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¿Qué son la osmorregulación y la excreción?
Organisms must keep bodily fluids at a constant temperature and pH while maintaining specific solute concentrations in order to support life…
La estructura del riñón
The kidneys are two large bean-shaped organs located in the upper abdomen. They filter the blood several times a day to remove toxins and rebalance…
La filtración
The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing…
El ciclo de la urea
The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert…
La regulación hormonal
The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and…
Comparación de sistemas excretores
Animals have evolved different strategies for excretion, the removal of waste from the body. Most waste must be dissolved in water to be excreted, so…
La osmorregulación en los peces
When cells are placed in a hypotonic (low-salt) fluid, they can swell and burst. Meanwhile, cells in a hypertonic solution—with a higher salt…
La osmorregulación en los insectos
Malpighian tubules are specialized structures found in the digestive systems of many arthropods, including most insects, that handle excretion and…

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