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الفصل 6
ما هو تأشير الخلية؟
Despite the protective membrane that separates a cell from the environment, cells need the ability to detect and respond to environmental changes.…
التأشير البكتيري
At times, a group of bacteria behaves like a community. To achieve this, they engage in quorum sensing, the perception of higher cell density that…
تأشير الخميرة
Yeasts are single-celled organisms, but unlike bacteria, they are eukaryotes—cells that have a nucleus. Cell signaling in yeast is similar to…
التأشيرات المعتمدة على التماس
Contact-dependent signaling uses specialized cytoplasmic channels between cells that allow the flow of small molecules between them. In animal cells,…
التأشير الأوتوكريني
Secreted signals can act on a variety of target cells. In some cases, the cell that secretes a signal also detects and responds to the signaling…
التأشير الباراكريني
Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a…
التأشير التشابكي
Neurons communicate at synapses, or junctions, to excite or inhibit the activity of other neurons or target cells, such as muscles. Synapses may be…
مستقبلات البروتين G
G-protein coupled receptors are ligand binding receptors that indirectly affect changes in the cell. The actual receptor is a single polypeptide that…
المستقبلات الداخلية
Many cellular signals are hydrophilic and therefore cannot pass through the plasma membrane. However, small or hydrophobic signaling molecules can…
إشارات الغدد الصماء
Endocrine cells produce hormones to communicate with remote target cells found in other organs. The hormone reaches these distant areas using the…
ما هي المراسيل الثانية؟
Because many receptor binding ligands are hydrophilic, they do not cross the cell membrane and thus their message must be relayed to a second…
شلالات الإشارات داخل الخلايا
Intracellular signaling cascades amplify a signal originating extracellularly and directs it to its intended intracellular target resulting in…
القنوات الأيونية
Ion channels maintain the membrane potential of a cell. For most cells, especially excitable ones, the inside has a more negative charge than the…
المستقبلات المرتبطة بالإنزيم
Enzyme-linked receptors are proteins which act as both receptor and enzyme, activating multiple intracellular signals. This is a large group of…
فحص الجزيئات النانوية النشطة بيولوجيا في الخلايا المناعية البلعمة لمثبطات مستقبلات تشبه تول
Pharmacological regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses holds great promise in the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, there…
في الوقت الحقيقي تصوير لايف تي خلية اشارة تشكيل مجمع
Protection against infectious diseases is mediated by the immune system 1,2. T lymphocytes are the master coordinators of the immune system,…

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