Law: Introduction

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Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the first body experiences a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, to the force that…

## Newton's Third Law: Examples

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Newton's third law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. Consider a swimmer pushing off the side of a pool. They push…

## Drawing Free-body Diagrams: Rules

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The first step in describing and analyzing most phenomena in physics involves the careful drawing of a free-body diagram. Free-body diagrams are…

## Free Body Diagrams: Examples

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Solving problems that involve forces is easy using free-body diagrams. A free-body diagram is a sketch showing all the external forces that are…

## Inertial Frames of Reference

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Newton’s first law is usually considered to be a statement about reference frames. It provides a method for identifying a special type of…

## Non-inertial Frames of Reference

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A reference frame accelerating or decelerating relative to an inertial frame is a non-inertial frame. To help understand this, consider what taking…

## Centrifugal Force

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Pseudo forces, or fictitious forces, appear to act on an object in motion in a rotating frame of reference with respect to an inertial reference…

## Magnetic Tweezers for the Measurement of Twist and Torque

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Single-molecule techniques make it possible to investigate the behavior of individual biological molecules in solution in real time. These techniques…

## Simultaneous Measurement of Turbulence and Particle Kinematics Using Flow Imaging Techniques

Numerous problems in scientific and engineering fields involve understanding the kinematics of particles in turbulent flows, such as contaminants,…

## Single Wavelength Shadow Imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans Locomotion Including Force Estimates

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This study demonstrates an inexpensive and straightforward technique that allows the measurement of physical properties such as position, velocity,…

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