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Capítulo 13
A Hélice do DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is the genetic material responsible for passing traits from generation to generation in all organisms and most…
Condensação do DNA
Eukaryotes have large genomes compared to prokaryotes. In order to fit their genomes into a cell, eukaryotes must pack their DNA tightly inside the…
Organização dos Genes
The genomes of eukaryotes can be structured in several functional categories. A strand of DNA is comprised of genes and intergenic regions. Genes…
Análise do Cariótipo
Describing the number and physical features of chromosomes can reveal abnormalities that underlie genetic diseases. This description is facilitated…
Replicação em Procariotas
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
Replicação em Eucariotas
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
Revisão
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
Reparação de Pares Errados
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
Reparação da Excisão de Nucleótidos
Exposure to mutagens can damage DNA and result in bulky lesions that distort the double-helix structure or impede proper transcription. Damaged DNA…
Mutações
Mutations are changes in the sequence of DNA. These changes can occur spontaneously or they can be induced by exposure to environmental factors.…
Transcrição
Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA sequence by RNA polymerase. It is the first step in producing a protein from a gene…
Tradução
Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from the genetic information carried by messenger RNA (mRNA). Following transcription, it…
Transformação Bacteriana
In 1928, bacteriologist Frederick Griffith worked on a vaccine for pneumonia, which is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Griffith studied…
Dobragem e Caracterização de um robô Bio-responsivo a partir de ADN de Origami
The DNA nanorobot is a hollow hexagonal nanometric device, designed to open in response to specific stimuli and present cargo sequestered inside.…
O Método ChIP-exo: Identificando Protein-DNA Interações com perto da base Pair Precision
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an indispensable tool in the fields of epigenetics and gene regulation that isolates specific protein-DNA…
Aplicação de Métodos Stopped fluxo de Cinética para investigar o mecanismo de ação de uma proteína de reparo do DNA
Transient kinetic analysis is indispensable for understanding the workings of biological macromolecules, since this approach yields mechanistic…
Microscopia de Força Atômica Investigações do Reconhecimento de Lesão de DNA no Reparo de Excisão de Nucleótidos
AFM imaging is a powerful technique for the study of protein-DNA interactions. This single molecule method allows the simultaneous resolution of…

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