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الفصل 8
ما هو التنفس الخلوي؟
Organisms harvest energy from food, but this energy cannot be directly used by cells. Cells convert the energy stored in nutrients into a more usable…
ما هو تحلل الجلوكوز؟
Cells make energy by breaking down macromolecules. Cellular respiration is the biochemical process that converts “food energy” (from…
خطوات تحلل الجلوكوز التي تتطلب الطاقة
Glucose is the source of nearly all energy used by organisms. The first step of converting glucose into usable energy is called glycolysis.…
خطوات تحلل الجلوكوز التي تطلق الطاقة
While the first phase of glycolysis consumes energy to convert glucose to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), the second phase produces energy. The…
نتائج تحلل السكر
Nearly all the energy used by cells comes from the bonds that make up complex, organic compounds. These organic compounds are broken down into…
أكسدة البيروفات
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions. These reactions…
دورة حامض الستريك
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle, consists of several energy-generating reactions that yield one ATP molecule, three…
منتجات دورة حامض الستريك
The cells of most organisms—including plants and animals—obtain usable energy through aerobic respiration, the oxygen-requiring version…
سلاسل نقل الإلكترون
The final stage of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation, which consists of (1) an electron transport chain and (2) chemiosmosis. The…
التناضح الكيميائي
Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of energy that…
ناقلات الإلكترون
Electron carriers can be thought of as electron shuttles. These compounds can easily accept electrons (i.e., be reduced) or lose them (i.e., be…
عائد ATP
Cellular respiration produces 30-32 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Although most of the ATP results from oxidative phosphorylation and the…
التخمير
Most eukaryotic organisms require oxygen to survive and function adequately. Such organisms produce large amounts of energy during aerobic…
الوصلات الغذائية
Metabolic pathways are interconnected. The cellular respiration processes that convert glucose to ATP—such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and…
عالية الدقة قياس التنفس لتقييم وظيفة الميتوكوندريا في Permeabilized وخلايا سليمة
A high-resolution oxygraph is a device for measuring cellular oxygen consumption in a closed-chamber system with very high resolution and sensitivity…
بروتوكول الأمثل لتحليل تحلل السكر والميتوكوندريا التنفس في الخلايا اللمفاوية
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation,…
علاج الفئران SCA1 مع للذوبان في الماء المركبات لغير وجه التحديد زيادة وظيفة الميتوكوندريا
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases including several hereditary…
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