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Chapter 36

Plant Responses to the Environment

Plant Hormones
Plant hormones—or phytohormones—are chemical molecules that modulate one or more physiological processes of a plant. In animals, hormones…
Photoreceptors and Plant Responses to Light
Light plays a significant role in regulating the growth and development of plants. In addition to providing energy for photosynthesis, light provides…
Biological Clocks and Seasonal Responses
The circadian—or biological—clock is an intrinsic, timekeeping, molecular mechanism that allows plants to coordinate physiological…
Responses to Gravity and Touch
Gravitropism: Plant Responses to Gravity Higher plants sense gravity using statocytes, cells found near the vascular tissue in shoots, and in the…
Responses to Drought and Flooding
Water plays a significant role in the life cycle of plants. However, insufficient or excess of water can be detrimental and pose a serious threat to…
Responses to Heat and Cold Stress
Every organism has an optimum temperature range within which healthy growth and physiological functioning can occur. At the ends of this range, there…
Responses to Salt Stress
Salt stress—which can be triggered by high salt concentrations in a plant’s environment—can significantly affect plant growth and…
Defenses Against Pathogens and Herbivores
Plants present a rich source of nutrients for many organisms, making it a target for herbivores and infectious agents. Plants, though lacking a…
Analysis of Protein Import into Chloroplasts Isolated from Stressed Plants
Chloroplasts are organelles with many vital roles in plants, which include not only photosynthesis but numerous other metabolic and signaling…
Bacterial Leaf Infiltration Assay for Fine Characterization of Plant Defense Responses using the <em>Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae</em> Pathosystem
In the absence of specialized mobile immune cells, plants utilize their localized programmed cell death and Systemic Acquired Resistance to defend…
Analysis of <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em> Growth Behavior in Different Light Qualities
Plant biologists often need to observe the growth behavior of their chosen species. To this end, the plants need constant environmental and stable…

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