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الفصل 23
ما هي التنظيم والإفراز؟
Organisms must keep bodily fluids at a constant temperature and pH while maintaining specific solute concentrations in order to support life…
هيكل الكلى
The kidneys are two large bean-shaped organs located in the upper abdomen. They filter the blood several times a day to remove toxins and rebalance…
الترشيح
The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing…
دورة اليوريا
The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert…
التنظيم الهرموني
The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and…
نظم الإخراج المقارن
Animals have evolved different strategies for excretion, the removal of waste from the body. Most waste must be dissolved in water to be excreted, so…
التنظيم الأسموزي في الأسماك
When cells are placed in a hypotonic (low-salt) fluid, they can swell and burst. Meanwhile, cells in a hypertonic solution—with a higher salt…
التنظيم الأسموزي في الحشرات
Malpighian tubules are specialized structures found in the digestive systems of many arthropods, including most insects, that handle excretion and…
علم وظائف الأعضاء مختبر مظاهرة: معدل الترشيح الكبيبي في الجرذ
Measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the fractional excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are critical in assessing renal…
دمج استخراج الصلبة المرحلة المصغرة و لك-مس / مس الكشف عن 3-نيتروتيروسين في البول البشري للتطبيقات السريرية
Free 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) has been extensively used as a possible biomarker for oxidative stress. Increased levels of 3-NT have been reported in a…

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