RNA Saflaştırma tarafından Kromatin İzolasyon (chirp)

Biology
JoVE Journal
Biology
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Summary

Cıvıldamak uzun kodsuz RNA'lar genomik bağlanma yerleri (lncRNAs) eşleştirmek için yeni ve hızlı bir tekniktir. Yöntemi lncRNA bağlı genomik sitelerin numaralandırılmasına izin anti-sense fayans oligonükleotidden özgüllük yararlanır.

Cite this Article

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Chu, C., Quinn, J., Chang, H. Y. Chromatin Isolation by RNA Purification (ChIRP). J. Vis. Exp. (61), e3912, doi:10.3791/3912 (2012).

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Abstract

Uzun kodsuz RNA gibi dozaj tazminat, basma, ve gelişimsel gen ekspresyonu 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 gibi önemli biyolojik süreçler için kromatin devletlerin anahtar düzenleyicileri vardır. Aracılık histon H3 lizin 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), bir gen-spesifik kromatin devletlerin yönetiminde çok sayıda lncRNAs için geniş rolleri önerdiği gibi Polycomb Baskıcı Kompleksi 2 (PRC2) gibi belirli kromatin modifikasyonu kompleksleri ile birlikte lncRNAs binlerce son keşif moda 8,9. Bazı lncRNAs komşu genler üzerinde cis çalışmak için düşünülen, diğer lncRNAs uzaktan bulunan genleri düzenleyen trans çalışır. Örneğin, Drosophila lncRNAs roX1 ve erkek hücrelerin X kromozomu üzerinde roX2 bağlaması çok sayıda bölge ve dozaj tazminat 10,11 kritik öneme sahiptir. Ancak, bağlanma yerlerinin tam yeri yüksek çözünürlükte bilinmemektedir. Benzer şekilde, insan lncRNA HOTAIR h PRC2 doluluk etkileyebilirgenler genom 3,12,13, ama nasıl özgüllük elde edilir ve undreds belirsizdir. LncRNAs aynı zamanda birden fazla protein komplekslerinin birleşmesini işe modüler iskele olarak hizmet verebilir. Klasik trans-etkili RNA iskele 14 karmaşık telomeraz için şablon ve iskele olarak hizmet TERC RNA; HOTAIR de PRC2 için bir iskele ve 13 karmaşık bir H3K4 demetilaz olarak hizmet verebilir.

Kromatin RNA doluluk haritalama Önceki çalışmalar önemli anlayışlar 15,16 olduğu ancak bir seferde sadece tek bir gen de var. En lncRNAs ve doluluk siteleri bilinmemektedir ve kromatin yönetmelikte lncRNAs rolleri çoğunlukla lncRNA pertürbasyon dolaylı etkilerinin olayla edilmiştir. Kromatin immünopresipitasyon mikroarray veya derin sıralama (sırasıyla ChIP-çip ya da ChIP-seq) tarafından takip ettiği gibi büyük bir genomik ölçekte protein-DNA etkileşimleri anlayışımız geliştirdi, burada bir recen göstermektly yüksek çözünürlükte 17 uzun RNA doluluk genom haritası için strateji yayınladı. Sonra birkaç yüz üsleri çözünürlükte genomik bağlama bölgelerinin bir harita oluşturur antisens oligos, döşeme tarafından kromatin kompleksi: RNA Arıtma (chirp) (Şekil 1), bu yöntemi, Kromatin İzolasyon hedef lncRNA bir afinitesi yakalama dayanmaktadır yüksek hassasiyet ve arka plan düşük. Afinite-prob tasarım RNA sekansı verilen basittir ve RNA yapısı ya da işlevsel etki hiçbir bilgi gerektirdiğinden cıvıldamak birçok lncRNAs için de geçerlidir.

Protocol

1. Prob Tasarım

Tasarım anti-sense DNA cıvıldamak tarafından RNA hedef seçici alımı için probları fayans.

  1. Adresindeki çevrimiçi prob tasarımcısını kullanarak Tasarım anti-sense oligo probları singlemoleculefish.com 18.
  2. Bu parametreleri kullanın: probları RNA uzunluğu = 1 prob / 100 bp sayısı; 2) Hedef GC% = 45; 3) Oligonükleotid uzunluğu = 20; 4) Aralığı uzunluğu = 60-80. Çok uzun eğer tasarımcı için segmente RNA kırın. Tekrarlar veya geniş homoloji bölgeleri atlayın.
  3. 3-prime sonunda BiotinTEG ile Sipariş anti-sense DNA probları.
  4. RNA boyunca konumlarına göre Etiket sondalar. "Hatta" havuzu tüm problar numaralandırma 2, 4, 6, vb içerir ve "tuhaf" havuz 1 numaralandırma probları, 3, 5 içerecek şekilde iki havuz ayırın, vb 100 uM konsantrasyonu problarla havuzu sulandırıp -20 ° C'de mağaza
  5. Bütün deneyler kullanılarak yapılacak olanbirbirleri için iç kontroller olarak hizmet hem havuzları,. Prob özgü sesler her havuz için benzersiz olacağını ise Gerçek RNA-bağımlı sinyal, hem havuzlarından mevcut olacaktır. Bu cıvıldamak-qPCR ve cıvıldamak-seq her ikisi için de geçerlidir.

2. Hasat Hücreleri

Cıvıldamak deney için kullanılacak olan hücreler toplanır.

  1. Doku kültürü plaka veya konfluense için matara hücreleri büyümek. Fosfat ile durulayın kez (PBS) tamponlu ve trypsinize. Hücreleri çıkarmak ve tek hücre süspansiyonu haline tekrar süspansiyon aşağı, medya> 2x hacmi ile pipet tripsin kadar gidermek ve. 50 ml Falcon tüp içine tüm medya ve süspanse hücreler aktarın. 20 milyon hücreler tipik bir örnek cıvıldamak için yeterlidir.
  2. 4 dakika 800RCF hücrelere Spin. Gerekirse PBS 40 ml aspirat ortam ve Pastör pipetiyle 40000000 hücreleri, tüpler birleştirmektedir. 4 dakika 800RCF hücrelere Spin. Durusu PBS, dikkatli bir açı kalan sıvı üzerinde aspire.
  3. 3. Cross-Link Hücre ve Hücre Pelet toplayın

    Crosslink RNA-Kromatin etkileşimleri korumak ve hücre pelletini hazırlamak için glutaraldehitle hücreleri toplanır.

    1. Oda sıcaklığında tüm adımları gerçekleştirin.
    2. Oda sıcaklığında 1 PBS içinde% glutaraldehid hazırlayın. 10 milyon hücre (0.4 mL% 25 gluteraldehit stok + 9.6 ml PBS) başına 10 ml hazırlayın. Glutaraldehyde taze kullanılması gerekir.
    3. Pelet çıkarmak için Falcon tüpler alt dokunun. Pastör pipetiyle hücre pelletini% 1 gluteraldehit ile, parçalar önlemek için küçük bir hacim ile başlayan, daha sonra tam hacmine kontör. Karıştırmak için ters çevirin. Uçtan uca çalkalayıcı veya rotator üzerinde oda sıcaklığında 10 dakika süreyle çapraz bağ.
    4. 5 dk için oda sıcaklığında 1.25 M glisin 1/10th hacmi ile çapraz bağlama reaksiyonu Quench.
    5. 5 dakika 2000RCF döndürme. 20 mL 5 dakika 2000RCF dönüyor, bir kez PBS ile soğutulmuş süpernatan ve yıkama pelet aspire.
    6. W aspire edin ve tekrar süspansiyonküllendirilmekte, çapraz bağlı pelet 20000000 hücre başına 1 ml PBS ile soğutulmuş. Dikkatli pipet ile mümkün olduğunca çok PBS çıkarın 4 C'de 3 dakika 2000RCF bir Eppendorf tüp ve spin her ml aktarın.
    7. -80 Sıvı nitrojen ve mağaza içinde hücre pelletleri Flash dondurmak ° C süresiz.

    4. Hücre Lizis

    Hücre lizatı hazırlamak için, çapraz bağlı hücre parçalayan.

    1. Oda sıcaklığında dondurulmuş hücre pelletleri çözünmesi. Hücre pelletini çıkarmak ve karıştırmak için sert dokunun. 4 3 dakika ° C için 2000RCF de pelet aşağı Spin Kalan PBS kaldırmak için keskin bir 10 ul pipet kullanın.
    2. Elektronik denge (1mg doğru) boş bir Eppendorf tüp dara kütlesi Açık (bizim tüpler çok tutarlı 1.060 gram ağırlığında). Her pelet tartılır ve ağırlığı kaydetmek. Çapraz HeLa hücre tam 15 santimlik genellikle 100 mg ağırlığındadır.
    3. Fres ile Supplement Lysis Buffer (pelet 10X kitle, 100mg örneğin 1 ml)h Proteaz İnhibitör, PMSF ve Superase-in (ekli tampon listesine bakınız). İyice karıştırın.
    4. Her tüpe 10X hacmi ilave Lizis Tampon ekleyin ve pelletini. Küçük saçmalar için <250 ul takviye lizis tamponunda tekrar süspansiyon 25 mg. Süspansiyon düzgün olmalıdır. Değilse, 500 ul kısma süspansiyon bölmek ve öbekler kırmak için motorlu bir pelet karıştırıcı kullanınız. Sonikasyon hemen geçin.

    5.. Sonikasyon

    Çapraz bağlı hücre lizatları sonicating tarafından Kesme DNA.

    1. 15 ml Falcon tüplerinde Bioruptor hücre lizatı sonikasyon. Her bir tüp içinde <1.5 ml lizat kullanın ve daha hızlı sonication için, bir defada en fazla iki tüp ses dalgalarına maruz.
    2. Nabız aralıklarında KAPALI 45 saniye, 30 saniye AÇIK ile yüksek ayarda bir 4 ° C su banyosunda sonikasyon. Her 30 dakikada Lizat kontrol edin. Hücre lizatı artık tortulaşmış kadar sonicating devam etmektedir. Bu kadar az 30 dakika olarak ve birçok 4 saat kadar sürebilir. Numarasıtüpler, örnek hacmi, banyo sıcaklığı ve sonication süre süreci ne kadar uzun sürdüğünü etkileyecektir. Tüpler olasılıkla farklı hızlarda ses dalgalarına maruz, bu yüzden birlikte homojenlik sağlamak için orijinal tüpler içine her 30 dakikada bir ve yeniden dağıtma onları havuzundan olacaktır. Not: glutaraldehit-çapraz bağlı hücreleri formaldehit muadillerine göre ses dalgalarına maruz uzun ölçüde alır.
    3. Lizat net döndüğünde, taze bir Eppendorf tüpüne 5 uL lizat aktarın. 90 uL DNA Proteaz K (PK) Buffer (tampon listesine bakınız) ve 5 uL PK ekleyin. Vortex karıştırın ve kısa süre basılı dönmeye. 50 azından 45 dakika süreyle inkübe ° C.
    4. Qiagen PCR saflaştırma kiti ile DNA ayıklayın. Zehir 30 uL Qiagen Elüsyon Buffer (EB) DNA ve% 1 agaroz jel üzerinde DNA boyutunu kontrol edin. DNA yayma dökme 100-500 bp olması durumunda, sonication tamam olmaktadır. Eğer yoksa, ses dalgalarına maruz devam etmektedir.
    5. 4 azından 10 dakika süreyle 16100RCF azından sonike örnekleri santrifüje ° C. Sıvı nitroge için 1 mL örnekleri ve flash-donma içine süpernatantlar, tablet birleştirinn. -80 ° C de saklayınız

    6. Cıvıldamak

    Bağlı kromatin RNA ve izole etmek için biyotinile DNA probları melezler.

    1. Oda sıcaklığında kromatin Çözülme tüpleri.
    2. (Kromatin ml başına 2 ml hazırlamak, tampon listesine bakınız) Hibridizasyon Tamponu hazırlayın. Karıştırmak için Vortex.
    3. Lizat 1 ml kullanarak tipik bir cıvıldamak örnek için, Eppendorf tüpleri DNA INPUT ve yer için RNA INPUT ve 10 uL 10 uL kaldırın. Daha fazla kullanmak kadar buz üzerinde tutun.
    4. 15 ml Falcon tüpüne 1 mL kromatin aktarın. Her tüpe 2 mL Hibridizasyon Tamponu ekleyin. Toplam hacim için <1.5 ml Eppendorf tüpleri kullanın.
    5. Oda sıcaklığında probları çözünmesi. Eğer uzun süreli olarak kullanılan değilseniz, miktarını kontrol etmek için Nanodrop sondalar (100 uM sondaları gerektiği spec ~ tek iplikli DNA ayarını kullanarak 500-600 ng / ml). Özel borular (1 ml kromatin başına 100 pmol probu, 1 ml kromatin başına 100 uL / ​​pmol probu 1 uL) problarla uygun hacimde ekleyin.İyice karıştırın. Çalkalama ile 4 saat için 37 ° C'de inkübe edilir.
    6. 20 dakika için geri kalan ile melezleştirme, C-1 manyetik boncuklar (4 ° C de muhafaza) hazırlanır. Probların 100 pmol başına 100 mcL kullanın. 1 ml unsupplemented Lizis Tampon ile tampon ayrı boncuk DynaMag-2 mıknatıslı şerit kullanarak üç kez yıkayın.
    7. Lizis Tampon orijinal hacminin Pastör pipetiyle boncuklar; taze PMSF, PI ve Superase-in eki. 4 saat hibridizasyon Reaksiyon tamamlandıktan sonra, her tüpe 100 uL boncuklar ilave edin. İyice karıştırın. Çalkalama ile 30 dakika boyunca 37 ° C'de inkübe edilir.
    8. (Örnek başına 5 mL) Yıkama solusyonu hazırlayın. Karıştırmak için Vortex. 37 öncesi sıcak ° C Kullanmadan önce PMSF ekleyin.
    9. 1 ml yıkama tamponu ile beş kez yıka boncuklar. Ilk yıkamada, 1 ml yıkama tamponu ayrı boncuk, aktarmak ve Pastör pipetiyle için DynaMag-15 manyetik bant kullanın. 1,5 ml Eppendorf tüpüne hacmi aktarın. 5 dk için çalkalama ile 37 ° C'de inkübe edilir.
    10. Sonraki yıkar, bir minicentrifuge her tüp aşağı spin, 1 dakika DynaMag-2 manyetik şerit üzerinde örnekleme ayarlayın. Örnek boşaltmak, 1 ml yıkama tamponu içinde yeniden süspanse bir Kimwipe, herhangi bir damlalar mendil. 5 dk için çalkalama ile 37 ° C'de inkübe edilir. Toplam beş yıkama için tekrarlayın.
    11. Son yıkama anda, iyi boncuklar tekrar süspansiyon. 100 uL çıkarın ve RNA izolasyonu için kenara koyun. DNA fraksiyonu karşılığı 900 uL. DynaMag-2 manyetik şerit üzerindeki tüm tüpler yerleştirin ve yıkama tamponu çıkarın. Kısaca aşağıya tüpleri Spin; mıknatıslı şerit üzerine koyun. Keskin bir 10 ul pipet ucu ile tamamen yıkama tamponu son bit çıkarın.

    7. RNA İzolasyonu

    QRT-PCR ile quantitate cıvıldamak örneklerinden RNA fraksiyonu ayıklayın.

    1. 100 uL boncuk örnekleri ve 10 uL RNA GİRİŞ örnek alın. GİRİŞ RNA 85 uL RNA PK Tamponu pH 7.0 ekleyin. 95 uL RNA PK Tampon pH 7.0 Pastör pipetiyle boncuk. Uçtan uca çalkalama ile 45 dakika boyunca 50 ° C'de 5 uL Proteinease K ve inkübe ekleyin.
    2. Kısaca tüm tüpler aşağı spin ve95 az ısı blokta 10 dakika süreyle örnekleri kaynamaya ° C.
    3. Buz örnekleri Chill, 10 saniye boyunca kuvvetlice 500 uL TRIzol, girdap ekleyin. 10 dakika oda sıcaklığında inkübe edilir. -80 ° C'de saklayın veya 4. adıma geçin.
    4. TRIzol muamele örnekleri ile 100 uL kloroform ekleyin. 10 saniye boyunca kuvvetlice vorteksleyin. 4 ° C'de 15 dakika için bir tezgah üstü santrifüj üzerine 16100RCF at Spin
    5. Organik ve arayüz kaçınarak, ~ 400 uL sulu süpernatantı.
    6. 600 uL (1.5 hacim)% 100 etanol ekleyin ve iyice karıştırın. MIRNeasy Mini sütunlar aracılığıyla örnek Spin. GDK (MIRNeasy Mini kiti), üreticinin protokol başına RPE ile 2x 1x yıkayın. 30 uL nükleaz içermeyen H 2 O (nfH 2 O) ile Zehir.
    7. RNA eluat üreticinin protokol başına DNA ücretsiz davranın. Reaksiyon tamamlandıktan sonra, 65, 15 dakika boyunca ısıtılması Örnek ° C'de tamamen kalan DNase inaktive etmek için.
    8. 1 uL RNA kullanın lncRNA onaylamak için QRT-PCR analizi için başına ve izolealma. GAPDH genellikle bir negatif kontrol olarak kullanılmıştır.

    8. DNA İzolasyonu

    Sekanslamasıyla tanımlamak veya qPCR tarafından quantitate cıvıldamak örneklerinden DNA fraksiyonu ayıklayın.

    1. DNA Elüsyon Buffer (tampon listeye bakın), DNA GİRİŞ dahil numune başına 150 ul, hazırlayın.
    2. Karıştırmak için 1 0μL RNaz A (10 mg / mL) ve 10 uL RNaz H (10 U / ml) DNA Seyreltme Tampon maddesi ile ml'de ve girdap ekleyin.
    3. RNases DNA Seyreltme Tampon 150 uL boncuk her numune yeniden süspanse edin. (140 uL in Pastör pipetiyle DNA GİRİŞ) çalkalama ile 30 dakika boyunca 37 ° C'de inkübe.
    4. Ayrı boncuk ve DynaMag-2 manyetik şerit üzerinde yüzer. Süpernatantı ve etiketli tüpler ekleyin.
    5. 10 uL RNaz A (10 mg / mL) ve RNaseH (10 U / ml) tam olarak 8,2 yapılır) ile DNA Seyreltme Tampon maddesi ile ikinci bir alikotu hazırlayın. Her numune (DNA INPUT dahil), inkübe 150 uL ekleyin ve süpernatant çıkarın. Tüm supernatant (omuz toplayınd) ~ 300 uL olabilir.
    6. Her numune için 15 uL PK ekleyin. Çalkalama ile 45 dakika boyunca 50 ° C'de inkübe edilir.
    7. Sarı faz kilidi jel tüpler (5PRIME) aşağı Öncesi dönerler. Faz-kilit jel tüpler için DNA örnekleri aktarın ve 300 uL PhOH ekleyin: numune başına İzoamil: Kloroform. 10 dakika boyunca kuvvetli bir şekilde çalkalanır, ve 4 ° C sıcaklıkta 5 dk için 16100RCF bir tezgah üstü üzerinde aşağı doğru dönmeye santrifüj Üst (~ 300 uL) gelen sulu atın. 3 uL GlycoBlue, 30 uL NaOAc ve 900 uL% 100 EtOH ekleyin. Gece -20 ° C de ve mağaza karıştırın.
    8. 4 azından 30 dakika süreyle 16100RCF azından örnekleri Spin ° C.
    9. Dikkatli Durusu süpernatant. 1 ml% 70 EtOH ve karıştırmak için vorteks ekleyin. 5 dakika 16100RCF döndürme. Pipet ile süpernatantı. Hava 1dk için kurulayın. 30 uL EB yeniden süspanse edin.
    10. DNA örnekleri qPCR veya Illumina protokol başına yüksek verim sıralama kütüphaneler hazırlanması tarafından analiz için hazırdır.

    10. Temsilcisi Sonuçlar

    Şekil 1 Şekil 2 GAPDH üzerinde HeLa hücreleri insan telomeraz RNA (TERC), bir negatif kontrol görevi gören bir bol hücresel RNA zenginleşme gösterir. GAPDH RNA sadece% 0.46 olarak alınmıştır ise hücrede yer TERC RNA'lar (~% 88) çoğunluk ~ 200 kat bir zenginleştirme faktörü göstererek, cıvıldamak yaparak yıkıldılar. Gibi memeli hücreleri (Şekil 2) ile ifade değildir lacZ RNA, hedefleme probları gibi spesifik olmayan probları ilave negatif kontrol olarak kullanılabilir.

    Hedef lncRNA bağlamak için beklenen DNA bölgeleri genellikle qPCR tarafından ölçülen negatif bölgeler üzerinde zenginleştirilmiştir. Şekil 3 biz aynı hücre dizisinde cıvıldamak-seq yapılarak belirlenen birincil insan sünnet derisi fibroblastlarında dört HOTAIR bağlı sitelerin qPCR doğrulama gösterir iken TERC ve GAPDH DNA bölgeleri senegatif kontrol bölgeler olarak RVE. Her ikisi de "düz" ve "tuhaf" sonda negatif bölgelerin, gerçek lncRNA bağlayıcı siteleri bir işaretidir boyunca beklenenden HOTAIR bağlı sitelerin vermiştir karşılaştırılabilir zenginleştirme ayarlar.

    Cıvıldamak zenginleştirilmiş DNA Yüksek throughput sıralama lncRNA bağlayıcı sitelerinin bir dünya haritası verir. Drosophila lncRNA roX2 dozaj telafisi için gerekli olan bir tarzda X-kromozom ile etkileşim olduğu bilinmektedir. Şekil 4, X kromozom bir bölümünün üzerine roX2 bağlanma profili gösterir. Her ikisi de "düz" ve "tuhaf" örnekleri dizisi edilmiş ve kendilerine özgü sesler üst üste gelen sinyaller bir parça üretmek için silinmiştir. Her bir "zirve" Burada roX2 bağlama güçlü bir site gösterir. Tüm takip ve roX2 hedef genlerin listesini Chu ve diğerleri tarafından tarif edilmiştir. 2.011 17.

    Şekil 1..
    Cıvıldamak prosedürü Şekil 1. Akış şemasıDure. Tinile fayans probları lncRNA hedef melezlendi ve in vivo protein adducts ve kromatin kompleksleri katı yıkama izledi, manyetik streptavidin boncuklar kullanılarak saflaştırıldı edilir. Kromatin lncRNA çaprazlandı edilir. Biz A olası lncRNA bağlayıcı sırası turuncu şematize edilmiştir RNaz A ve H. bir kokteyl ile lncRNA bağlı DNA veya protein Zehir. Daha önce Chu ve ark yayınlandı. 2011. 17

    Şekil 2.
    Insan TERC RNA için Şekil 2. Cıvıldamak zenginleştirir. TERC-asDNA problar hücresel TERC RNA ve saptanamayan GAPDH arasında ~% 88 almak. LacZ-asDNA problar negatif kontrol olarak kullanıldı ve ne RNA'lar almak edilir. Ortalama + SD gösterilmiştir. Daha önce Chu ve ark yayınlandı. 2011. 17

    Şekil 3.
    Şekil 3. Birincil insan HOTAIR cıvıldamak-qPCR içinEskin fibroblastlar. NFKBIA, HOXD3-4, SERINC5 ve ABCA2 HOTAIR etkileşim bölgeleridir. TERC ve GAPDH negatif kontrol olarak görev yaptı. Ortalama + SD gösterilmiştir. Daha önce Chu ve ark yayınlandı. 2011. 17

    Şekil 4.
    Şekil 4. SL2 Drosophila hücrelerinde roX2 RNA cıvıldamak-seq veri. "Hatta" ve "tuhaf" ayrı dizilenmisti.r; kendi veri hem de tek ortak zirveleri yansıtacak şekilde birleştirmek. Birleştirilen parça gösterilir. Daha önce Chu ve ark yayınlandı. 2011. 17

Discussion

Burada cıvıldamak-seq, in vivo lncRNA bağlayıcı siteleri genom içinde haritalama yöntemi tanımladı. Başarı için anahtar parametreleri oligonükleotid problar ve glutaraldehit çapraz döşeme arasında bölünmüş havuzları vardır. Afinite-prob tasarımı RNA dizisi verilen basittir ve RNA'nın yapı veya fonksiyonel etki hiçbir ön bilgi gerektirir. İki tür üç oldukça farklı RNA'lar - - roX2, TERC ve HOTAIR elde ettiğimiz başarılar cıvıldamak-seq birçok lncRNAs muhtemeldir genellenebilir olduğunu göstermektedir. Tüm deneylerde olduğu gibi, bakım ve uygun kontrollerin sonuçlarını yorumlamak için gereklidir. Farklı lncRNA koşulları titrasyonu ve bu farklı ilgi prob veya çapraz bağlayıcıların seçimi gibi koşullar, politikasıyla değişikliği gerektirebilir, RNA-kromatin etkileşimleri farklı yönlerini vurgulamak olabilir. ChIP-SEQ gibi, tüm bağlama olayları ille fonksiyonel olup, ek çalışmalar RNA o biyolojik sonuçlarını tespit etmek için gerekli olankromatin üzerine ccupancy. Yine de, binlerce 8,9 şimdi sayısı diğer kromatin ile ilişkili lncRNAs, araştırmacıları için bu teknolojinin pek çok ilginç uygulama öngörüyoruz. ChIP-seq DNA-protein etkileşimleri genom araştırmaları için kapıyı açtı gibi, "RNA interactome" nin cıvıldamak-seq çalışmaları biyoloji birçok yeni yollar ortaya çıkarabilir.

Disclosures

C. Chu ve HY Chang, bu yönteme dayalı bir patent başvurusu üzerine mucitler olarak adlandırılır.

Acknowledgments

Biz T. Hung, MC teşekkür ederim. Tsai, O. Manor, E. Segal, M. Kuroda, T. Swigut ve tartışmalar için I. Shestopalov. Bilim, Teknoloji ve Singapur (CC), NIH R01-CA118750 ve R01-HG004361 (HYC) ve Rejeneratif Tıp (HYC) için California Institute of Araştırma Ajansı tarafından desteklenir. HYC Howard Hughes Tıp Enstitüsü bir Erken Kariyer bilim adamıdır.

Materials

Name Company Catalog Number Comments
Buffer List:
Dissolve a pellet of complete protease inhibitor in 1 ml water as 50x stock. Make 100 mM PMSF in isopropanol (100x stock). Superase-in is used as 200x stock. Store all at -20 °C.
Lysis Buffer:
50 mM Tris-Cl pH 7.0
10 mM EDTA
1% SDS
Always add PMSF, P.I. and Superase-in fresh before use except when washing beads
Proteinase K Buffer (for DNA)
100 mM NaCl
10 mM TrisCl pH 8.0 (For RNA use pH 7.0)
1 mM EDTA
0.5% SDS
Add 5% by volume Proteainse K (Ambion AM2546 20 mg/ml) fresh before use
Hybridization Buffer
750 mM NaCl
1% SDS
50 mM Tris-Cl pH 7.0
1 mM EDTA
15% formamide (store in the dark at 4 °C)
Always add PMSF, P.I. and Superase-in fresh before use
Wash Buffer
2x NaCl and Sodium citrate (SSC) (diluted from 20x SSC Invitrogen stock)
0.5% SDS
Always add PMSF fresh before use
DNA elution Buffer
50 mM NaHCO3
1% SDS
Table of specific reagents and equipment:
Glutaraldehyde (EM grade) Sigma-Aldrich G5882-10x10ml
Motorized pellet mixer VWR international V8185-904
Protease inhibitor Roche Group 11873580001
PMSF Sigma-Aldrich 78830
Superase-in Ambion AM2696
Bioruptor Diagenode UCD-200
Falcon tubes (for sonication) Corning 430790
Proteinase K Ambion AM2546
PCR purification kit Qiagen 28106
C-1 magnetic beads Invitrogen 65002
PMSF Sigma-Aldrich P7626-25G
DynaMag-15 magnet Invitrogen 123-01D
DynaMag-2 magnet Invitrogen 123-21D
MIRNeasy mini kit Qiagen 217004
Rnase H Epicentre Biotechnologies R0601K
Rnase A Sigma-Aldrich R4875-100MG
Phase Lock Gel Heavy 5 PRIME 2302810
Trizol Invitrogen 15596-018
Phenol:chloroform:Isoamyl Invitrogen 15593-031
Chloroform Ricca RSOC0020-1C
GlycoBlue Ambion AM9515
Glycine JT Baker 4057-06
PBS, pH 7.4 Invitrogen 10010-049
Elution Buffer (EB) Qiagen 19086
20x SSC Invitrogen 15557-036
10% SDS Invitrogen 15553-027
DNA-free Ambion AM1906
Buffer kit Ambion AM9010
Formamide Invitrogen 15515-026

DOWNLOAD MATERIALS LIST

References

  1. Koziol, M. J., Rinn, J. L. RNA traffic control of chromatin complexes. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 20, 142-148 (2010).
  2. Mercer, T. R., Dinger, M. E., Mattick, J. S. Long non-coding RNAs: insights into functions. Nat. Rev. Genet. 10, 155-159 (2009).
  3. Rinn, J. L. Functional demarcation of active and silent chromatin domains in human HOX loci by noncoding RNAs. Cell. 129, 1311-1323 (2007).
  4. Zhao, J., Sun, B. K., Erwin, J. A., Song, J. J., Lee, J. T. Polycomb proteins targeted by a short repeat RNA to the mouse X chromosome. Science. 322, 750-756 (2008).
  5. Kelley, R. L. Epigenetic spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from roX RNA genes into flanking chromatin. Cell. 98, 513-522 (1999).
  6. Pandey, R. R. Kcnq1ot1 antisense noncoding RNA mediates lineage-specific transcriptional silencing through chromatin-level regulation. Mol. Cell. 32, 232-246 (2008).
  7. Wang, K. C. A long noncoding RNA maintains active chromatin to coordinate homeotic gene expression. Nature. 472, 120-124 (2011).
  8. Khalil, A. M. Many human large intergenic noncoding RNAs associate with chromatin-modifying complexes and affect gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 11667-11672 (2009).
  9. Zhao, J. Genome-wide identification of polycomb-associated RNAs by RIP-seq. Mol. Cell. 40, 939-953 (2010).
  10. Meller, V. H., Wu, K. H., Roman, G., Kuroda, M. I., Davis, R. L. roX1 RNA paints the X chromosome of male Drosophila and is regulated by the dosage compensation system. Cell. 88, 445-457 (1997).
  11. Franke, A., Baker, B. S. The rox1 and rox2 RNAs are essential components of the compensasome, which mediates dosage compensation in Drosophila. Mol. Cell. 4, 117-122 (1999).
  12. Gupta, R. A. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis. Nature. 464, 1071-1076 (2010).
  13. Tsai, M. C. Long noncoding RNA as modular scaffold of histone modification complexes. Science. 329, 689-693 (2010).
  14. Zappulla, D. C., Cech, T. R. RNA as a flexible scaffold for proteins: yeast telomerase and beyond. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol.. 71, 217-224 (2006).
  15. Nagano, T. The Air noncoding RNA epigenetically silences transcription by targeting G9a to chromatin. Science. 322, 1717-1720 (2008).
  16. Carter, D., Chakalova, L., Osborne, C. S., Dai, Y. F., Fraser, P. Long-range chromatin regulatory interactions in vivo. Nature. 32, 623-626 (2002).
  17. Chu, C., Qu, K., Zhong, F. L., Artandi, S. E., Chang, H. Y. Genomic Maps of Long Noncoding RNA Occupancy Reveal Principles of RNA-Chromatin Interactions. Mol. Cell. (2011).
  18. Raj, A., van den Bogaard, P., Rifkin, S. A., van Oudenaarden, A., Tyagi, S. Imaging individual mRNA molecules using multiple singly labeled probes. Nat. Methods. 5, 877-879 (2008).

Comments

84 Comments

  1. hi,i has a great interest on CHIRP and your works are highly appreciated,but i want to know that where can i find the buffer list?thank you

    Reply
    Posted by: tang n.
    May 5, 2012 - 4:16 AM
  2. Hi there, thanks for the interest in our paper. As you pointed out the original article lacked the buffer list, which we have uploaded a while ago. Hope it helps!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:20 PM
  3. Hello, I'm trying to perform ChIRP experiments and your protocol is very helpful to me.

    However, I have a question about the final concentration of biotinylated probes and the volume of the beads.
    My probes are 100µM so 1µL corresponds to 100pmol. I have 50 probes and my question is : should I use 100µL of magnetic C1 beads per 100pmol of probe, so in my case, 50 probes x 100µL = 5mL of beads ?

    Thanks a lot for the answer ?

    Reply
    Posted by: Sylvain F.
    October 31, 2012 - 4:47 AM
  4. I also have this question!

    Reply
    Posted by: Guihai f.
    November 28, 2012 - 7:51 AM
  5. Hi guys, thanks for the interest in our paper. That's indeed a common question I get, so apologize for not explaining that more clearly in the paper. The 100uM concentration refers to all probes, so if you have ² probes in the pool the individual concentration is 50uM per probe, and if you have 50 probes it's ²uM per probe. It follows that as you scale up number of probes in the pool you do not have to scale up the amount of beads to add. As a caution though, we have noticed that when I use too many probes the concentration of each probe drops too much and it actually adversely affects yield. Try not to use more than 50 probes if possible.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:23 PM
  6. what is the fucntion of the Buffer kit ? I can not find it in the protocol.

    Thanks for your time!

    Reply
    Posted by: Guihai f.
    November 1, 2012 - 12:50 AM
  7. The buffer kit is simply a convenient collection of buffers provided by Ambion that includes 5M NaCl, 1M Tris, 0.5M EDTA, etc..

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:25 PM
  8. Hi, I refer to your paper in HOTAIR ChIRP. You used 48 oligo probes for this ncRNA. I am trying to do a HOTAIR ChIRP. I am wondering if the number of probes can be smaller to reduce cost without a huge compromise on specificity. Furthermore, I am not doing sequencing but a specific check on a genomic region of interest, so I supposed the background noise may be lower? Thank you!

    Reply
    Posted by: Yi Fang L.
    November 8, 2012 - 5:11 AM
  9. We share your desire to reduce number of probes used. In preliminary testing I've found that you can use as few as 1 probe per ²00 nucleotide of RNA target RNA. But that number has to be doubled considering if you need both "even" and "odd" set, so effectively tiling density is 1 probe / 100nt.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 18, 2012 - 5:28 PM
  10. Hello,
    I enjoyed your paper very much.

    At the end of the video, and in the figure, you mention that in this process you can isolate RNA binding proteins that were associated with the RNA. My questions are: have you had success in doing this? What is the protocol for isolating the proteins? Do you just isolate the protein fraction from the Trizol, or is there a more specialized method? Is there a paper that may lay out use of this method?

    Thank you for your help.

    Reply
    Posted by: Gavin J.
    January 18, 2013 - 12:09 PM
  11. Hi,
    Great protocol. Just one question. You mention that all ChIRP steps have to be performed at 37C. I can imagine this is important for the hybridisation steps, but I was wondering why this was needed for the washing steps as well?

    Many thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    March 15, 2013 - 10:21 AM
  12. The washing should be performed at 37C just like you would wash a northern blot at elevated temperatures. If this is logistically difficult for you, just warming up the buffer to 37C and washing on a room temp. shaker works well too.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 15, 2013 - 1:47 PM
  13. Hello,
    Thanks for the detailed and very helpful protocol. Can you tell me what kind of DNA yields to expect from the pull down per input cell amount? I know it will depend on the lncRNA targeted, but I need an idea of what kind of amounts to expect. Could you tell me what you got for your HOTAIR hybridizations? My own hybs only result in a few nanograms of DNA, and I don't know how to determine whether that is nonspecific DNA binding to my beads or whether it is actual lncRNA-bound DNA? How do you control for this? Thank you for your help in advance.

    Reply
    Posted by: blake e.
    March 20, 2013 - 5:44 AM
  14. Hi,

    Congrats for setting up such a protocol. It might have been discussed already but I would like to have an idea about the typical amounts of DNA and RNA that one might expect from 20 x 10 ^6 cells. This of course is transcript specific, but should we expect nanograms, picograms for either DNA and RNA?

    Also have you tried FA instead of glutaraldehyde for x-linking? Many thanks for your time

    Reply
    Posted by: Antonis A.
    November 26, 2013 - 12:15 PM
  15. Hi,

    Thanks for the detailed protocol. I am about to embark on it over the next week or so and had a question regarding the sonication. You advise a Bioruptor for this step however we only have a Covaris available. Would that provide acceptable sonication and do you have any advice regarding appropriate settings?

    Thank you

    Joshua

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    March 2, 2014 - 12:24 AM
  16. Yes Covaris works, we've found that it generally reduces sonication time by 30-50% compared with Diagenode. Actual time and intensity needs to be optimized for each machine and cell line.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 3, 2014 - 5:51 PM
  17. Hi,

    Thanks for the detailed protocol. I am about to embark on it over the next week or so and had a question regarding the sonication. You advise a Bioruptor for this step however we only have a Covaris available. Would that provide acceptable sonication and do you have any advice regarding appropriate settings?

    Thank you

    Joshua

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    March 2, 2014 - 6:32 AM
  18. To all interested ChIRPers, hybridization can be performed overnight instead of 4hours. Doing so greatly reduces hands-on time. Happy ChIRPing!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 3, 2014 - 8:14 PM
  19. Hi Ci,

    I have one more issue to resolve regarding ChIRPseq that I would appreciate your input on please (or other ChIRPers that have had similar problems).

    We have been unable to produce lysates using glutaraldehyde despite following the protocol to the letter and getting the Sigma brand that is recommended. Even before sonication, the DNA is degraded to a thick band below 200bp. When we try exactly the same process but substitute 1% formaldehyde (which we normally use for ChIP and 3C) or even plain PBS, the DNA is fine. We have even tried doing everything on ice and reducing the centrifuge steps to only 500g but to no avail.

    My questions therefore are:

    1/ Has your team had similar issues with glutaraldehyde in the past or found it to behave quite differently to formaldehyde (apart from needed longer sonication and harder centrifuging)?
    2/ Though you have shown glutaraldehyde to give a better signal to noise ratio, could we still expect to get usable data using 1% formaldehyde or is it not worth the time and effort?

    Thank you for your time

    Joshua Betts

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    April 16, 2014 - 8:07 AM
  20. Dear Joshua,

    Thanks for your interest in our protocol. It's unfortunate to hear that you're experiencing DNA degradation. We've never experienced this issue, nor have we heard similar problems from our collaborators who successfully did ChIRP. Usually we're more concerned with RNA integrity, naturally, and if you're careful that's not a problem either.

    Could you tell me how you're extracting DNA, especially prior to sonication?

    Regarding alternative crosslinking methods, for certain lncRNAs we've found that strong formaldehyde crosslinking also works (3% for 30min is a good starting point). 1% formaldehyde usually does not work.

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 16, 2014 - 1:55 PM
  21. Dear Chu,

    Thank you for your advice - I will try the protocol again but substitute 3% formaldehyde for the glutaraldehyde. Does that require any other adjustments apart from slower centrifuge spins and shorter sonication times?

    In regards to my DNA isolation, I lysed the cells as per the protocol and then treated with proteinase K for 45mins (at 50deg or 65deg - either seemed ok). I then RNAse treated the sample and either phenol chloroform extracted the DNA or instead used the Qiagen PCR columns before running the product on a 1% agarose gel. The columns gave more of a smear on the gel, whilst the phenol chloroform extraction just had a broad band below 100bp.

    When I performed exactly the same procedures on formaldehyde treated cells, I obtained a bright band of gDNA at the top of the gel as well as a more faint diffuse band below 100bp. This is what we normally see when working with formaldehyde. Am I right to expect a strong band of genomic DNA on the gel when using glutaraldehyde before sonication, or does the glutaraldehyde break the gDNA down during the fixation process? Does your glutaraldehyde fixed sample normally start as a broad smear even prior to sonication?

    Our group has a lot of experience with ChIPseq, 3C and 4Cseq library preparation but we have never dealt with glutaraldehyde before so are unsure what to expect.

    Any further suggestions would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks

    Joshua

    Reply
    Posted by: joshua b.
    April 24, 2014 - 9:26 AM
  22. Before preparing your ChIRP library for sequencing, do you check your DNA size distribution (for example using Agilent Bioanalyzer). If so, do you see a similar distribution to that seen for a typical ChIP sample (200-800 bp range)?

    Reply
    Posted by: Eric S.
    August 29, 2014 - 2:43 PM
  23. Dear Chu
    I have two questions:
    1.In designing your chirp oligos have you tried to reduce the spacer between biotin-oligonucleotides. Is there any steric reason for choosing 1 probe / 100nt?
    2. Did you tried to crosslink adherent cells directly on plate? we have problem in properly resuspend our differentiated murine myoblasts in PBS+glutaraldehyde.

    thanks in advance
    regards

    Mariangela

    Reply
    Posted by: Mariangela M.
    October 16, 2014 - 9:56 AM
  24. Dear Mariangela,

    1. It's both a cost consideration (fewer probes are cheaper) and also a biochemical noise consideration (more probes introduce higher chances for probe:DNA direct hybridization).

    2. Yes we've found no difference fixing on plate vs. in suspension. Feel free to pick and choose what works best for you.

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    October 17, 2014 - 10:43 PM
  25. Dear ChIRP community,

    We are having problems getting ChiRP peaks with our transcripts. We have tried ChiRPing against 4 different transcripts and for all of them we were able to get very good fold enrichments in the genomic locus of each transcript (on average 50 to 200 x over background) capturing native transcription but we cannot find other binding sites in the genome for any of them. We have good reasons to believe that some or all of our transcripts are chromatin localized and we also know that the signal in the genomic loci is RNA dependent because it is dramatically reduced when we ChiRP after knocking down our transcripts of interest.

    Our transcripts are low in expression, on average 3 to 10 copies per cell. Any ideas as to how can we improve/solve the issue? Is it abundance that is limiting the system? Has anyone experienced/solved something similar?
    We tried the normal protocol, and now we are trying with 3 % FA in parallel to glut. Any suggestions would be very welcomed!

    Antonis

    Reply
    Posted by: Antonis A.
    November 13, 2014 - 5:18 AM
  26. Hi Antonis, I'm afraid the copy number is simply too low. In all of the ChIRP paper published so far I don't think anyone went that low.

    Your enrichment of the genomic loci could be complicated by ChIRP probes pulling down the DNA directly. Do an RNase-control to see if the signal is still there.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    November 13, 2014 - 8:52 AM
  27. Dear Chu,

    Thank you for the prompt reply-yes I know that with such expression levels, ChIRP is challenging. I can try the RNase control but as mentioned I am confident about the RNA-dependence of the signal, because it falls back to LacZ levels when I knock down the transcripts. I guess we will have to try increasing the sensitivity of the experiment. Could an increase in x-linking time help here, have you guys tried 20 min of glut x-linking?

    Reply
    Posted by: Antonis A.
    November 18, 2014 - 3:28 AM
  28. Hello,
    I enjoyed your paper very much.

    At the end of the video, and in the figure, you mention that in this process you can isolate RNA binding proteins that were associated with the RNA. My questions are: have you had success in doing this? What is the protocol for isolating the proteins? Do you just isolate the protein fraction from the Trizol, or is there a more specialized method? Is there a paper that may lay out use of this method?

    Thank you for your help.

    Reply
    Posted by: jason h.
    November 26, 2014 - 10:15 PM
  29. Dear ChIRPers, we're happy to announce that you can now officially design and order ChIRP from Biosearch Technologies (Single molecule fish). Scientists developing ChIRP probes using the Stellaris probe designer and following the guidelines from our publication can now email Sheila Semaan at Biosearch Technologies, Inc. for help with ordering the probes in the proper format. Sheila’s contact info is as follows:

    Sheila J. Semaan, Ph.D., Associate Product Manager
    Biosearch Technologies, Inc.
    Email: ssemaan@biosearchtech.com

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    December 17, 2014 - 9:33 AM
  30. Dear ChIRP community,

    You can soon study RNA-protein interactions in vivo using ChIRP-mass spec. The story is coming out in Cell on April 2nd. Stay tuned!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 25, 2015 - 5:42 AM
  31. Hello, thank you for the protocol! I also want to perform a RNA pulldown using your protocol and i am very excited for your RNA-protein interaction protocol! I have one question regarding the biotin oligos. Do they need to be 3' biotinylated or can they also be 5' biotinylated. Have you tested this? And you say nothing about (salt, HPLC) purification of the oligos. Thanks for answering my questions.

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    March 30, 2015 - 10:01 AM
  32. and is it necessary to order Biotin-TEG oligos or is "standard" biotin sufficient?

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    March 30, 2015 - 11:33 AM
  33. Hi Christine, thanks for your interest in our technique. Regarding your questions:

    1) 3' biotinylation is preferred, because oligos are synthesized 3' to 5'. This way, we ensure all oligos start with a biotin tag. 5' biotin tags are usually added to a synthesized oligo, and that increases the chance of untagged probes, which is less than ideal. However if you can ensure high tagging efficiency on 5' end, and the cost is advantageous, I don't see why it won't work!

    2) We use a disposable reverse phase column called "Glen-Pak DNA purification cartridge," which is a very efficient and cost-effective system. These are really short DNA probes and HPLC or PAGE would be necessary (also probably can't tell tag from untag probes).

    3) TEG ensures no steric hindrance, I don't have hard evidence on this but I think it's necessary.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    March 30, 2015 - 10:03 PM
  34. Thank you for your answers! As I am performing your protocol with the aim of an RNA-protein pulldown, i have some other questions regarding the protocol, if you don't mind.

    - in the protocol before washed your magnetic beads in unsupplemented lysis buffer and you blocked the magnetic beads using BSA and yeast RNA- in the latest protocol you don't block. Why is that?

    - ChIRP-MS requires 100 Mio cells, ChIRP-seq 20 Mio cells. If i want to perform ChIRP-MS (or western blot) do i need 100 pmol of probe for each 20 Mio cells --> 500 pmol of probe for ChIRP-MS? --> 500 µl beads(??)

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    April 8, 2015 - 8:12 AM
  35. Hi Christine,

    - We no longer block as there's no difference in results, and we prefer a more streamlined protocol. BSA would also potentially contaminate ms results.

    - yes scale up beads accordingly. We do 1ml beads per experiment routinely. It gets expensive, but hopefully you'd only have to do it once or twice, and validate with western in a smaller scale later. For western of more abundant chirp hits, I do from 1/5 of cell pellets, but for less abundant ones I still use full amount.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 8, 2015 - 11:36 PM
  36. Dear ChIRPers,

    ChIRP mass spec has just come online today at Cell. We're very pleased to introduce a very robust and straight-forward method that's optimized to study lncRNA:protein interactions. Check out the story at:

    http://www.cell.com/cell/abstract/S0092-8674(15)00312-8

    Happy ChIRPing!

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 2, 2015 - 9:00 PM
  37. Dear ChIRPers,

    Now you can easily design and order ChIRP probes with the latest optimization from Biosearch Technologies, the company that invented Single Molecule FISH.

    https://www.biosearchtech.com/chirpdesigner/

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 2, 2015 - 10:24 PM
  38. Hi, i'm trying to perform ChIRP-western and i have some questions concerning the methods.

    1) for a control, i also want to see if my RNA is present: how can i get a small aliquot of post-ChIRP beads to perform RNA elution with this aliquot
    2) for the protein biotin elution buffer: resuspend beads in what volume?
    3) for ChIRP-MS lysates are incubated with 30µl beads - can i reuse them?

    thank you in advance!

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    April 14, 2015 - 7:18 AM
  39. Hi Carolin,

    thank you for your interested in our method.

    1) yes that's what we we as well. Simply take a 1% or 10% aliquot of your post-wash beads, and extract RNA.

    2) that's dependent on your starting beads volume. But there's a practical constraint, you don't want to have so much volume that after addition of TCA will exceed the capacity of an eppendorf tube.

    3) I'm not sure if I understand your question. Reuse lysate or beads?

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 15, 2015 - 12:20 AM
  40. thank you for the answers!
    to 2) again: if my beads are 100µl starting volume - so i resuspend 2x in biotin elution buffer and pool. Is 2x100µl then enough? and then add 25% of 100%TCA (50µl)?
    to 3) my question is, if i reuse the beads in the hybridization step. and just add another 70 µl beads (=100µl beads)

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    April 24, 2015 - 11:23 AM
  41. so what do you recommend for my previous questions 2) and 3)

    another question: how do you calculate the amount of RNA retrieved? I retrieve only 10% of my RNA of interest calculated as % of Input. Furthermore,when i took a sample of what hasn't bound (after hybridization and capture of the beads) i get only 15% (fraction of washing doesn't include much RNA). so where has my RNA gone? i repeated several times… degradation?

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    May 20, 2015 - 5:13 AM
  42. Hi, Carolin
    I am also, using ChiRP. Can you tell me the equation you used to calculate the % of your retrieval

    thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: u.
    June 28, 2016 - 1:22 AM
  43. Hi Carolin, May I ask in the end with your 10-20% retrieval rate of RNA, can you identify new proteins by MS via UV crosslink? Thanks.

    Reply
    Posted by: Zhenqiu H.
    May 17, 2018 - 6:20 PM
  44. Dear ChIRPers, we're glad to introduce the Magna ChIRP kit from Millipore. It's a simple pre-made reagent set for scientists who prefer the reliability and user-friendliness of a reputable brand.

    https://www.emdmillipore.com/US/en/product/EZ--Magna-ChIRP-RNA-Interactome-Kit---Isolation-and-characterization-of-non-coding-RNA%3Achromatin-complexes,MM_NF-17-10495

    Happy ChIRPing!

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    April 15, 2015 - 12:35 AM
  45. Hi Chu

    Thanks for sharing this information.
    Did anyone try this kit already and how good is it? Kits are easy to use and save time for reagents.

    Reply
    Posted by: Liu Z.
    April 16, 2015 - 5:17 PM
  46. Dear Chu,

    Many thanks for your excellent protocol. I'm designing a probe set and have been looking at the probes you designed for HOTAIR and XIST for inspiration. I noticed that some of the probes designed for XIST target the sequence at multiple loci (e.g. Probe 10), albeit ocassionally with a single base mismatch. Either way, I assume this may reduce the number of probes needed. Could I ask whether this was a deliberate design strategy and, if so, does the Biosearchtech ChIRP designer incorporate this strategy?

    Thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    April 16, 2015 - 11:31 AM
  47. Dear Chu

    I feel exciting when I am reading your chirp paper in molecular cell. I have 2 questions that need your input.

    1) Have you or others you know tried in vivo tissue samples and if so how it works? I realized that your molecular cell and the latest cell paper used cell lines primarily.

    2) If I have a non-coding RNA which is 400 bp alone, and cannot generate more than 8 probes based on the parameters provided by https://www.biosearchtech.com/chirpdesigner/ ? What should I do ? Could I just reduce the spacer length between odd and even probes ? do you think it will increase background due to the increased probe density?

    Thanks

    Zhiyong

    Reply
    Posted by: Liu Z.
    April 16, 2015 - 4:49 PM
  48. Hi Zhiyong,

    Thank you for your kind words about our paper. Regarding your questions:

    1) Yes we have ChIRPed in drosophila tissues with great success. The key is probably to have small enough chunks of tissue that can be crosslinked effectively and thoroughly.

    2) Email the Biosearchtech team and they can help you manually reduce the number of probes.

    Good luck!

    Best,
    Chu

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    May 22, 2015 - 11:15 PM
  49. hey there, i was able to retrieve RNA with your method, but i'm not retrieving RNA bound protein (even though i did see a milky pellet after TCA and acetone treatment). i cross link with UV but the other steps i perform are just the same you are doing.
    i'm not so sure about this competetive elution method by using free d-biotin - and do you no longer add protease inhibitors in your buffer? the beads are simply eluted by using biotin buffer, rotate sample for 20 min,RT and 10 min mixing at 65°C (x2). This is it? then everything should be in my buffer and i continue with TCA precipitation ON.
    sorry if i this sounds stupid to you. i'm just looking for mistakes i could have made...

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    June 10, 2015 - 10:32 AM
  50. Hi Carolin, I'm glad you're able to get RNA yield, that's a very good sign. The reason that you're not getting proteins could be: 1) mass spec instrument not sensitive enough. The quality of your results varies A LOT with who runs your mass spec. We've had amazing experience with Bill Lane at Harvard. 2) UV cross linking is known to be super low yield. Unless your lncRNA is very abundant or you're prepared to start with a huge amount of material, I would suggest formaldehyde as your first step. 3) TCA and cold acetone with give you a tiny pellet no matter what (the detergent acts as a carrier that will precipitate by itself even in the absence of proteins). So unless you see a sizable pellet, the presence of a pellet itself doesn't mean anything. d-biotin elution is complete, assuming you're using the C1 beads and biotin from invitrogen. Protease inhibitors are absent at the elution step, because your solution should be quite pure and free of contaminating proteases at that point assuming good lab practice. Hope this helps!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    June 10, 2015 - 5:45 PM
  51. hey ci! thank you for your answers!
    1) i'm doing western blot as a start, later on i will do mass spec - so thank you for your tip&hint! as i already know a 100% candidate to get retrieved with my (cytoplasmic) mRNA, i stained for this candidate and got no result.
    2) you also mentioned uv-crosslinking in your first protocol, do you have a comment or any experience on the time of cross linking or amount of joules? so far i cross linked 150mj/cm^2 but I'm thinking to increase that. also i need to scale up my cells/beads/probe as you're saying. i do not know if formaldehyde cross linking works in my case, as i have cytosolic mrna.
    3) yes I'm using c1 dynabeads and d-biotin from invitrogen! thanks for the explanation, that helps!

    thank you very much for your quick answers, tips and hints!

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    June 11, 2015 - 8:43 AM
  52. hey there, repeated the experiment - this time i used 200 Mio MEF cells - 10 ml lysate and 1 ml beads, 10µl probe. i also increased cross linking to 300 mj/cm^2 - still no proteins (known RNA binding protein) detectable via western blot. i confirmed RNA pulldown via qPCR after cross linking from a small fraction of beads.
    is sonication necessary?
    any troubleshooting ideas?

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    June 17, 2015 - 11:38 AM
  53. I would start with formaldehyde first. UV is known to cross link very inefficiently, and certain residues of contact may not be amenable to photocrosslinking at all. Yes sonication is necessary to soluble the cell lysate.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    June 19, 2015 - 2:37 PM
  54. i'm using your 25%TCA / Aceton precipitation method to precipitate my proteins. Have you also experienced a pH change (when adding laemmli it turns green/yellow) due to rest TCA? And i think i don't get my pellet resuspended - even after mixing and resuspending. Isn't boiling for 30 min, 95°C destroying the proteins?

    Posted by: Carolin C.
    July 10, 2015 - 7:30 AM
  55. Yes I have had similar experiences before: pH change usually can be prevented by more careful and thorough acetone washes (although need to care not to disturb pellet), and over drying will cause difficulty in resuspension. I never air dry for over a minute. Boiling is completely fine. Try using the LDS samples buffer / Bis-tris gel system from invitrogen, these work great on chirp samples. If you are still having issues with pH, you can manually adjust a little with a moderate alkaline buffer.

    Posted by: Ci C.
    July 10, 2015 - 10:59 PM
  56. Hi Carolin,

    I've the same problem as you had. I could only retrieve 10-15% of RNA when compare to input RNA. Could you please share how you sort this problem?

    Thank you in advance!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ganeshkumar A.
    July 23, 2015 - 4:25 AM
  57. Hi Ganeshkumar, unfortunately i didn't solve the problem… but i found more RNA of interest in my beads when i directly resuspended them in trizol (leaving out proteinase K treatment) - since i'm interested in my proteins bound to the RNA the proteinase K treatment step is of no importance to me. But so far i still couldn't retrieve my RNA bound proteins.

    Reply
    Posted by: Carolin C.
    July 23, 2015 - 5:19 AM
  58. Hi Carolin,

    Thanks for your immediate reply. I'll also avoid Proteinase K step and try again.
    I've one more question. We always do two step RT-qPCR. So, the amount of RNA that I retrieve isn't enough to perform a RT reaction. How do you do your RT-qPCR? This question maybe a bit stupid, but i really wanna sort out all the issues as early as possible.

    Thanks in advance.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ganeshkumar A.
    July 23, 2015 - 5:27 AM
  59. Hello,
    my RNA amount is also quite low, measured by Nanodrop (Once i measured with qubit and could't get anything). I'm using max. volume possible for RT reaction and adapt for input, not bound… Then i perform qPCR with my cDNA

    But i suppose you cannot skip proteinase K step when your lysate is formaldehyde treated, or you need to boil it first to reverse the crosslink. i diluted my beads in trizol when i had non-crosslinked samples to check for retrieval percentage

    Posted by: Carolin C.
    July 23, 2015 - 7:12 AM
  60. We always do a one-step qRT-PCR (i.e. each qPCR well runs it's own RT). This in my hands is much more sensitive and convenient as well (you don't have to measure RNA or cDNA, just load equal portions of each sample). We use Strategene Brilliant II SYBR reagents and Roche 480 machine. Let me know if this helps with yield detected.

    Posted by: Ci C.
    August 4, 2015 - 8:32 AM
  61. Hi Ci,

    I did gene specific cDNA synthesis with 10ng of RNA from all conditions and treated with RNase H and A (in excess) and then proceeded to qPCR. This worked good for me and I'm getting around 14-25 fold enrichment in my odd and even probe samples when compared to input.

    Thank you and Carolin for your suggestions.

    Posted by: Ganeshkumar A.
    August 4, 2015 - 10:43 AM
  62. Hello,
    i have not yet retrieved any RNA bound protein, so i'm thinking about what issues to sort out. i have to say i can retrieve my RNA of interest (but only max. 20% of input)

    i'm wondering about the protein amount in your formaldehyde cross linked, sonicated and hypotone lysed cell lysats. I experienced the protein amount (measured with Bradford) to be 5-8 fold lower compared to uncross linked or Uv cross linked cells treated with a NP40 lysis buffer.
    Why is that, and will it affect my experiments? Any ideas why the protein amount is so low?
    Thank you in advance!

    Reply
    Posted by: Christine C.
    July 23, 2015 - 5:47 AM
  63. Hi Christine, off the top of my head the two main reason for less protein detected upon cross linking is 1) insufficient sonication, and 2) insufficient reverse cross linking (i.e. boiling). Regarding 1), you have to titrate sonication time of your lysate, and pick the minimum sonication required to release all proteins and RNA of interest. To test this, precipitate the lysate post sonication for 10 min at max speed, and run qRTPCR against your RNA of interest and western against the protein on both the supernatant and pellet, the latter resuspended in appropriate buffer. This way you'll know if there's anything left to be solubilized. 3% cross linked lysates can take significantly longer to solublized than your typical ChIP cross linking.

    Regarding 2), do no less than 30min boiling in sample buffer. I've titrate that also, and 10min or 20min recovers much less protein.

    Let me know if these help and let's start from here. Good luck!

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    August 4, 2015 - 8:29 AM
  64. Hello,
    Many thanks again for this superb protocol. I'm currently trying to optimise this for mRNA pull-down from fixed cells. I've tried various fixing conditions in parallel and dot-blotted for my RBP of interest vs a non-binding protein (GAPDH) after performing ChIRP. I found that 1% glutaraldehyde (10 min) samples blotted strongly for my RBP, but produced an equally strong signal for GAPDH. The latter was also the case for 3% formaldehyde (10 min), but blots of both GAPDH and my RBP weren't as strong. The only sample that showed a slightly stronger signal of the RBP vs GAPDH was 1% formaldehyde (10 min), but both signals were quite weak. All samples were sonicated for several 30 sec ON and 45 OFF cycles at maximum intensity before foaming to produce sheared RNA of <500 bp in optically clear samples.

    I tested the expression of mRNA of interest in samples pulled down with my tiling oligo set compared with a run using non-targeting scrabled oligos. A capture on unfixed cells produced a very high target yield in the tiling oligo sample and no mRNA in the scrambled control sample. However, performing the same pull down in the 1% formaldehyde-fixed+sonicated samples dramatically increased background (GAPDH mRNA) compared to the scrambled control. I'm curious if you found anything similar during the development of ChIRP and ChIRP-MS and if you might have any solutions? Would extra sonication perhaps help?

    Many thanks

    Sebastian Vencken PhD
    Post-Doctoral Researcher

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    September 13, 2015 - 8:06 PM
  65. Hi Sebastian,

    Have you had any luck adapting this technique to mRNA capture?

    Best,
    Mike

    Reply
    Posted by: Michael K.
    December 7, 2016 - 4:48 PM
  66. Mixed results to be honest. We went forward with 1% formaldehyde and tried different forms of sonication (incl. covaris which didn't give us effective fragmentation). Biased background was still an issue and the copurification of our RBP (Ago+miRNA) was much lower than expected. This has apparently successfully been performed before (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23325846) but we didn't manage to reproduce these results for our target.

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    December 8, 2016 - 4:15 AM
  67. Thanks for the feedback. Does your miR-CATCH work well/better? Similar idea, no sonication, and probes attached to beads first. Have you ever tried to use this to look for bound proteins?

    I also ran across this mRNA pulldown from yeast (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641505). They also attached the oligos to the beads first, but the buffers look more like ChIRP.

    Reply
    Posted by: Michael K.
    December 8, 2016 - 11:44 AM
  68. We've had some pretty good results (and publications) from miR-CATCH, but have also discovered that the performance can be very dependent on both the target and oligo design.
    With thorough optimisation we managed to reduce background in miR-CATCH, but each target was a new challenge in this respect.

    We hoped that ChIRP would significantly reduce the issue of background, but we have found balancing fragmentation and signal to be difficult. Dot blots for Ago2 gave us very high background signal in scrambled controls when using gluteraldehyde, while 1% formaldehyde gave some better signal differentiation, but at reduced strength. If I'd take ChIRP further for mRNA:RBP(:miRNA) capture, I'd look at the sonication and fixing steps again as there may be further room for improvement. Unfortunately, I've moved to other things for now.

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastian V.
    December 9, 2016 - 10:42 AM
  69. Hello!

    Many thanks for the detailed protocol, however i am having trouble at crosslinking and sonication steps! I am sorry if it sounds silly but I just want to identifiy what I am missing/doing wrong.

    In the near future, I want to scale up for ChIRP MS, however first want to get these steps right as CHIRP MS would consume 10 times the beads.

    Crosslinking - When I add Glycine to quench formaldehyde, it doesnt change color?

    Sonication - As used by your team, I am using Bioruptor to sonicate the Hela S3 lysate (20 Mi. cells/1ml supplemeted lysis buffer) in 15 ml falcon (Corning) with a probe attached to the cap. I cant seem to get a clear lysate as shown in your video. I have tried sonicating starting from 30 cycles to 300 cycles and it just froths towards the end. After centrifugation to remove cell debris, the lysate is still considerably cloudy.

    I see that a lot of people are working on optimising this method and would appreciate any tips / tricks that might help me get going.

    Looking forward to some suggestions.

    Best regards,
    Minakshi
    PhD Student

    Reply
    Posted by: Minakshi G.
    September 30, 2015 - 5:06 AM
  70. Hi Minakshi, thanks for your interest in our protocol. Re your questions:

    - glycine doesn't change the color of formaldehyde, just glutaraldehyde.
    - check our bioruptor to make sure power is normal and probes are centered correctly. It shouldn't take more than a couple hours even for hardy cell lines. Frosting is strange and indicates to me that you may not be centering the probe correctly and thus losing efficiency.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    November 2, 2015 - 2:46 PM
  71. Hi,
    I would have a question regarding the usage of formamide. My concern is that once the bottle is opened and the
    formamide is exposed to oxygen, it will begin to oxidize to formic acid. Do you take any precautions to prevent oxidation? How do you store formamide for further use? Sigma suggests to purge formamide with nitrogen and store it frozen to prevent oxidation.

    Thanks a lot for your help.

    Best wishes,
    matjaz

    Reply
    Posted by: Matjaz B.
    November 2, 2015 - 4:53 AM
  72. Hi Matjaz, thank you for your interest in our technique. formamide is indeed subject to oxidation and ionization. Re-deionization is laborious, so we tried our best to protect the reagents by parafilming around the bottle cap after each use and store it at 4C. I usually run through a 1 liter bottle in a year with repeated opening and closing, and have not observed any effect on results over time. Hope this helps.

    Reply
    Posted by: Ci C.
    November 2, 2015 - 2:44 PM
  73. Hello,

    I have another technical question. Even though our probes are very specific (we detect target RNA using different probes with high specificity), we have problem with high DNA background signal. Have you also had a similar problem? One way to resolve the issue would be to pre-clear lysates with beads before the hybridisation step. Have you ever implemented this step? If yes, have you done the pre-clearing in lysis buffer with or without hybridisation buffer?

    Many thanks,

    - matjaz

    Reply
    Posted by: Matjaz B.
    November 3, 2015 - 7:36 AM
  74. Hi Ci,

    Thanks for providing such an excellent protocol. I have a question about probe design. The 3' half of lncRNA I interested in (5kb in length) was fully cover by repeat elements. Because ChIRP probe Designer ignored the repeat sequence when designing probe, I found almost no probe target to the 3' half of this lncRNA. I'm afraid that I will miss all proteins bind to the 3' end of lncRNA if I only use the probe target to the 5' end of lncRNA. I wonder how do you handle lncRNA contains large number of repeat sequence?

    Thanks for any help.

    Sincerely,
    Jian-You

    Reply
    Posted by: Jian-You L.
    December 3, 2015 - 9:48 PM
  75. Hi all!

    Thank you for sharing this protocol!
    I have just analysed the RT-qPCR results coming from the RNA samples in order to analyse the lncRNA retrieval and I have retrieved a very small percentage of the lncRNA. From the input and the ChIRP samples I have used the same volume of sample (for the qPCR, around 36ng for the input and 21g for the ChIRP) and I have obtained a Ct of 30 for the input and 37 for the ChIRP measuring my lncRNA of interest. How do you normalise the results? Do you use the same volume or ng of the different RNA samples? Do you use a normalisation method similar to the ChIP one? https://www.thermofisher.com/uk/en/home/life-science/epigenetics-noncoding-rna-research/chromatin-remodeling/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-chip/chip-analysis.html

    Thank you in advance

    Isabel

    Reply
    Posted by: Isabel R.
    December 17, 2015 - 9:30 AM
  76. Hi, Isabel
    we experience along time to optimize the protocol in our lab around 9 month for lncRNA and we found the result unstable for different lncRNAs but for your normalization we usually use a normalized methods like Chip experiment for both GAPDH and our target,
    Hope that helps
    for more contact amr@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    Reply
    Posted by: u.
    December 8, 2016 - 7:17 PM
  77. Dear Chu:
    Recently I'm trying to perform ChIRP experiments and your detailed protocol is very helpful. However, I have some questions about cell lysis and sonication.
    1. I find that the supplemented lysis buffer cannot lyse the crosslinked cells. The crosslinked cells are only resuspended, after a few minutes they will sink to the bottom of the tube, is it normal?
    2. You emphasize that lysis buffer should be added fresh Protease Inhibitor, PMSF and Superase-in then proceed immediately to sonication after resuspended smooth, however, a sample will be added appropriate supplemented lysis buffer in proportion then devided into several parts to sonicate by limiting ultrasound equipment, and will it be affected?
    3. I only have a Covaris available for sonication in lab, I tried many times but could not find an appropriate setting. My DNA size distribution is normally a bright band of gDNA at the top, a bright band above 2000bp and a diffuse band from 2000bp to 100bp, if I continued to sonicate, the diffuse band would below 100bp, and there were considerably cloudy after centrifuged the sonicated samples. I want to know what and how much influence if DNA smear is less than 100bp or more than 500 bp? Do you have any advice regarding it?
    Looking forward to some suggestions, thank you in advance!
    Best regards
    mixue
    Ph.D. Student

    Reply
    Posted by: he j.
    July 17, 2016 - 3:37 AM
  78. Dear Dr CHU.
    First of all, sorry for my english, but I'm french.
    I work on lncRNA and I really appreciate your two articles on ChIRP and Chirp-MS, and since some months I try to set it up, but unfortunately without result until now.
    => I designed the probes as you know but my lncRNA is about 2.3kb so i was able to design only 26 probes. I also ordered your Positive and Negative Control.
    => I amplified the cells until 200 to 300 million and I cross linked them with 3% formaldehyde 30min and stop it with Glycine 0.125M 5 to 10 min, as you mention.
    => My sonication was tested in order to have a smear of DNA between 100 and 600bp and it took between 120 and 140min. I use a Bioruptore in cold room and I have to change water and ice every 15min in order to maintain the low temperature. Samples are centrifuged and debris are removed.
    => I use 2 to 3 aliquots of 1mL of lysed cells for each test, and the indicated quantity of probes. Of course before incubation, samples are pre-incubated with prewashed beads.
    => First incubation is done at 37 ° C in a shaking system, overnight. Second incubation (after addition of the prewashed beads) is done at 37 ° C for 1 hour.
    => Wash is done 5 times with wash buffer, then samples are eluted (using elution buffer freshly prepared with Sigma-Aldrich Biotine) and precipitated with TCA and Aceton. Pellet are directly dissolved in Laemmli, incubated 30min at 95°C and loaded with 12% acrylamide gel. After 1h at 200V the gel is stained with Coomassie Blue and destained 3 times 45min.
    I found NO BANDS even with Positive and negative controls, but after elution, when I checked the presence of my lncRNA in the sample selected with my probes, the result is positive.

    Could you tell me what are the possible mistakes that I could do ....?
    Thanks a lot.

    Reply
    Posted by: Sebastien C.
    January 3, 2017 - 5:02 AM
  79. Dear Dr. Chu,

    Good day! I am Anchilie, a PhD student, and I am really interested in applying your discovered technique in plants. I am currently doing the ChiRP-MS in Arabidopsis but I don't seem to get any RNA-bound proteins in my sample.

    I would just like to briefly tell you how I do the ChiRP-MS in plants. First, I harvest 3g of 14-day old seedlings and crosslinked it with 1% formaldehyde. From these, I then do nuclear extraction and do sonication. From the 1mL sonicated chromatin, I dilute it with 2mL of hybridization buffer, add 1ul probe and 100ul of beads and incubated then in 37C for O/N or 4 hours at 37C. From then I wash the beads 5x and precipitated the proteins using the biotin elution buffer and TCA method. The samples in 1x Laemmli buffer were submitted to LC/MS. I also check the enrichment in the qPCR and are enriched by 500-fold. However, upon analyzing my samples, the mass spec results only detected mitochondrial and chloroplastic proteins in the control and non-coding RNA

    I also tried many things like using 3% formaldehyde and UV crosslinking. I also did direct boiling of beads in Laemmli buffer. I also tried increasing the amount of material 10x accompanied with increasing the probe and the beads.
    But it doesn't really help.

    I would really appreciate to receive some feedback from you and your group with this matter.

    Best regards,
    Anchilie

    Reply
    Posted by: Anchilie M.
    February 27, 2017 - 4:49 AM
  80. Dear Anchilie,

    I am doing CHIRP in arabidopsis, you are the only only doing CHIRP as far as I know. I met some problems. I couldn't enrich my non coding RNA. So I want to know how did you do your CHIRP? Could you please share your protocol with me? Thanks!

    Reply
    Posted by: Zhi-Hong L.
    June 19, 2017 - 7:56 AM
  81. Hi guys, can anyone help me how the percentage calculation for lncRNA retrieval is done.

    Thank you

    Reply
    Posted by: Sunil B.
    June 22, 2017 - 3:58 PM
  82. Hi,

    Thank you for sharing this protocol, I have a question. If I want to study the potential interaction between a protein and a long non coding RNA in rDNA locus (or eventually with the rDNA directly), do you think that your kit will work ?
    Thank you for your answer

    Reply
    Posted by: Burette M.
    April 12, 2018 - 3:27 AM
  83. Dear professor,
    Thank you for sharing this protocol! It helps me a lot. I have a question to ask. Since ultrasound may break the hydrogen bond, I want to ask whether it is necessary to perform sonication when I study weak RNA-RNA interaction, for example: lncRNA-miRNA interaction?

    Reply
    Posted by: Zihao L.
    May 26, 2018 - 10:52 PM
  84. Dear professor,

    Any idea if using a probe-based sonication (like the Branson sonifier) would work? Anyone has tried it ?
    in the previous lab, we were using the bioruptor however we don't have it where I am now unfortunately and needed help to optimize it on the Branson or probe-based sonifiers?

    Thanks

    Reply
    Posted by: Anonymous
    March 1, 2020 - 4:26 AM

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